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Technical Paper

Occupant Controlled Ventilation

Keywords-Coolant,Ventilation Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective: Number of Occupants is the major parameter when we consider Air Conditioning System. The number of person who stays in the room may vary in the same way the person who travels in the automobile also vary throughout the distance. This is more prevalent in transportation system like bus, train and where lot of people will travel together and where dropping station in the vehicle is too frequent.In this type,operating A.C has to be varied Methodology: . Instead the number count in the vehicle will be monitored from time to time. Based on the number of count, the cabin has to be cooled or heated and accordingly corresponding power has to be drawn by the compressor from the engine. This human count can be detected based on the number of CO2 sensor located in the cabin. the amount of fresh air that should be added to a cabin can be controlled by a carbon dioxide level transmitter.
Technical Paper

Development of Methodology to Determine Toe Geometry of any Vehicle at Its Early Design Stage for Optimum Tyre Life

Toe setting is one of the major wheel alignment parameters which directly effects handling of a vehicle. Correct toe setting ensures desired dynamic behavior of an automobile like straight line stability, cornering behavior, handling and tire durability. Incorrect setting of toe during design stage significantly deteriorates tire durability and leads to uneven tire wear. In the present scenario of automotive industry, toe setting is majorly an iterative or a trial and error process which is both time consuming and involves higher development cost as there may be instances where 2 to 3 sets of iterations are needed before specification is finalized for production. Therefore, determining optimum toe setting at an early stage of a product development will not only save significant development time but it will also benefit in reducing product validation time and cost.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Elimination of Howling Noise in Compact Utility Vehicle

NVH is becoming one of the major factor for customer selection of vehicle along with parameters like fuel economy and drivability. One of the major NVH challenges is to have a vehicle with aggressive drivability and at the same time with acceptable noise and vibration levels. This paper focuses on the compact utility vehicle where the howling noise is occurring at higher rpm of the engine. The vehicle is powered by three cylinder turbocharged diesel engine. The noise levels were higher above 2500 rpm due to the presence of structural resonance. Operational deflection shapes (ODS) and Transfer path analysis (TPA) analysis was done on entire vehicle and powertrain to find out the major reason for howling noise at higher engine rpm. It is observed that the major contribution for noise at higher rpm is due to modal coupling between powertrain, half shaft and vehicle sub frame.
Journal Article

Acoustic Analysis of a Compact Muffler for Automotive Application

A production muffler of a 2.2 liter compression ignition engine is analyzed using plane wave (Transfer Matrix) method. The objective is to show the usefulness of plane wave models to analyze the acoustic performance (Transmission Loss, TL) of a compact hybrid muffler (made up of reactive and dissipative elements). The muffler consists of three chambers, two of which are acoustically short in the axial direction. The chambers are separated by an impervious baffle on the upstream side and a perforated plate on the downstream side. The first chamber is a Concentric Tube Resonator (CTR). The second chamber consists of an extended inlet and a flow reversal 180-degree curved outlet duct. The acoustic cavity in the third chamber is coupled with the second chamber through the acoustic impedances of the end plate and the perforated plate.
Technical Paper

Split Type Crankcase Design for a Single Cylinder LCV Diesel Engine

Serious efforts have been put in space to focus on lowering the fuel consumption and CO2 discharge to the environment from Automotive Diesel Engines. Though more focus is put on material up gradation approach on weight perspective, it is accompanied by undesirable cost increase and manufacturing complexity. As a part of development of a single cylinder engine for a light commercial vehicle application, a unique approach of integrated split type crankcase design is designed and developed. This design have addressed all the key factors on Weight, Cost and Manufacturing perspectives. The split type crankcase configuration, particularly middle-split configuration, integrates the oil sump, front cover and flywheel housing in a single unit beneficial from the point of view of reducing engine weight and thus reducing the manufacturing costs. This crankcase is also excellent from the serviceability point of view.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Performance of DPF Cell Structure for Soot Loading, Regeneration and Pressure Drop Using CFD Simulation

In recent times diesel powered vehicles are becoming popular due to improved performance and reduced exhaust emission with this the market share of diesel passenger cars expected to approach 60 % over the next few years. In compliance with future emission standards for diesel powered vehicles, it is required to use diesel particulate filters (DPF) along with other exhaust emission control devices. There is a need for more optimized DPF cell structure to collect maximum soot load with low pressure drop and improved exhaust performance from diesel vehicles in Indian driving conditions. In this thesis paper a detailed parametric study have been carried out on different DPF cell structures like Square, Hexagonal and combined cell geometry. The performances of different cell structure has been evaluated for maximum soot loading capacity and regeneration rate, pressure drop, temperature distribution across cell structure.
Technical Paper

Vibro-Acoustic Optimization of 4 Cylinder Diesel Engine Oil Pan Structure for Lower Sound Radiation.

By reducing overall noise emanating from Engine at design phase, permits to reduce both time-to-market and the cost for developing new engines. In order to reduce vibration and radiated noise in engine assembly, oil pan is one of the most critical components. This study explains the key-steps that are executed to optimize the oil pan design for 4-cylinder diesel engine by improving Normal Modes, modified Topology, reduced Forced Frequency Response and ATV analysis for reducing its noise radiation. Using Multi-body tool crankshaft forces were generated and the FE model of Base Design was analysed for its noise radiation and panel contribution was done for finding the most radiating panels using Boundary Element Method approach. A series of iterative optimization were carried out with commercial software. Parameters like Stiffness, material property, Ribbing patterns and Shape of the Oil pan was modified to shift the natural frequencies of the component and reduce the sound radiation.
Technical Paper

Sustainable Polyurethane Composite with Coconut Fiber for NVH Applications

With increasing growth of vehicular population, there is an increasing demand for raw materials. This has added strain to the available resources, which is becoming more and more unsustainable. As a result, search for sustainable materials are continuously happening in our industry and there is a strong focus from everyone to incorporate more and such materials. One way of doing so, is by blending naturally available materials like fibers, with polymers. In this study, naturally available Coconut fibers have been blended successfully with Polyurethane foam, thereby improving the green footprint of the vehicle. Coconut fibers are naturally occurring fiber extracted from the husk of the coconut. Polyurethane foam is the most versatile polymeric foam used in several places of automobile for reducing the Noise, Vibration & Harshness. The composite was manufactured using reaction injection molding technique by reacting polyol with iso-cyanide.
Technical Paper

Effect of Aluminum on Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Automotive Grade Gray Cast Iron

Mechanical and wear properties of Al alloyed gray cast iron (0.5% and 1.0%) were compared with that of Mo (1.0%) and Cu (0.77%) alloyed gray cast iron in this investigation. All the alloys showed pearlitic microstructure. The graphite morphology varied due to varying chemistry. The fracture surface showed “cabbage” like dimpled morphology indicating the predominant ductile fracture. It was found that the Mo containing cast iron show 25 to 30% higher strength and 6 to 7 times better wear resistance compared to Al containing cast irons. The worn surface showed oxide formation during sliding.
Technical Paper

Computational and Experimental Investigation of Different Bowl Geometries on a CRDi Engine to Improve NOx-PM Trade-Off and Fuel Efficiency

One of the major challenges for automotive industry today is to reduce tailpipe emission without compromising on fuel economy especially with the EURO 6, RDE, LEV III emissions and CO2 norms coming up. In case of diesel engines, with the emission norms becoming stringent more and more, it's difficult to improve tradeoff between NOx and PM emissions. After treatment systems give some edge in terms of tail pipe emission reduction but not on the cost, fuel economy and system simplicity front. For diesel engines the compression ratio and design of the bowl geometry plays a crucial role in controlling emission and CO2. The target was to achieve EURO 6 tailpipe emissions with minimum dependency on after treatment. With the target after treatment conversion efficiency the engine out targets were framed. A study of different bowl geometries were made that would help achieve this target of improving reduced engine out emissions.
Technical Paper

Study of Optimal Magnification for Retained Austenite Evaluation in Low carbon Case Hardening steel Using Metallurgical Microscopy

This study on optimum magnification at which Retained austenite to be evaluated by comparing the difference in determining the retained austenite in low carbon carburizing alloy steel using the optical metallurgical micrographic method and X-ray diffraction method. The retained austenite phase will be in surface and color is white in nature also its presented in between the martensite needles. It can be distinguished as separate micro-constituents by using image analyzing software. In another method the RA measurements were carried out on the surface by PROTO iXRD Retained austenite measuring system using Cr K radiation. The (211) and (200) reflections of Martensite and (220) and (200) reflections of Austenite were made for this estimation. However, the calculated values of retained austenite by metallurgical microscope in different magnifications are not identical.
Technical Paper

A Particle Swarm Optimization Tool for Decoupling Automotive Powertrain Torque Roll Axis

A typical powertrain mount design process starts with performing the system calculations to determine optimum mount parameters, viz. position, orientation and stiffness values to meet the desired NVH targets. Therefore, a 6 degrees of freedom lumped parameter system of powertrain and mounts is modelled in Matlab®. The approach is to decouple the torque roll axis mode from the remaining five rigid body modes so that the response to the torque pulses is predominantly ‘oscillations about Torque Roll Axis’. This is achieved by optimizing the above mount parameters within specified constraints so that ‘Rotation about the torque roll axis’ is one of the natural modes of vibration. The tool developed here uses ‘Particle Swarm Optimization(PSO) algorithm’ because of its ease of implementation and better convergence to the solution. The algorithm is programmed in TK solver®.
Technical Paper

Emission Optimization Approach to Meet the Current Indian Emission Norm Without EGR Cooling for a Vehicle Equipped with Common Rail Diesel Engine

In India, diesel engine powered vehicles are finding rising demand due to the subsidy offered on diesel. Currently, BS-IV emission norm (equivalent to E-IV in Europe) is in existence. To meet this emission norm, OEM look for improved engine design, use of common rail injection system, advanced after treatment. In the current article, a methodology is demonstrated by which the required emissions on multipurpose vehicle (MPV) powered with 2.2L common rail injection system was met with no need of EGR cooling. This was achieved by identifying the operating points from the BS-IV emission cycle where EGR cooling is beneficial. The next step involves assessing the loss of function due to its removal. The final step involves strategies which can bring the original optimized value of NOx-PM. Removal of EGR cooling avoids the cooling of intake charge and reduces the HC and CO emission. Also, it gets rid of complication in the under bonnet packaging and leads to maintenance free operation.
Technical Paper

Investigation on microstructure, mechanical and wear properties of alloyed gray cast iron for brake applications

The strength and wear resistance of four alloyed cast irons with elements like Ni. Mo, Cu, Cr and Al have been compared and analyzed. The increased hardness is reducing the wear resistance of the alloy due to graphite flakes. Higher carbon produces more graphite flakes which act as weak points for reducing strength and wear resistance. The wear rate increases for harder cast iron sample with more graphite flakes. Wear rate drastically increases with increase in carbon equivalent. Strength was found to decrease for samples with higher graphite flakes. The wear debris consisted of graphite flakes in platelet like morphology along with iron particles from the matrix. The presence of carbon at the sliding interface also sometimes decreases wear rate.
Technical Paper

Servomotor Controlled Standard Automated Manual Transmission for Rapid Smooth Shifts

Present day AMT unit uses two high pressure hydraulically operated pistons for select & shift operations which make the unit weigh around 8kg. Besides this it also makes the unit more complex & unreliable with a lot of torque interruption. The use of electrical servo motors steps in here as a better alternative as it provides a more precise and smoother shift. To test this we used a 5-MT Transmission. For the selection, a precise 14.5 degree of twisting was required which was easily achieved by the servo motor. Further, shift of 10.5mm could be made possible by using the motor to shift the rack using a pinion on the shaft. This system then essentially eliminates the whole hydraulic circuit, the housing of actuator pack & power pack making it a simpler unit all together. Thus, it offers an uninterrupted torque path from the engine to vehicle which allows for a seamless gearshift. This seminal paper provides an introduction to the technology together.
Technical Paper

Servomotor Controlled Standard Automated Manual Transmission for Rapid Smooth Shifts

Present day AMT unit uses two high pressure hydraulically operated pistons for select & shift operations which make the unit weigh around 8kg. Besides this it also makes the unit more complex & unreliable with a lot of torque interruption. The use of electrical servo motors steps in here as a better alternative as it provides a more precise and smoother shift. To test this we used a 5 Gear-Manual Transmission. For the selection, a precise 14.5 degree of twisting was required which was easily achieved by the servo motor. Further, shift of 10.5mm could be made possible by using the motor to shift the rack using a pinion on the shaft. This system then essentially eliminates the whole hydraulic circuit, the housing of actuator pack & power pack making it a simpler unit all together. A Motor is attached to the output shaft of the Transmission which drives in power while the AMT unit is making transition from one gear to another.
Technical Paper

A Development of Booming Index of Diesel SUV by using Artificial Neural Network

In today's competitive scenario, understanding mental modal map of individual customer perception plays a major role to create the brand image of vehicle. Among them “comfortable sound” is one of the important criteria for customer satisfaction, especially in case of diesel vehicle, where in-cab sound quality plays a crucial factor. Often customer perception concerning comfort in automotive industry relies on subjective comfort evaluation method. Converting the customer perception into objective measurements and to correlate them is often tough task for NVH engineers. It is because of human sensation behavior differs from persons to person, mental map, geographical location and domain knowledge. In addition acoustic & comfort relevant aspects are often subjectively evaluated based on jury trials conducted on the prototype vehicle and class competitive benchmark vehicles to get the feel & confidence of product for different gateways.
Technical Paper

Turbocharging a Small Two Cylinder DI Diesel Engine - Experiences in Improving the Power, Low End Torque and Specific Fuel Consumption

Turbocharged common rail direct injection engines offer multiple benefits compared to their naturally aspirated counterparts by allowing for a significant increase in the power and torque output, while simultaneously improving the specific fuel consumption and smoke. They also make it possible for the engine to operate at a leaner air/fuel mixture ratio, thereby reducing particulate matter emission and permitting higher EGR flow rates. In the present work, a two cylinder, naturally aspirated common rail injected engine for use on a load carrier platform has been fitted with a turbocharger for improving the power and torque output, so that the engine can be used in a vehicle with a higher kerb weight. The basic architecture and hardware remain unchanged between the naturally aspirated and turbocharged versions. A fixed geometry, waste gated turbocharger with intercooling is used.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Oil Sump for CI Engine

Recently fuel economy and stringent emission norms are the ever growing concern in automotive global scenario. So, automotive engineers are constantly seeking new cost effective methodologies and techniques to achieve considerable weight reduction and improved performance. Nowadays Automotive OEMs are using Aluminum Oil sump (which is a structured part of an engine and supports considerable amount of transmission housing weight) for better emission, reducing the engine height, engine weight and NVH levels. Our present work reveals the concept of ‘Hybrid oil sump’ which made by sheet metal and aluminum in such a way that weight and cost reduced by 20% and 30 % respectively, without compromising NVH and strength properties. Exactly it deals the iteration part of design to arrive the optimum model, various structural modifications since it carries considerable amount of weight of transmission.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Intercooler Efficiency as a Technique for Reducing Diesel Engine Emissions

As the emission targets are getting tighter, efforts are made to improve the emission by all possible means. This work emphasis the potential of intercooler to reduce exhaust gas emissions (CO, HC, NOx and PM). A detailed analysis of experimental results on emissions is presented. The effect of intercooler efficiency on emissions is explained. A multi-utility vehicle equipped with common rail diesel engine was tested in NEDC cycle in chassis dynamometer. Ideally the vehicle emission lab should replicate a flat straight road condition & natural airflow. To obtain the airflow a variable velocity fan is used. The velocity of air emerging from the fan and relative position of the fan with vehicle has a significant role in intercooler efficiency and hence on emissions. This work explains the exercise carried out to correlate the intercooler efficiency and exhaust emissions with fan position and velocity.