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Technical Paper

The Dynamic Stability Index Calculator for Agricultural Tractors Equipped with Front End Loader

2019-11-21
2019-28-2420
The study aims to evaluate the lateral stability of tractor-front end loader system in consideration with difficult work conditions based on various loader bucket lifting heights from ground while driving a system on transversal slopes. In the proposed method the centre of gravity of tractor-front end loader system was calculated and analysed to evaluate the transversal overturning of the system. This overturning of the system was analysed by applying mathematical equations presented in past studies and compared with the newly developed prediction model for 3 test tractors of 25 HP. The excel spreadsheet comprised of mathematical equations used to calculate the Tractor Stability Index (TSI) on transverse slope with respect to loader bucket height and payload in dynamic condition. A criterion has been defined to categorize the Tractor Stability Index (TSI) poor to excellent on a scale of 0 to 4 where <0 being the very poor, 0-2 Poor, 2-4 Good and >4 being the excellent.
Technical Paper

Occupant Controlled Ventilation

2019-11-21
2019-28-2461
Keywords-Coolant,Ventilation Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective: Number of Occupants is the major parameter when we consider Air Conditioning System. The number of person who stays in the room may vary in the same way the person who travels in the automobile also vary throughout the distance. This is more prevalent in transportation system like bus, train and where lot of people will travel together and where dropping station in the vehicle is too frequent.In this type,operating A.C has to be varied Methodology: . Instead the number count in the vehicle will be monitored from time to time. Based on the number of count, the cabin has to be cooled or heated and accordingly corresponding power has to be drawn by the compressor from the engine. This human count can be detected based on the number of CO2 sensor located in the cabin. the amount of fresh air that should be added to a cabin can be controlled by a carbon dioxide level transmitter.
Technical Paper

Design of light weight Hydraulic Connecting Rod for Agricultural Tractor

2019-10-11
2019-28-0016
Hydraulic power train assembly of an agricultural tractor is meant to controls the position and draft of the implement depending upon the type of crop, farming stage, implement type and soil conditions. These variations induce extreme range of loads on the hydraulic system, thus making it challenging to design these components. Hydraulic connecting rod is critical component of hydraulic power train assembly. Standards like IS12224, IS4468 governs the design of hydraulic power train components which regulates the test method for hydraulic power and lift capacity of the tractor. In this paper, a virtual simulation process has been established to design a hydraulic connecting rod to meet the requirements. The hydraulic connecting rod basically functions as a short column, which is subjected to the operating hydraulic pressure of the hydraulic lifting mechanism. The current circular connecting rod is higher in weight and cost.
Technical Paper

Development of methodology using DoE approach to improve Steering returnability of any Vehicle through virtual simulation

2019-10-11
2019-28-0012
In driving, Steering is the input motion to the vehicle. The driver uses steering input to change the direction of the vehicle. During Parking or U turn bends the Steering is locked and later released to follow the desired path. Steering return ability is defined as the ratio of difference between steering wheel position at lock condition and steering wheel angle after 3 seconds of release to the steering wheel angle at lock condition. Having proper steering return ability characteristics has an important effect on vehicle steering characteristics. In this study, a full vehicle ADAMS model is prepared and virtual steering return ability have been simulated in Adams/Car for a Pickup truck vehicle. Simulated responses in the steering wheel angle have been validated by comparison with measurements. A Design of Experiment study is setup and Iterations are carried out to find the effect of Hard points and friction parameters.
Technical Paper

Parametric Modelling and High Fidelity Algorithms for Vehicle Weight Estimation for Optimized Concept Vehicle Architecture

2019-10-11
2019-28-0036
PARAMETRIC MODELLING & HIGH FIDELITY ALGORITHMS FOR VEHICLE WEIGHT ESTIMATION FOR OPTIMIZED CONCEPT VEHICLE ARCHITECTURE The conceptualization phase of vehicle development focuses on the architecture definition and optimization based on different constraints/requirements. With the focus on Sustainability, the architecture optimization process must include "Light-weighting" as an optimization criterion. With only concept vehicle architecture available, the vehicle weight estimation becomes judgmental & inaccurate. This paper aims to address this deficiency with a new analytical approach for vehicle weight estimation. The new approach for vehicle weight estimation is a "bottom-up" approach using parametric models for each system weight with the inputs being the relevant vehicle specifications driving the system engineering. For size/shape-driven (rather than functional) systems, the models are content-based & segment-based.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Drag Reduction of a Intercity Bus through surface modifications- A Numerical Simulation

2019-10-11
2019-28-0045
The maximum power produced by the Engine is utilized in overcoming the Aerodynamic resistance while the remaining has been used to overcome rolling and climbing resistance. Increasing emission and performance demands paves way for advanced technologies to improve fuel efficiency. One such way of increasing the fuel efficiency is to reduce the aerodynamic drag of the vehicle. Buses emerged as the common choice of transport for people in India. By improving the aerodynamic drag of the Buses the diesel consumption of a vehicle can be reduced by nearly about 10% without any upgradation of the existing engine. Though 60 to 70 % of pressure loads act on the frontal surface area of the buses, the most common techniques of reducing the drag in buses includes streamlining of the surfaces, minimizing underbody losses, reduced frontal area, pressure difference between the front & rear area and minimizing of flow separation & wake regions.
Technical Paper

Study of Energy Absorbing Front Cabin Mount, Its Stiffness Balance with Chassis and Test Correlation in Frontal Impact of Commercial Vehicle Cabin

2019-04-02
2019-01-1034
During design and development of a cabin for any commercial vehicle, meeting the strength requirements of front impact as per Indian regulation (AIS-029) is a very critical milestone. AIS-029 regulation consists of three destructive tests, i.e. Front Impact Test (Test A), Roof Strength (Test B) and Rear Wall Strength (Test C). Study of energy absorbing front cabin mount, its stiffness balance with chassis and CAE correlation with physical test is demonstrated in this study. [1]
Technical Paper

Instrumentation Technique Used for Design Optimization of Front Axle Support Bracket in Agricultural Tractor

2019-01-09
2019-26-0083
Agriculture tractor industry is highly competitive in the current market scenario with global majors competing in various markets. A tractor having an optimum design is of prime importance to keep the cost low while providing higher value to the customers. Technology advances in instrumentation methodology and data acquisition helps not only in providing the right inputs for the design of a component/system but also very much useful for design/system optimization. Front Axle Support of an agricultural tractor is one of the structural member which is connected to the Chassis which is called skid of the tractor to which the Front Axle is mounted through Pillow block (Plummer block) arrangement to facilitate axle oscillation about the tractor longitudinal center line. Front ballast weights are mounted on a bracket which is intern mounted to the front axle support to maintain the required front reaction in various agricultural operations.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Clutch Life for Manual Transmission Vehicle Through Thermal Modeling of Clutch Housing and Clutch Facing

2017-10-08
2017-01-2439
Poor clutch life is a major issue for some light commercial vehicle models. Clutch overheating is the primary cause for clutch failure. Some of the reasons include inappropriate gear selection by the driver, poor low-end dynamic torque availability from an engine, heavy stop and go traffic, vehicle overloading resulting in excessive clutch slippage especially in gradients, riding of the clutch pedal by the customer etc. These situations lead to a high thermal energy dissipation at the clutch, increasing clutch wear and in extreme conditions leading to not only poor shift quality but also eventual clutch failure. Unfortunately, it is not practical to monitor clutch temperature in a production vehicle due to high costs or technical challenges involved. This paper describes 1-D thermal modeling of single plate dry clutch typically used in passenger car/truck and bus applications. The objective of simulation is to estimate the temperature rise on the clutch facing and clutch housing.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Elimination of Howling Noise in Compact Utility Vehicle

2017-07-10
2017-28-1922
NVH is becoming one of the major factor for customer selection of vehicle along with parameters like fuel economy and drivability. One of the major NVH challenges is to have a vehicle with aggressive drivability and at the same time with acceptable noise and vibration levels. This paper focuses on the compact utility vehicle where the howling noise is occurring at higher rpm of the engine. The vehicle is powered by three cylinder turbocharged diesel engine. The noise levels were higher above 2500 rpm due to the presence of structural resonance. Operational deflection shapes (ODS) and Transfer path analysis (TPA) analysis was done on entire vehicle and powertrain to find out the major reason for howling noise at higher engine rpm. It is observed that the major contribution for noise at higher rpm is due to modal coupling between powertrain, half shaft and vehicle sub frame.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Driveline Boom Noise and Vibration of 40 Seat Bus through Structural Optimization

2017-07-10
2017-28-1926
In today’s automotive scenario, noise vibration and harshness (NVH) has become a synonym for quality perception. This paper evaluates the problem of vibration and noise experienced in M2 category 40 seat bus and suggests the counter measures. Severe vibration is experienced on the bus floor, predominantly towards rear part of the bus. Vibration along with acoustic boom occurs prominently in 4th gear wide open throttle operating condition between 1300-1600 rpm of the engine. This paper focuses on reducing NVH levels by working on the transfer path with little modifications on power-train. Preliminary torsional measurements conducted on powertrain indicated high torsional excitation in the driveline during the problematic rpm zone. Further, Operational Deflection Shape (ODS) analysis revealed that the transfer path to the cabin is rear differential unit and suspension links. The dominant frequencies were identified along the transfer path and suitable modifications were done.
Journal Article

Acoustic Analysis of a Compact Muffler for Automotive Application

2017-06-17
2017-01-9550
A production muffler of a 2.2 liter compression ignition engine is analyzed using plane wave (Transfer Matrix) method. The objective is to show the usefulness of plane wave models to analyze the acoustic performance (Transmission Loss, TL) of a compact hybrid muffler (made up of reactive and dissipative elements). The muffler consists of three chambers, two of which are acoustically short in the axial direction. The chambers are separated by an impervious baffle on the upstream side and a perforated plate on the downstream side. The first chamber is a Concentric Tube Resonator (CTR). The second chamber consists of an extended inlet and a flow reversal 180-degree curved outlet duct. The acoustic cavity in the third chamber is coupled with the second chamber through the acoustic impedances of the end plate and the perforated plate.
Technical Paper

Silent Block Bush Design and Optimization for Pick-Up Truck Leaf Spring

2017-03-28
2017-01-0455
Structural elastomer components like bushes, engine mounts are required to meet stringent and contrasting requirements of being soft for better NVH and also be durable at different loading conditions and different road conditions. Silent block bushes are such components where the loading in radial direction of bushes are high to ensure the durability of bushes at high loads, but has to be soft on torsion to ensure good NVH. These requirements present with unique challenge to optimize the leaf spring bush design, stiffness and material characteristics of the rubber. Traditionally, bushes with varying degree of stiffness are selected, manufactured and tested on vehicle and the best one is chosen depending on the requirements. However, this approach is costly, time consuming and iterative. In this study, the stiffness targets required for the bush were analysed using static and dynamic load cases using virtual simulation (MSC.ADAMS).
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Performance of DPF Cell Structure for Soot Loading, Regeneration and Pressure Drop Using CFD Simulation

2017-01-10
2017-26-0111
In recent times diesel powered vehicles are becoming popular due to improved performance and reduced exhaust emission with this the market share of diesel passenger cars expected to approach 60 % over the next few years. In compliance with future emission standards for diesel powered vehicles, it is required to use diesel particulate filters (DPF) along with other exhaust emission control devices. There is a need for more optimized DPF cell structure to collect maximum soot load with low pressure drop and improved exhaust performance from diesel vehicles in Indian driving conditions. In this thesis paper a detailed parametric study have been carried out on different DPF cell structures like Square, Hexagonal and combined cell geometry. The performances of different cell structure has been evaluated for maximum soot loading capacity and regeneration rate, pressure drop, temperature distribution across cell structure.
Technical Paper

Tractor Transmission Validation for Synchronizer as Skid at Rig Level

2017-01-10
2017-26-0231
Synchronizer design optimization is being prime need for smooth gear shifting and shifting noise. Especially in tractors, synchronizers are subjected to different kinds of loads under various field applications such as Puddling, Cultivation, Haulage, Construction equipment, etc. Also, transmission housings act as a part of chassis of the tractor and hence subjected to sever bending loads. Thus, design & evaluation of tractor transmission, meeting the customer requirement is quite complex. Current trends in product development are driven by shortening development time, reduced cost and first-time-right principle. These above requirements drive tractor manufacturers to put more efforts on delivering quality, robust and reliable transmission assembly in time. Generally the synchronizer packs were validated at sub system level in test rig and further assembled on to the tractor to validate the same in tractor level it requires more time & high cost.
Journal Article

Design and Development of Electro Hydraulics Hitch Control for Agricultural Tractor

2017-01-10
2017-26-0227
Tractor hitch control system is used for attaching and operating various Agricultural Implements and for operating tipping trailer. The system has also got provision to attach additional Aux valves for rear and front mounted attachments. The rear mounted implements are coupled to the tractor using Three Point Linkage (3PL) System. The hitch hydraulics system consists of hydraulic pump, filter, piping’s, fittings and hydraulics lift unit. Hydraulics lift unit consists of a proportional control valve, cylinder, piston and power linkages. Conventional control valve is hydro mechanical part operated by mechanical linkages. The control valve and linkages plays major role in performance of hydraulics system. Hydraulics is required to operate in extreme conditions of soils such as very soft like sand to very hard like black cotton sand.
Technical Paper

Split Type Crankcase Design for a Single Cylinder LCV Diesel Engine

2017-01-10
2017-26-0040
Serious efforts have been put in space to focus on lowering the fuel consumption and CO2 discharge to the environment from Automotive Diesel Engines. Though more focus is put on material up gradation approach on weight perspective, it is accompanied by undesirable cost increase and manufacturing complexity. As a part of development of a single cylinder engine for a light commercial vehicle application, a unique approach of integrated split type crankcase design is designed and developed. This design have addressed all the key factors on Weight, Cost and Manufacturing perspectives. The split type crankcase configuration, particularly middle-split configuration, integrates the oil sump, front cover and flywheel housing in a single unit beneficial from the point of view of reducing engine weight and thus reducing the manufacturing costs. This crankcase is also excellent from the serviceability point of view.
Technical Paper

Vibro-Acoustic Optimization of 4 Cylinder Diesel Engine Oil Pan Structure for Lower Sound Radiation.

2016-06-15
2016-01-1771
By reducing overall noise emanating from Engine at design phase, permits to reduce both time-to-market and the cost for developing new engines. In order to reduce vibration and radiated noise in engine assembly, oil pan is one of the most critical components. This study explains the key-steps that are executed to optimize the oil pan design for 4-cylinder diesel engine by improving Normal Modes, modified Topology, reduced Forced Frequency Response and ATV analysis for reducing its noise radiation. Using Multi-body tool crankshaft forces were generated and the FE model of Base Design was analysed for its noise radiation and panel contribution was done for finding the most radiating panels using Boundary Element Method approach. A series of iterative optimization were carried out with commercial software. Parameters like Stiffness, material property, Ribbing patterns and Shape of the Oil pan was modified to shift the natural frequencies of the component and reduce the sound radiation.
Technical Paper

Improved Powertrain Mounts Position for Four Cylinder Engine Commercial Vehicle with Four Point Mounting Configuration

2016-02-01
2016-28-0231
In this era of engine downsizing, the powertrains with higher power densities are configured on next generation vehicles. The bare four cylinder engine without balancer shaft has higher surface velocities, sound pressure & power levels and nearly 10 to 15% higher base level vibration/forces over older generations. Adapting such engines on a new vehicle platform with stringent NVH targets is challenging. Powertrain mount modal analysis, 6DOF or 16DOF is a primary tool followed for initial mount positioning and stiffness definition. From our earlier experiences we have the knowledge that most of the 6DOF iterations lead to the mount positions which are less feasible as per vehicle architecture and packaging point of view, and further optimization is needed to arrive at suitable mount position through 6DOF analysis. In a drive to have first time right solution with minimal modifications, the study was conducted to understand the role of mount position & isolation on different vehicles.
Technical Paper

Agricultural Tractor Hydraulic Lift Arm Assembly Design for Durability and Correlation with Physical Test

2016-02-01
2016-28-0237
A hydraulic power train assembly of an agricultural tractor is meant to lift the heavy implements during field operations and transportation. As it is a crucial member of the tractor for its usage, so the power train assembly needs a properly designed lift arm, rocker arm assembly with better strength and stiffness. There are a standard like IS12224, IS4468 which regulates the test method for hydraulic power and lift capacity of tractor and the layout of hydraulic three point linkage. Computer aided engineering techniques followed by laboratory testing have been deployed in the earlier stages of the product design & development itself to deliver the first time right products to the customer. In this paper, a virtual simulation process has been established to design an agricultural tractor hydraulic lift arm to meet the above requirements. A Design Verification Plan (DVP) has been developed consisting of 3 load cases.