Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Optimization of the Bearing Oil Supply Concept of a High Power- Density Diesel Engine to Minimize Oil Pump Friction

2020-09-25
2020-28-0338
Reducing the mechanical friction of an internal combustion engine plays a major role in improving the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) at the engine level. Hence, it is important to reduce the friction at every component and sub-system level. In the present work, the oil pump friction of a 1.5 litre 4-cylinder diesel engine is optimised by reducing the oil pump displacement volume by 20%. This could be achieved by adapting an optimised oil supply concept which could reduce the oil leakage through main bearings and connecting rod bearings. A 1-dimensional oil flow simulation was carried out to predict the oil flow distribution across the engine at difference speeds. The results indicate that the oil leakage through main bearings and connecting rod bearings contribute to ~25% of the total oil flow requirement of the engine. In a conventional oil supply concept, the big-end bearing of each connecting rod is connected to the adjacent main bearing through an internal oil hole.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the Support Brackets of Complex Exhaust After-Treatment System of a BS VI Compliant High Power-Density Diesel Engine

2020-09-25
2020-28-0483
The Indian automotive industry is gearing up for the BS VI emission norms which will be implemented from 1st April 2020. The two-step migration of the emission regulations from BS IV to BS VI demands a significant degree of engineering efforts to design and integrate the highly complex exhaust after-treatment system (EATS). In the present work, the methodology used to evaluate the EATS of a high power-density 1.5 litre diesel engine is discussed in detail. The EATS of engine consists of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), selective catalytic reduction coating applied on a diesel particulate filter (sDPF), urea dosing module and urea mixer. All these components are integrated in a single canning of shell thickness ~1.5mm. Moreover, the complete EATS is directly mounted onto engine with suitable mounting brackets on cylinder block and cylinder head.
Technical Paper

A Unique Methodology to Evaluate the Structural Robustness of a Dual-Mass Flywheel Under Real-World Usage Conditions

2020-09-25
2020-28-0475
Dual mass flywheel (DMF) is an excellent solution to improve the noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) characteristic of any vehicle by isolating the driveline from the engine torsional vibrations. For the same reason, DMFs are widely used in high power-density diesel and gasoline engines. However, the real-world usage conditions pose a lot of challenges to the structural robustness of the DMF. In the present work, a new methodology is developed to evaluate the robustness of a DMF fitted in a compact sports utility vehicle (SUV) with real-wheel drive architecture. The abuse conditions (mis-gear, sudden braking, etc) in the real-world usage could lead to a sudden engine stall leading to an abnormally high angular deceleration of the driveline components. The higher rate of deceleration coupled with the higher rotational moment of inertia of the real-wheel drive architecture end up in introducing a significantly high impact torque on the DMF.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Clutch Characteristics to Improve the Launch Performance of a Sports-Utility Vehicle

2020-09-25
2020-28-0481
Vehicles with manual transmission are still the most preferred choice in emerging markets like India due to their benefits in cost, simplicity and fuel economy. However, the ever-increasing vehicle population and traffic congestion demand a smooth clutch operation and a comfortable launch behaviour of any manual transmission vehicle. In the present work, the launch performance of a sports-utility vehicle (SUV) equipped with dual mass flywheel (DMF) and self-adjusting technology (SAT) clutch could be improved significantly by optimizing the clutch system. The vehicle was observed to be having a mild judder during clutch release (with 0% accelerator pedal input) in normal 1st gear launch in flat road conditions. An extensive experimental measurement at the vehicle level could reveal the launch judder is mainly due to the 1st order excitation forces created by the geometrical inaccuracy of the internal parts of the clutch system.
Technical Paper

An Optimal Method for Prediction of Engine Operating Points for an Effective Correlation in Fuel Economy Bench-marking.

2020-09-25
2020-28-0346
It is imperative that all the automobile manufactures conduct vehicle level benchmarking at the initial stage of any new project. From the benchmark information, the manufacturers can set relevant targets for their own vehicle under development. In this regard, an accurate prediction of the engine operating points can improve the correlation of the measured fuel economy of the benchmark vehicle. The present work describes a novel method which can be used for the accurate prediction of the engine operating points of any benchmark vehicle. Since the idea of instrumenting the crankshaft / driveshaft with torque transducers is a costlier and time-consuming process, the proposed method can be effective in reducing the benchmarking.
Technical Paper

EGR Flow Control Strategy for a Smaller Capacity Diesel Engine Using a Phase Shifting Chamber

2020-04-14
2020-01-1358
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is an effective strategy to control NOx emissions in diesel engines. EGR reduces NOx through lowering the oxygen concentration in the combustion chamber, as well as through heat absorption. The stringent emission norms have forced diesel engines to further improve thermal efficiency and reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx). Throttle control is adopted in diesel intake system to control the EGR & fresh charge flow and to meet the emissions norms. In three or lesser cylinder. diesel engines, predominantly single and two-cylinder diesel engines, there is a higher possibility of the exhaust gas reaching the intake throttle and Particulate matter getting deposited on the throttle body. This can significantly affect the idling stability and intake restriction in prolonged usage. In idling condition, the clogged throttle body stagnates the fresh charge from entering the cylinder. The work aims at the study of flow pattern for EGR reaching the throttle body.
Technical Paper

Using Vehicle Specifications to Gain Insights into Different Automotive Market Requirements

2020-04-14
2020-01-1283
Determination of vehicle specifications (for example, powertrain sizing) is one of the fundamental steps in any new vehicle development process. The vehicle system engineer needs to select an optimum combination of vehicle, engine and transmission characteristics based on the product requirements received from Product Planning (PP) and Marketing teams during concept phase of any vehicle program. This process is generally iterative and requires subject matter expertise. For example, accurate powertrain sizing is essential to meet the required fuel economy (FE), performance and emission targets for different vehicle configurations. This paper analyzes existing vehicle specifications (Passenger Cars/SUVs - Gasoline/Diesel) in different automotive markets (India, Europe, US, Japan) and aims to determine underlying trends across them.
Technical Paper

Gear Shift Pattern Optimization for Best Fuel Economy, Performance and Emissions

2020-04-14
2020-01-1280
As the FTP-75 drive cycle does not have a prescribed gear shift pattern, automotive OEMs have the flexibility to design. Conventionally, gear shift pattern was formulated based on trial and error method, typically with 10 to 12 iterations on chassis dynamometer. It was a time consuming (i.e. ~ 3 to 4 months) and expensive process. This approach led to declaring poor fuel economy (FE). A simulation procedure was required to generate a gear shift pattern that gives optimal trade-off amongst conflicting objectives (FE, performance and emissions). As a result, a simulation tool was developed in MATLAB to generate an optimum gear shift pattern. Three different SUV/UV models were used as test vehicles in this study. Chassis dyno testing was conducted, and data was collected using the base and optimized gear shift patterns. Dyno test results with optimized gear shift pattern showed FE improvement of ~ 4 to 5% while retaining the NOx margin well above engineering targets.
Technical Paper

Development of a Component Level Test Methodology to Validate the Transmission Bush of a Manual Gear Box

2020-04-14
2020-01-1409
In the era of fierce competition, launching a defect free product on time would be the key to success. In a modern automobile, the transmission system is designed with utmost care in order to transfer the maximum power from engine to driveline smoothly and efficiently. Optimized design of all the transmission components is necessary in order to meet the power requirement with the least possible weight. This optimization may require gear designs with different internal diameters. The assembly of these gears may not be possible on a solid transmission shaft. To facilitate assembling while retaining optimum design of transmission parts, a separate bush is designed to overcome this limitation. Some bushes may require a flange to restrict any free play of the mounted gear in its axial direction. During complete system level testing of one newly developed manual transmission, bush failure was observed.
Technical Paper

A Holistic Approach to Develop a Modern High-Power Density Diesel Engine to Meet Best-in-Class NVH Levels

2020-04-14
2020-01-0406
The ever-increasing customer expectations put a lot of pressure on car manufacturers to constantly reduce the noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) levels. This paper presents the holistic approach used to achieve best-in-class NVH levels in a modern high-power density 1.5 lit 4-cylinder diesel engine. In order to define the NVH targets for the engine, global benchmark engines were analysed with similar cubic capacity, power density, number of cylinders and charging system. Moreover, a benchmark diesel engine (considered as best-in-class in NVH) was measured in a semi-anechoic chamber to define the engine-level NVH targets of the new engine. The architecture selection and design of all the critical components were done giving due consideration to NVH behaviour while keeping a check on the weight and cost.
Technical Paper

Calibration and Parametric Investigations on Lean NOx Trap and Particulate Filter Models for a Light Duty Diesel Engine

2020-04-14
2020-01-0657
To comply with the stringent future emission mandates of light-duty diesel engines, it is essential to deploy a suitable combination of emission control devices like diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF) and DeNOx converter (LNT or SCR). Arriving at optimum size and layout of these emission control devices for a particular engine through experiments is both time and cost-intensive. Thus, it becomes important to develop suitable well-tuned simulation models that can be helpful to optimize individual emission control devices as well as arrive at an optimal layout for achieving higher conversion efficiency at a minimal cost. Towards this objective, the present work intends to develop a one-dimensional Exhaust After Treatment Devices (EATD) model using a commercial code. The model parameters are fine-tuned based on experimental data. The EATD model is then validated with experiment data that are not used for tuning the model.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of an Ultra-Low Friction and High Power-Density Diesel for the Indian Market

2020-04-14
2020-01-0834
This paper explains the methodology to design a high power-density diesel engine capable of 180 bar peak firing pressure yet achieving the lowest level of mechanical friction. The base engine architecture consists of an 8 mm crank-offset which is an optimized value to have the lowest piston side forces. The honing specification is changed from a standard plateau honing to an improved torque plate slide honing with optimized surface finish values. The cumulative tangential force of the piston rings is reduced to an extreme value of 28.5 N. A rectangular special coated top ring and a low-friction architecture oil ring are used to reduce the friction without increasing the blow-by and oil consumption. A special low-friction coating is applied on the piston skirt in addition to the optimized skirt profile to have reduced contact pressure. The piston pin is coated with diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating to have the lowest friction.
Technical Paper

A Unique Approach to Optimize the Gear-Shift Map of a Compact SUV to Improve FE and Performance

2020-04-14
2020-01-0969
Automated manual transmission (AMT) is often preferred by car manufacturers as entry-level automation technology. The AMT technology can provide the comfort of an automatic gearbox at a reasonable cost impact over manual transmission (MT). This paper explains the unique approach to define the gear-shift map of a compact sports utility vehicle (SUV) considering the unique requirements of the Indian market. The real-world measurements revealed that an aggressive shift pattern with delayed upshifts and quick downshifts can deliver good low-end drivability and performance while compromising on fuel economy (FE). Moreover, the chassis dyno measurements in the modified Indian drive cycle (MIDC) indicated lower FE values. On the other hand, a shift pattern with early upshifts and delayed downshifts could help in achieving a better FE while compromising on drivability and performance. Hence, a unique approach is used to derive the most optimal gear-shift map for each operating gear.
Technical Paper

Effect of Gasoline-Ethanol Blends on GDI Engine to Reduce Cost of Vehicle Ownership

2019-11-21
2019-28-2379
A major challenge for combustion engine development is to optimize the engine for improved fuel economy, reduce greenhouse gases. Stringent CAFÉ and emission norms require the customer to pay higher capital on vehicles. To offset the cost of ownership- cheaper and alternative energy sources are being explored. Ethanol blend with regular Gasoline, and CNG are such alternative fuels. Reducing the consumption of Gasoline also helps India’s dependence on import of crude oil. The study was carried on turbo-charged gasoline direct injection engine. The effect of ethanol on engine and vehicle performance is estimated and simulated numerically. The work is split into three stages: first the base 1D engine performance model was calibrated to match the experimental data. In parallel, vehicle level Simulink model was built and calibrated to match the NEDC cycle performance.
Technical Paper

Advanced Mathematical Modelling for Glass Surface Optimization with PSO

2019-10-11
2019-28-0104
In automotive door engineering, fitting the side door glass surface from styling into the cylinder or torus is the basic requirement. Optimization is required to do this, which requires a solver which could be efficacious for best surface fitting. This paper propounds a methodology which could be used for fitting a side door glass surface from styling into the cylinder or torus. The method will significantly help in developing the required surface and can successfully eliminate the cumbersome manual calibrations. The mathematical model mentioned is a novel approach based on “Particle Swarm Optimization” (“PSO” will be used to represent in the paper) towards surface optimization technique. VB script is used to make it applicable in CATIA but could be easily applied in any other programming language like python, java etc. Usually the surface fitting problems deals with the initial guess of the required surface and then its further optimization.
Technical Paper

Design of Light Weight Hydraulic Connecting Rod for Agricultural Tractor

2019-10-11
2019-28-0016
Hydraulic power train assembly of an agricultural tractor is meant to controls the position and draft of the implement depending upon the type of crop, farming stage, implement type and soil conditions. These variations induce extreme range of loads on the hydraulic system, thus making it challenging to design these components. Hydraulic connecting rod is critical component of hydraulic power train assembly. Standards like IS12224, IS4468 governs the design of hydraulic power train components which regulates the test method for hydraulic power and lift capacity of the tractor. In this paper, a virtual simulation process has been established to design a hydraulic connecting rod to meet the requirements. The hydraulic connecting rod basically functions as a short load transferring link, which is subjected to the operating hydraulic pressure of the hydraulic lifting mechanism. The current circular connecting rod is higher in weight and cost.
Technical Paper

Implementation and Experimentation of Effective Clog Removal Method in Tractors for Enhanced Condenser Life and Air Conditioning Performance During Reaper Application

2019-10-11
2019-28-0015
Tractors in the field are exposed to adverse operating conditions and are surrounded by dust and dirt. The tiny, thin and sharp broken straw and husks surround the system in reaper operation. The tractors which are equipped with air conditioning system tend to show detrimental effects in cooling performance. The compressor trips frequently by excess pressure developed in the system due to condenser clogging and hence cooling performance is reduced considerably. The air conditioning performance reduces due to the clogged condenser located on the top roof compartment of operator’s cabin, which is better design than keeping in front of radiator where clogging happens every hour and customer need to stop the tractor to clean it with specific blower.
Technical Paper

Fuel Efficiency Improvement in Automatic Transmissions by Lockup Slip Methodology

2019-10-11
2019-28-0029
Increasing of automatic transmissions in passenger cars is based on pleasure of driving, smooth acceleration and easy operation makes the customer satisfaction. Challenges beyond 2020 is BS VI emission norms in India - a very tough goals on CO2& NOx reduction in Gasoline & Diesel vehicles. But its setback in lower fuel economy. To support & enhance fuel economy in Automatic transmissions as part of drivetrain technologies, this article discusses about the power losses in torque converters and experiments on the actual Automatic transmission (AT) vehicle on-road to understand the real city driving behavior in the aspects of gear utilization & gas pedal utilization throughout the entire traffic conditions. With that data research, slip area and slipping conditions is determined & clutch slip control is enabled at area in torque converter by ensuring that NVH parameters are not affected.
Technical Paper

Development of a Standalone Application in MATLAB to Generate Brake Performance Data

2019-04-02
2019-01-0513
Predicting the brake performance and characteristics is a crucial task in the vehicle development activity. Performance prediction is a challenge because of the involvement of various parts in the brake assembly like booster, master cylinder, calipers, disc and drum brakes. Determination of these characteristics through vehicle level tests requires a lot of time and money. This performance prediction is achieved by theoretical calculations involving vehicle dynamics. The final output must satisfy the regulations. This project involves the creation of a standalone application using MATLAB to predict the various brake performances such as: booster characteristics, adhesion curves, deceleration and pedal effort curves, behavior of brakes during brake and booster failed conditions and braking force diagrams based on the given user inputs. Previously, MS Excel and an application developed in the TK Solver environment was used to predict the brake performance curves.
Technical Paper

Optimization of EGR Mixer to Minimize Thermal Hot Spot on Plastic Duct & Soot Deposition on Throttle Valve Using CFD Simulation

2019-01-09
2019-26-0286
In recent time, with inception of BS VI emission regulation with more focus on fuel economy and emission, many engine parts which were conventionally made from metal are getting replaced with plastic components for reducing weight to attain better fuel economy. EGR is commonly used technique to reduce emissions in diesel engine along with after treatment devices. EGR reduces peak combustion temperature inside the combustion chamber thereby reducing NOx. EGR is bypassed from the exhaust manifold, cooled down in EGR cooler and mixed with intake air at upstream of the intake manifold. Throttle valve is used for controlling the charged air flow to cylinders for different vehicle operating conditions. With compact engine layout EGR mixer are often located near to throttle valve thereby increasing the possibility of soot deposition on throttle valve.
X