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Technical Paper

Effects of In-Cylinder Flow Structures on Soot Formation and Oxidation in a Swirl-Supported Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0009
In this paper, computation fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed to describe the effect of in-cylinder flow structures on the formation and oxidation of soot in a swirl-supported light-duty diesel engine. The focus of the paper is on the effect of swirl motion and injection pressure on late cycle soot oxidation. The structure of the flow at different swirl numbers is studied to investigate the effect of varying swirl number on the coherent flow structures. These coherent flow structures are studied to understand the mechanism that leads to efficient soot oxidation in late cycle. Effect of varying injection pressure at different swirl numbers and the interaction between spray and swirl motions are discussed. The complexity of diesel combustion, especially when soot and other emissions are of interest, requires using a detailed chemical mechanism to have a correct estimation of temperature and species distribution.
Journal Article

NOx-Conversion Comparison of a SCR-Catalyst Using a Novel Biomimetic Effervescent Injector on a Heavy-Duty Engine

2019-01-15
2019-01-0047
NOx pollution from diesel engines has been stated as causing over 10 000 pre-mature deaths annually and predictions are showing that this level will increase [1]. In order to decrease this growing global problem, exhaust after-treatment systems for diesel engines have to be improved, this is especially so for vehicles carrying freight as their use of diesel engines is expected to carry on into the future [2]. The most common way to reduce diesel engine NOx out emissions is to use SCR. SCR operates by injecting aqueous Urea solution, 32.5% by volume (AUS-32), that evaporates prior the catalytic surface of the SCR-catalyst. Due to a catalytic reaction within the catalyst, NOx is converted nominally into Nitrogen and Water. Currently, the evaporative process is enhanced by aggressive mixer plates and long flow paths.
Technical Paper

Lift-Off Lengths in an Optical Heavy-Duty Engine Operated at High Load with Low and High Octane Number Fuels

2018-04-03
2018-01-0245
The influence of the ignition quality of diesel-and gasoline-like fuels on the lift-off length of the jet were investigated in an optical heavy duty engine. The engine was operated at a load of 22 bar IMEPg and 1200 rpm. A production type injector with standard holes were used. The lift-off length was recorded with high speed video Different injection pressures and inlet temperatures were used to affect conditions that consequently affect the lift-off length. No matter which fuel used nor injection pressure or inlet temperature, all lift-off lengths showed equal or close to equal lift-off length when stabilized. The higher octane fuel had a longer ignition delay and therefore the fuel penetrate the combustion chamber before auto ignition. This gave a longer lift-off length at the initial stage of combustion before reaching the same stabilized lift-off length. These results indicate that the hot combustion gases are a dominant factor to the lift-off length.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study on the Sensitivity of Soot and NOx Formation to the Operating Conditions in Heavy Duty Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0177
In this paper, computation fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are employed to describe the effect of flow parameters on the formation of soot and NOx in a heavy duty engine under low load and high load. The complexity of diesel combustion, specially when soot, NOx and other emissions are of interest, requires using a detailed chemical mechanism to have a correct estimation of temperature and species distribution. In this work, Multiple Representative Interactive Flamelets (MRIF) method is employed to describe the chemical reactions, ignition, flame propagation and emissions in the engine. A phenomenological model for soot formation, including soot nucleation, coagulation and oxidation with O2 and OH is incorporated into the flamelet combustion model. Different strategies for modelling NOx are chosen to take into account the longer time scale for NOx formation. The numerical results are compared with experimental data to show the validity of the model for the cases under study.
Technical Paper

Double Compression Expansion Engine Concepts: Efficiency Analysis over a Load Range

2018-04-03
2018-01-0886
Double Compression Expansion Engine (DCEE) concepts are split-cycle concepts where the main target is to improve brake efficiency. Previous simulations work [1] suggests these concepts has a potential to significantly improve brake efficiency relative to contemporary engines. However, a high peak efficiency alone might be of limited value. This is because a vehicle must be able to operate in different conditions where the engine load requirements changes significantly. An engine’s ability to deliver high efficiency at the most frequently used load conditions is more important than peak efficiency in a rarely used load condition. The simulations done in this paper studies the efficiency at low, mid and full load for a DCEE concept proposal. Two load control strategies have been used, lambda and Miller (late intake valve closing) strategies. Also, effects from charge air cooling has also been studied.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Injection Pressure on the NOx Emission Rates in a Heavy-Duty DICI Engine Running on Methanol.

2017-10-08
2017-01-2194
Heavy-duty direct injection compression ignition (DICI) engine running on methanol is studied at a high compression ratio (CR) of 27. The fuel is injected with a common-rail injector close to the top-dead-center (TDC) with two injection pressures of 800 bar and 1600 bar. Numerical simulations using Reynold Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS), Lagrangian Particle Tracking (LPT), and Well-Stirred-Reactor (WSR) models are employed to investigate local conditions of injection and combustion process to identify the mechanism behind the trend of increasing nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions at higher injection pressures found in the experiments. It is shown that the numerical simulations successfully replicate the change of ignition delay time and capture variation of NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Optimum Heat Release Rates for a Double Compression Expansion (DCEE) Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0636
The concept of double compression, and double expansion engine (DCEE) for improving the efficiency of piston reciprocating engines was introduced in SAE Paper 2015-01-1260. This engine configuration has separate high, and low pressure units thereby effectively reducing friction losses for high effective compression ratios. The presence of an additional expander stage also theoretically allows an extra degree of freedom to manipulate the combustion heat release rate so as to achieve better optimum between heat transfer, and friction losses. This paper presents a 1-D modeling study of the engine concept in GT-Power for assessing the sensitivity of engine losses to heat release rate. The simulations were constrained by limiting the maximum pressure to 300 bar.
Journal Article

Investigation of Small Pilot Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0718
Factors influencing pilot-injection combustion were investigated using heat release analysis in a heavy-duty diesel engine fuelled with standard diesel fuel. Combinations of pilot-injection parameters i.e. pilot start of injection, pilot mass, pilot-main injection separation, and rail pressure were studied for various operating conditions and combustion phases. An experiment was designed to investigate the factors influencing the combustion of the pilot. For improved injected fuel-mass accuracy, reference data for the injectors were measured in a spray rig prior to the engine experiments. Results show that cycle-to-cycle variations and cylinder-to-cylinder variations influence pilot autoignition and the amount of heat released. Rail pressure and injected pilot mass affect the obtained variance depending on the chamber conditions. The obtained combustion modes (premixed, diffusive) of pilot combustion were found to be a function of the injected mass and rail pressure.
Technical Paper

A Droplet Size Investigation and Comparison Using a Novel Biomimetic Flash-Boiling Injector for AdBlue Injections

2016-10-17
2016-01-2211
Increased research is being driven by the automotive industry facing challenges, requiring to comply with both current and future emissions legislation, and to lower the fuel consumption. The reason for this legislation is to restrict the harmful pollution which every year causes 3.3 million premature deaths worldwide [1]. One factor that causes this pollution is NOx emissions. NOx emission legislation has been reduced from 8 g/kWh (Euro I) down to 0.4 g/kWh (Euro VI) and recently new legislation for ammonia slip which increase the challenge of exhaust aftertreatment with a SCR system. In order to achieve a good NOx conversion together with a low slip of ammonia, small droplets of Urea solution needs to be injected which can be rapidly evaporated and mixed into the flow of exhaust gases.
Journal Article

Exhaust PM Emissions Analysis of Alcohol Fueled Heavy-Duty Engine Utilizing PPC

2016-10-17
2016-01-2288
The focus has recently been directed towards the engine out soot from Diesel engines. Running an engine in PPC (Partially Premixed Combustion) mode has a proven tendency of reducing these emissions significantly. In addition to combustion strategy, several studies have suggested that using alcohol fuels aid in reducing soot emissions to ultra-low levels. This study analyzes and compares the characteristics of PM emissions from naphtha gasoline PPC, ethanol PPC, methanol PPC and methanol diffusion combustion in terms of soot mass concentration, number concentration and particle size distribution in a single cylinder Scania D13 engine, while varying the intake O2. Intake temperature and injection pressure sweeps were also conducted. The fuels emitting the highest mass concentration of particles (Micro Soot Sensor) were gasoline and methanol followed by ethanol. The two alcohols tested emitted nucleation mode particles only, whereas gasoline emitted accumulation mode particles as well.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of a Multi-Cylinder Engine with Gasoline-Like Fuel towards a High Engine Efficiency

2016-04-05
2016-01-0763
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is a promising combustion concept with high thermodynamic efficiency and low emission level, and also with minimal modification of standard engine hardware. To use PPC in a production oriented engine, the optimal intake charge conditions for PPC should be included in the analysis. The experiments in this paper investigated and confirmed that the optimal intake conditions of net indicated efficiency for PPC are EGR between 50% and 55% as possible and the lambda close to 1.4. Heat-transfer energy and exhaust gas waste-energy contribute to the majority of the energy loss in the engine. The low EGR region has high heat-transfer and low exhaust gas enthalpy-waste, while the high EGR region has low heat-transfer and high exhaust gas waste-enthalpy. The optimal EGR condition is around 50% where the smallest energy loss is found as a trade-off between heat transfer and exhaust-gas enthalpy-waste.
Journal Article

Simultaneous PLIF Imaging of OH and PLII Imaging of Soot for Studying the Late-Cycle Soot Oxidation in an Optical Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0723
The effects of injection pressure and swirl ratio on the in-cylinder soot oxidation are studied using simultaneous PLIF imaging of OH and LII imaging of soot in an optical diesel engine. Images are acquired after the end of injection in the recirculation zone between two adjacent diesel jets. Scalars are extracted from the images and compared with trends in engine-out soot emissions. The soot emissions decrease monotonically with increasing injection pressure but show a non-linear dependence on swirl ratio. The total amount of OH in the images is negatively correlated with the soot emissions, as is the spatial proximity between the OH and soot regions. This indicates that OH is an important soot oxidizer and that it needs to be located close to the soot to perform this function. The total amount of soot in the images shows no apparent correlation with the soot emissions, indicating that the amount of soot formed is a poor predictor of the emission trends.
Technical Paper

Potential Levels of Soot, NOx, HC and CO for Methanol Combustion

2016-04-05
2016-01-0887
Methanol is today considered a viable green fuel for combustion engines because of its low soot emissions and the possibility of it being produced in a CO2-neutral manner. Methanol as a fuel for combustion engines have attracted interest throughout history and much research was conducted during the oil crisis in the seventies. In the beginning of the eighties the oil prices began to decrease and interest in methanol declined. This paper presents the emission potential of methanol. T-Φ maps were constructed using a 0-D reactor with constant pressure, temperature and equivalence ratio to show the emission characteristics of methanol. These maps were compared with equivalent maps for diesel fuel. The maps were then complemented with engine simulations using a stochastic reactor model (SRM), which predicts end-gas emissions. The SRM was validated using experimental results from a truck engine running in Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) mode at medium loads.
Journal Article

A Model-Based Injection-Timing Strategy for Combustion-Timing Control

2015-04-14
2015-01-0870
The combustion timing in internal combustion engines affects the fuel consumption, in-cylinder peak pressure, engine noise and emission levels. The combination of an in-cylinder pressure sensor together with a direct injection fuel system lends itself well for cycle-to-cycle control of the combustion timing. This paper presents a method of controlling the combustion timing by the use of a cycle-to-cycle injection-timing algorithm. At each cycle the currently estimated heat-release rate is used to predict the in-cylinder pressure change due to a combustion-timing shift. The prediction is then used to obtain a cycle-to-cycle model that relates combustion timing to gross indicated mean effective pressure, max pressure and max pressure derivative. Then the injection timing that controls the combustion timing is decided by solving an optimization problem involving the model obtained.
Technical Paper

Effects of EGR and Intake Pressure on PPC of Conventional Diesel, Gasoline and Ethanol in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2013-10-14
2013-01-2702
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) has the potential of simultaneously providing high engine efficiency and low emissions. Previous research has shown that with proper combination of Exhaust-Gas Recirculation (EGR) and Air-Fuel equivalence ratio, it is possible to reduce engine-out emissions while still keeping the engine efficiency high. In this paper, the effect of changes in intake pressure (boost) and EGR fraction on PPC engine performance (e.g. ignition delay, burn duration, maximum pressure rise rate) and emissions (carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbon (UHC), soot and NOX) was investigated in a single-cylinder, heavy-duty diesel engine. Swedish diesel fuel (MK1), RON 69 gasoline fuel and 99.5 vol% ethanol were tested. Fixed fueling rate and single injection strategy were employed.
Technical Paper

Emission Formation Study of HCCI Combustion with Gasoline Surrogate Fuels

2013-10-14
2013-01-2626
HCCI combustion can be enabled by many types of liquid and gaseous fuels. When considering what fuels will be most suitable, the emissions also have to be taken into account. This study focuses on the emissions formation originating from different fuel components. A systematic study of over 40 different gasoline surrogate fuels was made. All fuels were studied in a CFR engine running in HCCI operation. Many of the fuels were blended to achieve similar RON's and MON's as gasoline fuels, and the components (n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, and ethanol) were chosen to represent the most important in gasoline; nparaffins, iso-paraffins, aromatics and oxygenates. The inlet air temperature was varied from 50°C to 150°C to study the effects on the emissions. The compression ratio was adjusted for each operating point to achieve combustion 3 degrees after TDC. The engine was run at an engine speed of 600 rpm, with ambient intake air pressure and with an equivalence ratio of 0.33.
Technical Paper

A Study on In-Cycle Control of NOx Using Injection Strategy with a Fast Cylinder Pressure Based Emission Model as Feedback

2013-10-14
2013-01-2603
The emission control in heavy-duty vehicles today is based on predefined injection strategies and after-treatment systems such as SCR (selective catalytic reduction) and DPF (diesel particulate filter). State-of-the-art engine control is presently based on cycle-to-cycle resolution. The introduction of the crank angle resolved pressure measurement, from a piezo-based pressure sensor, enables the possibility to control the fuel injection based on combustion feedback while the combustion is occurring. In this paper a study is presented on the possibility to control NOx (nitrogen oxides) formation with a crank angle resolved NOx estimator as feedback. The estimator and the injection control are implemented on an FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) to manage the inherent time constraints. The FPGA is integrated with the rest of the engine control system for injection control and measurement.
Technical Paper

A Correlation Analysis of the Roles of Soot Formation and Oxidation in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2013-10-14
2013-01-2535
Emissions and in-cylinder pressure traces are used to compare the relative importance of soot formation and soot oxidation in a heavy-duty diesel engine. The equivalence ratio at the lift-off length is estimated with an empirical correlation and an idealized model of diesel spray. No correlation is found between the equivalence ratio at lift-off and the soot emissions. This confirms that trends in soot emissions cannot be directly understood by the soot formation process. The coupling between soot emission levels and late heat release after end of injection is also studied. A regression model describing soot emissions as function of global engine parameters influencing soot oxidation is proposed. Overall, the results of this analysis indicate that soot emissions can be understood in terms of the efficiency of the oxidation process.
Technical Paper

Spray and Combustion Visualization of Gasoline and Diesel under Different Ambient Conditions in a Constant Volume Chamber

2013-10-14
2013-01-2547
Spray and combustion of gasoline and diesel were visualized under different ambient conditions in terms of pressure, temperature and density in a constant volume chamber. Three different ambient conditions were selected to simulate the three combustion regimes of homogeneous charge compression ignition, premixed charge compression ignition and conventional combustion. Ambient density was varied from 3.74 to 23.39 kg/m3. Ambient temperature at the spray injection were controlled to the range from 474 to 925 K. Intake oxygen concentration was also modulated from 15 % to 21 % in order to investigate the effects of intake oxygen concentrations on combustion characteristics. The injection pressure of gasoline and diesel were modulated from 50 to 150 MPa to analyze the effect of injection pressure on the spray development and combustion characteristics. Liquid penetration length and vapor penetration length were measured based on the methods of Mie-scattering and Schileren, respectively.
Journal Article

A Fast Crank Angle Resolved Zero-Dimensional NOx Model Implemented on a Field-Programmable Gate Array

2013-04-08
2013-01-0344
In the automotive industry, the piezo-based in-cylinder pressure sensor is getting commercialized and used in production vehicles. For example, the pressure sensor offers the opportunity to design algorithms for estimation of engine emissions, such as soot and NO , during a combustion cycle. In this paper a zero-dimensional NO model for a diesel engine is implemented that will be used in real time. The model is based on the thermal NO formation and the Zeldovich mechanism using two non-geometrical zones: burned and unburned zone. The influence of EGR on combustion temperature was modeled using a well-known thermodynamic identity where specific heat at constant pressure is included. Specific heat will vary with temperature and the gas composition. The model was implemented in LabVIEW using tools specific for an FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array).
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