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Technical Paper

Determination of Principal Variables for Prediction of Fuel Economy using Principal Component Analysis

2019-01-09
2019-26-0359
The complexity of Urban driving conditions and the human behavior introduces undesired variabilities while establishing Fuel economy for a vehicle. These variabilities pose a great challenge while trying to determine that single figure for assessment of vehicle’s fuel efficiency on an urban driving cycle. This becomes even more challenging when two or more vehicles are simultaneously evaluated with respect to a reference vehicle. The attempt to fit a generalized linear model, between Fuel Economy as predicted variable and components of a driving cycle as predictor variables produced oxymoronic and counter-institutive results. This is primarily due to existence of multi-collinearity among the predictor variables. The context of the study is to consider the event of driving on a cycle as a random sampling experiment. The outcome of a driving cycle is summarized into a list of predictor variables or components.
Technical Paper

Comparative Studies of Different VGT Designs on Performance and Smoke of CRDe Engine

2018-07-09
2018-28-0074
Diesel engines have occupied a significant position in passenger car applications in the present automotive sector. Turbochargers find a very prominent role in diesel engines of all applications in order to achieve desired power and better fuel economy. Gaining higher torque at lower engine speeds with low smoke levels is a very tough task with fixed geometry turbochargers due to availability of lower air mass resulting in higher smoke emissions. Variable geometry turbochargers are capable of providing better torque at lower speeds and reduced smoke emissions on Common Rail Diesel engines. The Variable Geometry Turbocharger types used in this study are straight profile nozzle vanes (sample A) and curved profile nozzle vanes (sample B). The curved profile vanes as seen in sample B results in reduced variation of circumferential pressure distortions.
Technical Paper

Low Rolling Resistance Tires and Their Impact on Electric Vehicles

2017-07-10
2017-28-1941
This paper details the methodology used to show the importance of Low rolling resistance tires in Electric Vehicles. Fuel efficiency and range is paramount with most of the electric vehicle buyers. Although many people are now becoming aware of low rolling resistance tires but its development started way back in 1990’s. It is always challenging to achieve low rolling resistance in smaller tires of size 12 inch or 13 inch along meeting the other critical vehicle parameters such as ride and handling, NVH, durability and many more. The reduction in rolling resistance can also affect the traction properties of tires. In case of very low rolling resistance tires the traction will be very less but it can badly affect the other vehicle parameters. Selection of tires further depend upon the RWUP (Real World Usage Profile). It means the vehicle is targeted for which region and what is the condition of roads there.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of Combustion Noise Reduction with Performance Optimization in 110cc CVT Scooter Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2311
Indian two wheeler market is one of the largest and highly competitive in the world. Indian scooter segment grows at a pace of around 30% YOY. The stiff competition among OEM’s to increase the market share with fuel efficient and high performance products pushes development and calibration engineers to burn the midnight oil to concoct innovative methods to design technology boosted product. Customer expectations are always high in terms of fuel economy, drivability and NVH. Due to higher level of complexity involved in CVT (Continuously Varying Transmission) engine, it is difficult to optimize for achieving best of NVH characteristics along with Fuel Economy, drivability and reduced exhaust emission. This paper describes the experiment conducted during the development of 110cc CVT four stroke scooter engine. The development and calibration of this scooter was mainly based on real world usage pattern (RWUP).
Technical Paper

Assessment of Cabin Leakage on Thermal Comfort and Fuel Efficiency of an SUV

2016-04-05
2016-01-0259
The main function of an air conditioning system in a vehicle is to provide the thermal comfort to the occupant at minimum possible energy consumption in all environmental conditions. To ensure the best possible thermal comfort, air conditioning system is optimized on various parameters like heat load, air flow distribution, glass area, trim quality, insulations and cabin leak rate. A minimum cabin leakage is regulatory requirements to ensure the air quality of cabin. Anything above the minimum cabin leak rate ultimately turn into reduced thermal comfort and additional energy consumption. The additional energy consumption to maintain the required thermal comfort in the cabin due to cabin leakage affects the fuel efficiency severely. In the present study, the effect of cabin leakage on fuel efficiency and thermal comfort is studied in details by varying the cabin leakage through mechanical means. The experiments are carried out in normal environmental condition and road condition.
Technical Paper

Cost and Weight Efficient Differential Housing for Off-Road Vehicles

2016-02-01
2016-28-0133
Differential in Gear Box play vital role in Tractors for assisting it in turning and also to take straight path. Light weight machine always have advantage in terms of fuel economy and performance. Weight optimized rotating part have additional benefits of saving power loss, against stationary dead weight. Differential Housing is such a part, which rotates during the vehicle motion and torque transmission. [1] This paper describes a method by which weight of the Differential Housing is optimized. In this particular body of work, additional constraints of avoiding any change in existing cold forged parts like Bevel Gear & Pinion. This also have additional benefit of enhanced flow of Oil inside Differential Housing for better lubrication of Bevel Gears and Pinion. This resulted in weight saving of Differential Housing and finally fuel economy of Tractor.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Vehicle Electrical Energy Consumption

2015-09-29
2015-01-2882
This paper focuses on optimizing the electrical energy consumption of vehicle. By introduction three concepts. 1) Innovative speed control logic for radiator fan motor according to vehicle speed and air flow through radiator. 2) Introducing regeneration of energy from radiator fan motor while free running and deceleration of vehicle. 3) Using BLDC motors (generation mode and motoring mode) in radiator and blower motors. About 50 % of total electrical energy consumption of vehicle is contributed by radiator fan motor and blower motor (proven data by performing alternator charge balance test during NEDC cycle). By introducing above three concepts, 50 % electrical energy consumption can be reduced to 25 - 30 %, which gives more than 3.5 % fuel economy improvement and more than 10 gmCO2 reduction per kilometer. Further reduction in conducted emission at motor level, soft starting for radiator fan and blower motor and elimination of high inrush current.
Technical Paper

Design For Affordability -Composite Running Board

2015-01-14
2015-26-0070
Light weighting is the Current trends in automotive to achieve better fuel economy which helps for meeting fuel economy standards & to offset the higher fuel prices. Thus there is a need to develop composite running board which is light weight & structurally sound enough to meet the performance. The present paper provides a composite running board assembly for an automobile. The running board assembly includes a board, an insert body and a plurality of brackets. Upon stepping of a passenger on the board, the board transfers load on the insert body which subsequently transfers the load to the plurality of brackets thus facilitating even distribution of the load on the automobile body. This paper also put lights on the use of improved TRIZ application - an approach to inventive problem solving for designing highly affordable & light weight running board. The cost & weight reduction achieved with innovative design is about 40 % & 35 % comparing to existing cost & weight.
Technical Paper

Computational and Experimental Investigations to Improve Performance, Emissions and Fuel Efficiency of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

2015-01-14
2015-26-0099
From International Energy Statistics (IES) survey, China, US and India are top three countries in emitting CO2 emissions. Further, worldwide national governments are focused to control CO2 emissions at source by stringent regulatory limits. OEMs and Research laboratories are working on several technology options such as advanced fuel injection system, optimizing in cylinder combustion system, thermal management and reduced engine friction to meet this legal requirements. In this paper, research work focused on improving combustion system through selection optimum bowl geometry and increasing volumetric efficiency through valve timings, profile and intake system using both 1D and 3D-CFD numerical approach. The main objective of this approach to utilize fossil fuel to its maximum potential in a single cylinder Naturally Aspirated (NA) water cooled engine with CRDI.
Technical Paper

Oil Pump Performance Optimization for Three Cylinder Diesel Engine through Friction Reduction

2014-10-13
2014-01-2881
Fuel Economy & CO2 Reduction in IC Engines is the key driving factor for the Product performance & Customer satisfaction all around the world. The Stringent CO2 Limits calls for Engine Friction Reduction, Engine Downsizing & other Alternative measures. The challenges were to measure the component level Friction Contribution on the Engine & to select the critical contribution parameter & to optimize the same. Oil pump is one such important engine parasitic load which takes up engine power through crankshaft to deliver oil flow rate according to engine demand. The proper functioning of the Oil pump is considered with required engine Oil pressure along with optimum power consumption over various operating speed and temperature. Hence the various Oil pump critical design metrics are reviewed for two cylinder Multi-jet diesel engine to have optimal power consumption and without reduction the Oil pressure at the engine oil gallery.
Technical Paper

Development & Customization of Test Cases for Start-stop Functionality to Achieve On-road Robustness

2013-11-27
2013-01-2875
The Micro-hybrid technology otherwise called as stop start system offers a significant improvement in fuel economy particularly in urban driving conditions, where more often the engine idles unnecessarily at traffic signals/jams. Micro-hybrid technology stops the engine at traffic signals/jams and starts the engine automatically on clearance of traffic signals/jams leading to reduced fuel consumption and emissions. This is achieved by monitoring several vehicle and engine parameters through appropriate sensing elements. In this study, the system architecture and functional definitions of start/stop system is defined. Equivalence class, boundary value and decision-table testing are used to generate test cases. On generation of test cases, their relevance on on-road robustness and scope for optimization towards time/efforts are analyzed. In the process, a matrix of different conditions and criteria are formulated. Under these conditions, the system behavior is evaluated.
Technical Paper

Structural Evaluation of Light Weight Aluminum Bedplate Design with Cast Iron Inserts through CAE for High Density Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1200
Improving fuel economy and reducing emissions is becoming critical for future vehicles which will be lighter and faster. This demands, future engines to cater two contradictory requirements, one is high power density engine and other is lightweight compact engine design. This would require rigorous and accurate structural evaluation to achieve optimum design. Downsizing the engine is best way to achieve these goals. Three cylinder diesel engine is best suited for achieving high power and performance. It brings in challenges of design complexity due to need of balancer shaft for three cylinder engine. Bedplate evaluation becomes difficult due to design complexity induced by integration of Cast Iron inserts in Aluminum bedplate and packaging of balancer shaft. Also manufacturing process involved, operating temperatures, high combustion pressures increase the difficulties.
Technical Paper

Selection of Gear Ratio for Smooth Gear Shifting

2012-09-24
2012-01-2005
Manual transmissions are characterized by gear ratios that are selectable by locking selected gear pairs to the output shaft inside the transmission. Top gear is selected to get a maximum speed and is limited by the engine power, speed and the fuel economy. Lower gears are selected to get maximum speed at maximum gradient. Lower gears are also expected to give creeping speed to avoid usage of clutch and brake in city traffic. Selection of intermediate gears is such that it provides a smoother gear shift. Gear spacing is done in geometric progression. Spacing between the higher gears is usually closer than in the lower gears because drivers shift more often between the lower gears. This is opposed to the conventional idea of progressive spacing where higher gears had more space between them. An objective method is provided for selecting gear ratios for use in vehicle transmission having multiple selectable gears.
Technical Paper

Duty Cycle Fatigue Simulation for Differential Casing

2012-04-16
2012-01-0813
In the current scenario of growing demand for lightweight designs for improving fuel economy and reduced cost, the focus is on optimum design solutions. This calls for improved and accurate prediction capabilities in terms of life or cycles the design can sustain in real world usage profile. Conventionally, the differential casings are simulated and designed for worst loads experienced and the approach used is infinite life design for these loads. But, this would lead to overdesign and increase weight. To counter this problem the methodology for fatigue analysis for the derived duty cycle of differential casing is developed. The critical regions can be identified based on life and the solutions can be worked out without major design changes. This paper briefs the nonlinear static load cases required for deriving the block cycle loading and incorporating these as a duty cycle in fatigue solver.
Technical Paper

Turbocharging a Small Two Cylinder DI Diesel Engine - Experiences in Improving the Power, Low End Torque and Specific Fuel Consumption

2011-09-11
2011-24-0133
Turbocharged common rail direct injection engines offer multiple benefits compared to their naturally aspirated counterparts by allowing for a significant increase in the power and torque output, while simultaneously improving the specific fuel consumption and smoke. They also make it possible for the engine to operate at a leaner air/fuel mixture ratio, thereby reducing particulate matter emission and permitting higher EGR flow rates. In the present work, a two cylinder, naturally aspirated common rail injected engine for use on a load carrier platform has been fitted with a turbocharger for improving the power and torque output, so that the engine can be used in a vehicle with a higher kerb weight. The basic architecture and hardware remain unchanged between the naturally aspirated and turbocharged versions. A fixed geometry, waste gated turbocharger with intercooling is used.
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