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Technical Paper

Analyzing Factors Affecting Gross Indicated Efficiency When Inlet Temperature Is Changed

Observations from engine experiments indicates that the gross indicated efficiency (GIE) increases when the inlet temperature (Tinlet) is lowered. The change in Tinlet affects several important factors, such as the heat release profile (affecting heat and exhaust losses), working fluid properties, combustion efficiency and heat transfer losses. These factors all individually contributes to the resulting change in GIE. However, due to their strong dependency to temperature it is not possible to quantify the contribution from each of these parameters individually. Therefore, a simulation model in GT-power has been created and calibrated to the performed engine experiments. With simulations the temperature dependency can be separated and it becomes possible to evaluate the contribution to GIE from each factor individually. The simulation results indicate that the specific heats of the working medium are the largest contributor.
Technical Paper

Optimum Heat Release Rates for a Double Compression Expansion (DCEE) Engine

The concept of double compression, and double expansion engine (DCEE) for improving the efficiency of piston reciprocating engines was introduced in SAE Paper 2015-01-1260. This engine configuration has separate high, and low pressure units thereby effectively reducing friction losses for high effective compression ratios. The presence of an additional expander stage also theoretically allows an extra degree of freedom to manipulate the combustion heat release rate so as to achieve better optimum between heat transfer, and friction losses. This paper presents a 1-D modeling study of the engine concept in GT-Power for assessing the sensitivity of engine losses to heat release rate. The simulations were constrained by limiting the maximum pressure to 300 bar.
Journal Article

Double Compression Expansion Engine Concepts: A Path to High Efficiency

Internal combustion engine (ICE) fuel efficiency is a balance between good indicated efficiency and mechanical efficiency. High indicated efficiency is reached with a very diluted air/fuel-mixture and high load resulting in high peak cylinder pressure (PCP). On the other hand, high mechanical efficiency is obtained with very low peak cylinder pressure as the piston rings and bearings can be made with less friction. This paper presents studies of a combustion engine which consists of a two stage compression and expansion cycle. By splitting the engine into two different cycles, high-pressure (HP) and low-pressure (LP) cycles respectively, it is possible to reach high levels of both indicated and mechanical efficiency simultaneously. The HP cycle is designed similar to today's turbo-charged diesel engine but with an even higher boost pressure, resulting in high PCP. To cope with high PCP, the engine needs to be rigid.