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Technical Paper

Determination of Principal Variables for Prediction of Fuel Economy using Principal Component Analysis

2019-01-09
2019-26-0359
The complexity of Urban driving conditions and the human behavior introduces undesired variabilities while establishing Fuel economy for a vehicle. These variabilities pose a great challenge while trying to determine that single figure for assessment of vehicle’s fuel efficiency on an urban driving cycle. This becomes even more challenging when two or more vehicles are simultaneously evaluated with respect to a reference vehicle. The attempt to fit a generalized linear model, between Fuel Economy as predicted variable and components of a driving cycle as predictor variables produced oxymoronic and counter-institutive results. This is primarily due to existence of multi-collinearity among the predictor variables. The context of the study is to consider the event of driving on a cycle as a random sampling experiment. The outcome of a driving cycle is summarized into a list of predictor variables or components.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Analysis of Turbocharger for a High Power Density Diesel Engine

2019-01-09
2019-26-0051
Passenger cars claim their presence in market by its pick up, top speed and maximum power of the engine. The study described in this paper is focused on improving the low-end performance of a 4-cylinder 1.6 L diesel engine while meeting the targeted maximum power. To meet the cause turbocharger works as an important element of the engine. A comparative study between regulated two stage turbocharger (R2S) and variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) shows that on a 4-cylinder engine VGT is superior by providing higher boost at 1000 engine rpm full load, than R2S, while in 3-cylinder (same displacement) the opposite effect can be seen. After simulations and iterations, it was confirmed that the in 4-cylinder the exhaust pulse cancellation were leading to a lesser exhaust energy at the turbine inlet. This pulse interaction leads to higher residual gas content which affects the low-end performance.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Oil Flow inside Tractor Transmission for Splash Type Lubrication

2019-01-09
2019-26-0082
This study introduces a method to examine the flow path of the lubricant inside a transmission housing of a tractor. A typical gearbox has several loads bearing elements which are in relative sliding motion to each other which causes heat to be released. The major sources of friction as well as heat are the meshing teeth between gears (sun/planet, planet/ring & power/range drive gear), thrust washers, thrust bearings and needle roller bearings. The churning of oil performs the vital function of both lubricating these sliding interfaces and cooling these sources of heat, thereby preventing failure of the gearbox. In this paper, we have applied VOF multiphase flow model and sliding meshing to simulate the fluid flow during splashed lubrication within a mating gear box. Lubrication oil dynamics and oil surface interaction with the air is modeled using VOF multiphase approach.
Technical Paper

Slinger Design in Live 4WD Axle for Tractor

2019-01-09
2019-26-0084
Proper lubrication is essential for any gear box & axle to get optimized performance. For getting desired life of gear train, we have to maintain minimum oil level inside the gear box or axle, whereas in case of rotating parts such as bearings and shafts, we have to provide sealing such as o rings & oil seals to stop oil coming out from the housing. But, if sealing is not proper seepage & leakage start and reduce the oil level inside the gear box. Oil deficiency leads to scuffing failure in gears and later occurrence of gear & bearing seizure ultimately fails the system. To sustain proper lubrication, we must seal the interfaces appropriately. There are different types of sealing available. Sealing is also depended on application and its location. To protect seal from external environment, we adopt a unique arrangement called slinger which enhances the life of seal.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Failure Analysis of Diesel Engine Connecting Rod

2018-07-09
2018-28-0067
Connecting rod of a high performance reciprocating internal combustion engine is one of the critical components exhibiting complex motion. This is subjected to both compressive load due to combustion force as well as tensile load due to inertia of the moving components. These loadings are cyclic in nature and the component is highly prone to fatigue failure if not deigned or manufactured carefully. Therefore connecting rods are designed and manufactured with high degree of precision for infinite loading cycle. But failures in connecting rod is often reported which is associated to either fatigue, bending, bearing failure or assembly faults. This study deals with one of such failure of connecting rod reported during fatigue testing. Failures occurred at around 1 million fatigue loading cycle as against target life of 5 million cycles. The present study represents the investigations done for engine connecting rod and with a view to identify the root cause of failure.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Oil Separation Unit for Two Stage Turbocharged Engine

2018-07-09
2018-28-0066
In addition to performance target, recent stringent emission legislation and reduction in oil consumption are the major driving force for engine design and development. In this reference importance of crankcase ventilation has increased immensely and the manufacturers are bound to develop most efficient system with high oil trap efficiency. In crankcase ventilation system, the blow-by gases from the crankcase are routed to the intake manifold through Oil separator system. The oil separator task is to retain the oil part from the blow by gas and send it back to sump. Developing an oil separator for the engine studied here was very challenging considering double stage turbocharger which produces very fine mist of oil and is difficult to separate. The study shows that oil mist coming in blow by is of size 0.3 micron and lesser than it. The major contribution of these fine mists was from turbocharger.
Technical Paper

Development of Low Cost FEAD System with Stretch Fit Belt

2018-07-09
2018-28-0064
In Current scenario all Vehicle Manufacturer are looking towards cost effectiveness in their product development without compromising product quality and performance. With this reference, development of low cost FEAD (Front End Accessory Drive) system with stretch fit belt & idlers for multiple accessories has emerged as one of the alternative smart engineering solution against the FEAD with auto tensioner. The beauty of this low cost FEAD system is not only the cost saving but also the long lasting performance without affecting component life. In the current work, development of a low cost FEAD for 3 cylinder 1.5 litre diesel engine has been presented. It was one of the challenges to introduce stretch fit belt for 3 cylinder engine considering the high torsional vibration. The performance of this FEAD system was evaluated in terms of accessories pulley slip and belt flapping. The component durability was assessed both at engine as well as at vehicle level.
Technical Paper

Comparative Studies of Different VGT Designs on Performance and Smoke of CRDe Engine

2018-07-09
2018-28-0074
Diesel engines have occupied a significant position in passenger car applications in the present automotive sector. Turbochargers find a very prominent role in diesel engines of all applications in order to achieve desired power and better fuel economy. Gaining higher torque at lower engine speeds with low smoke levels is a very tough task with fixed geometry turbochargers due to availability of lower air mass resulting in higher smoke emissions. Variable geometry turbochargers are capable of providing better torque at lower speeds and reduced smoke emissions on Common Rail Diesel engines. The Variable Geometry Turbocharger types used in this study are straight profile nozzle vanes (sample A) and curved profile nozzle vanes (sample B). The curved profile vanes as seen in sample B results in reduced variation of circumferential pressure distortions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Friction Reduction by Reducing Piston Ring Pre-Load

2018-07-09
2018-28-0101
The prime objective of this study is to check the friction reduction by reducing the tangential load of the piston ring. To examine this experimental study has been carried out under motored engine condition from 500 to 4000 engine speed at the step of 500 rpm at different oil temperatures ranging from 40 °C to 120 °C. 15 W40 oil was used for this study. Standard Strip down approach was followed in accessing the Friction. The whole friction measurement was split in crank train and piston group friction and was measured with base and modified piston ring pack. The modified piston ring pack was having 24% less ring tension as compared to base ring pack. The study was carried out using block, crankshaft & Piston of 100 hp, 1.5 litre, 3 cylinder engine with 92 mm stroke and 83 mm bore. In each test ring pack was tested as a part of complete piston assembly.
Technical Paper

Application of Reliability Technique for Developing a Test Methodology to Validate the Engine Mounted Components for Off-Road Applications under Vibration

2017-09-29
2017-01-7004
Vibrational fatigue is a metal fatigue caused by the forced vibrations which are purely random in nature. The phenomenon is predominantly important for the components/systems which are subjected to extreme vibration during its operation. In a vehicle, an engine is the main source of vibration. The vibrational fatigue, therefore, plays a key role in the deterioration of engine mounted components. Multiple test standards and methodologies are available for validating engine mounted parts of an automobile. These might not be appropriate in the case of an off- road vehicle as the vibrational exposure of engine mounted components of an off-road vehicle is entirely different. In the case of an off-road vehicle, the engine mounted components are subjected to a comparatively higher level of vibration for a longer duration of time as compared to the passenger cars.
Technical Paper

Methodological Approach for Converting Conventional Powertrain Platform into an Electrified One

2017-07-10
2017-28-1943
This paper details about the approach and challenges in converting a conventional vehicle platform designed for diesel/gasoline powertrain into an electrified one. It is not always feasible to accommodate electric powertrain in conventional platforms based on the target requirements. Electrification of conventional vehicles will cut back dependence on fossil fuels, emission of greenhouse gases and emission of pollutants. Fossil fuel are going to be depleted in few decades. Moreover, the emission from traditional vehicle has raised a huge threat to the atmosphere. Auto OEM’s have recognized that electric drive vehicles are critical to the future of the industry. However, some difficulties exist to more noteworthy selection: the view of cost, EV range, access to charging, potential impacts, and absence of open mindfulness about the accessibility and common sense of these vehicles.
Technical Paper

Low Rolling Resistance Tires and Their Impact on Electric Vehicles

2017-07-10
2017-28-1941
This paper details the methodology used to show the importance of Low rolling resistance tires in Electric Vehicles. Fuel efficiency and range is paramount with most of the electric vehicle buyers. Although many people are now becoming aware of low rolling resistance tires but its development started way back in 1990’s. It is always challenging to achieve low rolling resistance in smaller tires of size 12 inch or 13 inch along meeting the other critical vehicle parameters such as ride and handling, NVH, durability and many more. The reduction in rolling resistance can also affect the traction properties of tires. In case of very low rolling resistance tires the traction will be very less but it can badly affect the other vehicle parameters. Selection of tires further depend upon the RWUP (Real World Usage Profile). It means the vehicle is targeted for which region and what is the condition of roads there.
Journal Article

Acoustic Analysis of a Compact Muffler for Automotive Application

2017-06-17
2017-01-9550
A production muffler of a 2.2 liter compression ignition engine is analyzed using plane wave (Transfer Matrix) method. The objective is to show the usefulness of plane wave models to analyze the acoustic performance (Transmission Loss, TL) of a compact hybrid muffler (made up of reactive and dissipative elements). The muffler consists of three chambers, two of which are acoustically short in the axial direction. The chambers are separated by an impervious baffle on the upstream side and a perforated plate on the downstream side. The first chamber is a Concentric Tube Resonator (CTR). The second chamber consists of an extended inlet and a flow reversal 180-degree curved outlet duct. The acoustic cavity in the third chamber is coupled with the second chamber through the acoustic impedances of the end plate and the perforated plate.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Cabin Leakage on Thermal Comfort and Fuel Efficiency of an SUV

2016-04-05
2016-01-0259
The main function of an air conditioning system in a vehicle is to provide the thermal comfort to the occupant at minimum possible energy consumption in all environmental conditions. To ensure the best possible thermal comfort, air conditioning system is optimized on various parameters like heat load, air flow distribution, glass area, trim quality, insulations and cabin leak rate. A minimum cabin leakage is regulatory requirements to ensure the air quality of cabin. Anything above the minimum cabin leak rate ultimately turn into reduced thermal comfort and additional energy consumption. The additional energy consumption to maintain the required thermal comfort in the cabin due to cabin leakage affects the fuel efficiency severely. In the present study, the effect of cabin leakage on fuel efficiency and thermal comfort is studied in details by varying the cabin leakage through mechanical means. The experiments are carried out in normal environmental condition and road condition.
Technical Paper

Cost and Weight Efficient Differential Housing for Off-Road Vehicles

2016-02-01
2016-28-0133
Differential in Gear Box play vital role in Tractors for assisting it in turning and also to take straight path. Light weight machine always have advantage in terms of fuel economy and performance. Weight optimized rotating part have additional benefits of saving power loss, against stationary dead weight. Differential Housing is such a part, which rotates during the vehicle motion and torque transmission. [1] This paper describes a method by which weight of the Differential Housing is optimized. In this particular body of work, additional constraints of avoiding any change in existing cold forged parts like Bevel Gear & Pinion. This also have additional benefit of enhanced flow of Oil inside Differential Housing for better lubrication of Bevel Gears and Pinion. This resulted in weight saving of Differential Housing and finally fuel economy of Tractor.
Technical Paper

Offset Driveline for Tractors

2016-02-01
2016-28-0128
Tractors with 4WD drive perform better in slick, off road or muddy conditions (especially in Agricultural and constructional Field applications) where torque is required at all the wheels. The purpose of four wheel drive or all-wheel drive is to transmit power to all the wheels. In case of 2WD the power from engine is transferred to the rear wheels of a tractor through transmission. But in case of 4 WD tractors and construction equipment, power from engine is transferred to the front wheels through drop box and the driveline (propeller shaft). This Paper describes the need of an offset driveline where there is an offset between the Drop box output shaft center and the front axle input shaft center. This offset is the result of zero keel angle of the tractor. In order to maintain zero keel angle and transfer power to front wheels, an offset driveline with three shafts has been design &developed.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Engine Variables for Low Emissions of a 6 Cylinder Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2016-02-01
2016-28-0121
There are significant geometrical as well as operational parameters which affect the emission performance of a diesel engine. In this work, various important engine variables are selected for optimization. The objective of this work is to satisfy BS III norms, that too, with a healthy margin. Among the selected variables, swirl is a complex variable to control, and that itself depends on number of geometrical and operational parameters. Chamfer angle of the valve seat is modified to vary swirl ratios, actual swirl performance test is done. Further, CFD and analytical analysis is done on various geometrical parameters of intake port and important parameters affecting swirl were identified. Thus, by the above exercise three optimum swirl ratios were selected for design of experiments. Engine variables selected for optimization are swirl ratio, fuel injection timing, nozzle orifice (K and KS type) and turbocharger (waste gate and free float).
Technical Paper

Optimization of Vehicle Electrical Energy Consumption

2015-09-29
2015-01-2882
This paper focuses on optimizing the electrical energy consumption of vehicle. By introduction three concepts. 1) Innovative speed control logic for radiator fan motor according to vehicle speed and air flow through radiator. 2) Introducing regeneration of energy from radiator fan motor while free running and deceleration of vehicle. 3) Using BLDC motors (generation mode and motoring mode) in radiator and blower motors. About 50 % of total electrical energy consumption of vehicle is contributed by radiator fan motor and blower motor (proven data by performing alternator charge balance test during NEDC cycle). By introducing above three concepts, 50 % electrical energy consumption can be reduced to 25 - 30 %, which gives more than 3.5 % fuel economy improvement and more than 10 gmCO2 reduction per kilometer. Further reduction in conducted emission at motor level, soft starting for radiator fan and blower motor and elimination of high inrush current.
Technical Paper

Vinyl Ester Based SMC Material for Automotive Oil Sump Application

2015-04-14
2015-01-0718
This paper describes vinyl ester based SMC (Sheet molding composite) material for oil sump part in automotive application. This sheet moulding composite is a ready to mould glass-fibre reinforced vinyl ester material primarily used in compression moulding process. This vinyl ester resin is compounded with glass fibre to meet the product functional requirements. Oil sump is a structural component under bonnet that forms the bottommost part of the crankcase and also contain the engine oil before and after it has been circulated through the engine. Generally, metals are preferred material for this application. In this paper, fibre filled vinyl ester based thermoset resin (SMC) material has been explored for oil sump application. They possess excellent properties in terms of tensile strength, modulus, impact strength, dimensional stability, high/low temperature resistance and oil resistance.
Technical Paper

Sealing Prediction and Improvement at Cylinder Head & Block Interface under Thermo-Mechanical Loading involving Multi- Layer Steel Gasket

2015-04-14
2015-01-1743
An inadequate sealing of the combustion chamber gasket interface may have severe consequences on both the performance & emission of an engine. In this investigation, both the distribution of the contact pressure on the gasket and the stresses of the cylinder head at different loading conditions are explored and improved by modifying the design. A single cylinder gasoline engine cylinder head assembly has been analyzed by means of an uncoupled FEM simulation to find the sealing pressure of the multi-layer steel (MLS) gasket, strength & deformation of the components involved. The thermal loads are computed separately from CFD simulations of cylinder head assembly. The cylinder head assembly consisting of head, blocks, liner, cam shaft holder, bolts, gaskets, valve guides & valve seats, is one of the most complicated sub-assembly of an IC engine.
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