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Technical Paper

SMART HONKING

2019-11-21
2019-28-2463
Smart Honking Keywords-Safety, Connectivity, GPS M. Priyanka, Mahindra&Mahindra, India Sai Himaja Nadimpalli, Mahindra&Mahindra,India Keywords-Honking , Infotainment , GPS Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective: In India unnecessary vehicular honking is the main reason for noise pollution. The problem is worst at traffic signals where drivers start honking without waiting for the signal to turn green or for traffic to move. Drivers show no respect to the law that prohibits the use of horn at traffic signals and other silent zones such as areas near hospitals, schools, religious places and residential areas. Vehicular honking in cities has reached at an alarming level and contributes approximately 70% of the noise pollution in our environment.The unwanted sound can affect human health and behavior, causing annoyance, depression, hypertension, stress, hearing loss, memory loss and panic attacks.
Technical Paper

Occupant Controlled Ventilation

2019-11-21
2019-28-2461
Keywords-Coolant,Ventilation Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective: Number of Occupants is the major parameter when we consider Air Conditioning System. The number of person who stays in the room may vary in the same way the person who travels in the automobile also vary throughout the distance. This is more prevalent in transportation system like bus, train and where lot of people will travel together and where dropping station in the vehicle is too frequent.In this type,operating A.C has to be varied Methodology: . Instead the number count in the vehicle will be monitored from time to time. Based on the number of count, the cabin has to be cooled or heated and accordingly corresponding power has to be drawn by the compressor from the engine. This human count can be detected based on the number of CO2 sensor located in the cabin. the amount of fresh air that should be added to a cabin can be controlled by a carbon dioxide level transmitter.
Technical Paper

Effect of Gasoline-Ethanol blends on GDI engine to reduce cost of vehicle ownership

2019-11-21
2019-28-2379
A major challenge for combustion development is to optimize the engine for improved fuel economy, reduce greenhouse gases. Stringent CAFÉ and emission norms require the customer to pay higher capital on vehicles. To offset the cost of ownership- cheaper and alternative energy sources are being explored. Ethanol blend with regular Gasoline and CNG are such alternative fuels. The study was carried on turbo-charged gasoline direct injection engine. The effect of ethanol on engine and vehicle performance is estimated and simulated numerically. The work is split into three stages: first the base 1D engine performance model was calibrated to match the experimental data. In parallel, vehicle level Simulink model was built and calibrated to match the NEDC cycle performance. Second, the thermal efficiency of the ethanol blend is calculated as a linear function of theoretical Otto cycle efficiency.
Technical Paper

Steering and Handling Performance Optimization Through Correlation of Objective - Subjective Parameters and Multi-body Dynamics Simulation

2019-11-21
2019-28-2412
RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: Automobile Industry has driven through the ages with continuous development with innovative technologies and frugal engineering. Expectation of customer is also increasing through the generations. To meet the customer demand for performance and be best in market, OEM needs to deliver best performance of vehicle with cost effective and short development process. Steering and Handling of vehicle is one of major customer touchpoints and needs to be tuned to achieve various conflicting requirements. The objective of this research is to optimize the steering and handling using correlation between three major methods of evaluation. METHODOLOGY: Methodology for optimization of steering and handling performance using correlation between subjective evaluation, objective measurement and multi-body-dynamic simulation is presented.
Technical Paper

NEXT GENERATION POWER DISTRIBUTION UNIT IN WIRING HARNESS

2019-11-21
2019-28-2571
Keywords – Miniaturization, Low Profile (LP) Relays, Low Profile (LP) Fuses, Fuse box, Wiring Harness Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective With the exponential advancement in technological features of automobile’s EE architecture, designing of power distribution unit becomes complex and challenging. Due to the increase in the number of features, the overall weight of power distribution unit increases and thereby affecting the overall system cost and fuel economy. The scope of this document is to scale down the weight and space of the power distribution unit without compromising with the current performance. Methodology Miniaturization involves replacing the mini fuses and J-case fuses with LP mini and LP J-case fuses respectively. The transition doesn’t involve any tooling modification and hence saves the tooling cost.
Technical Paper

Implementation and Experimentation of Effective Clog Removal Method in Tractors for Enhanced Condenser Life and Air Conditioning Performance During Reaper Application

2019-10-11
2019-28-0015
Tractors in the field are exposed to adverse operating conditions and are surrounded by dust and dirt. The tiny, thin and sharp broken straw and husks surround the system in reaper operation. The tractors which are equipped with air conditioning system tend to show detrimental effects in cooling performance. The compressor trips frequently by excess pressure developed in the system due to condenser clogging and hence cooling performance is reduced considerably. The air conditioning performance reduces due to the clogged condenser located on the top roof compartment of operator’s cabin, which is better design than keeping in front of radiator where clogging happens every hour and customer need to stop the tractor to clean it with specific blower.
Technical Paper

Systematic Work Flow for Fatigue Life Prediction of Automotive Components

2019-10-11
2019-28-0021
Fatigue life estimation of automotive components is a critical requirement for product design and development. Automotive companies are under tremendous pressure to launch new vehicles within short duration because of customer’s changing preferences. There is a necessity to have a comprehensive virtual simulation and robust validation process to evaluate durability of vehicle as per customer usage. Test track and field test are two of the most time-consuming activities, so there is a need of simulation process to substitute these requirements. This paper summarizes the overall process of Accelerated Durability Test with measured road loads. Based on category of vehicle, type road profiles and the customer usage pattern, the wheel forces, strains and acceleration are measured which is used to derive the equivalent duty cycles on proving ground. The wheel force transducers (WFT) are used to derive loads for fatigue life estimation.
Technical Paper

Parametric Modelling & High-Fidelity Algorithms for Vehicle Weight Estimation for Optimized Concept Vehicle Architecture

2019-10-11
2019-28-0036
The concept definition phase of typical vehicle development focuses on the architecture definition and optimization based on different constraints/requirements. With the focus on Sustainability, the architecture optimization process must include “Light-weighting” as an optimization criterion. With only concept vehicle architecture available, the vehicle weight estimation becomes judgmental & inaccurate. This paper aims to address this deficiency with a new analytical approach for vehicle weight estimation. The new approach for vehicle weight estimation is a “bottom-up” approach using parametric models for each system weight with the inputs being the relevant vehicle specifications driving the system engineering. For size/shape-driven (rather than functional) systems, the models are content-based & segment-based. The parametric models are then iterated for multiple architecture concepts & specifications and the optimum concept (meeting all functional & business constraints) is chosen.
Technical Paper

Design of Energy Absorbing Plastic Brackets to Meet Rear Crash Regulation ECE R42

2019-10-11
2019-28-0041
Vehicle safety and adherence to rules and regulation is of utmost requirement for any OEM. ECE R42 is one of the most important test criteria for a vehicle to get launched. To prove this, we shall discuss the case of Low speed impact structure construction. In this paper, we are going to demonstrate the novel design of Polymer energy absorption structure to meet the rear bumper low speed impact test and ensure proper absorption of impact energy and avoid any damage to rear lamp of the vehicle. This paper shows a perfect example of sustainability with the help of complete modular construction of the frame structure. The proposed design uses a cost-effective way of assembling the physical part by comparing with benchmarking and within the Mahindra part library. The low speed impact structure is mounted directly to BIW panels without any extra foams. These frame structure are simple in design and rigid in construction by comparing with other OEM products and within all Mahindra vehicles.
Technical Paper

Design of Lightweight Composites for Vehicle Front End Energy Management of Bumper Beam

2019-10-11
2019-28-0085
Application of advance composites in place of the various conventional materials such as steel can give significant weight and performance advantages. The application of composites is now finding it’s way in the automotive industry due to the growing requirement of the lightweight solutions and high strength to weight ratio. However, their low mechanical properties have limited their application in automotive structural components. The study presented here is focused on the explicit dynamic analysis of a bumper beam and advance composites are used for the study. Different configurations and designs of the bumper are considered to be able to make a comparative study of the stress and deformation levels. The analysis was done in coherence to the Euro NCAP tests and the offset frontal impact analysis was done. The boundary conditions were aligned with the real time impact conditions for proper prediction of the results.
Technical Paper

Development of Methodology to Determine Toe Geometry of any Vehicle at Its Early Design Stage for Optimum Tyre Life

2019-10-11
2019-28-0105
Toe setting is one of the major wheel alignment parameters which directly effects handling of a vehicle. Correct toe setting ensures desired dynamic behavior of an automobile like straight line stability, cornering behavior, handling and tire durability. Incorrect setting of toe during design stage significantly deteriorates tire durability and leads to uneven tire wear. In the present scenario of automotive industry, toe setting is majorly an iterative or a trial and error process which is both time consuming and involves higher development cost as there may be instances where 2 to 3 sets of iterations are needed before specification is finalized for production. Therefore, determining optimum toe setting at an early stage of a product development will not only save significant development time but it will also benefit in reducing product validation time and cost.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Door Cutline Determination with Mathematical Modelling on CATIA V5

2019-10-11
2019-28-0107
Door shut-line definition is the first vital step in car body door engineering and depends on the hinge position, hinge shape, manufacturing capabilities and other parameters. In the design process, once the hinge axis definition is finalized door shut-line is defined which should satisfy two major requirements. The requirements are clearance between the door outer surface with its surrounding components (like hinges, fender, other door etc.) and assembly feasibility. Another one is the manufacturability of the proposed design. The above conditions must be checked on different locations of the door as well as w.r.t different openings of the door. The paper presents a mathematical model to determine the door shut-line position with great computational efficiency. This method propounds closure engineer with parameters to define the shut line rather than going for cumbersome manual iterative process.
Technical Paper

A Study on Door Clips and Their Influence on BSR Performance

2019-06-05
2019-01-1468
Squeak and rattle concerns account for approximately 10% of overall vehicle Things Gone Wrong (TGW) and are major quality concern for automotive OEM’s. Objectionable door noises are one of the top 10 IQS concerns under any OEM nameplate. Door trim significantly contributes to overall BSR quality perception. Door trim is mounted on door in white using small plastic clips with variable properties that can significantly influence BSR performance. In this paper, the performance of various door clips is evaluated through objective parameters like interface dynamic stiffness and system damping. The methodology involves a simple dynamic system for the evaluation of the performance of a clip design. Transmissibility is calculated from the dynamic response of a mass supported by clip. Parameters such as interface stiffness and system damping are extracted for each clip design. Variation of inner panel thickness is also considered when comparing clip performance.
Technical Paper

Understanding the Stick Slip Behavior of Plastics and Target Setting: An OEM Perspective

2019-06-05
2019-01-1465
Automotive OEMs are aggressively using different materials for interiors due to value proposition and variety of options available for customers in market. Excessive usage of different grade plastics with zero gap philosophy can cause stick slip effect leading to squeak noise. Even though systems and subsystems are designed using best practices of structural design and manufacturing tolerances, extreme environmental conditions can induce contacts leading to squeak noise. Appropriate selection of interface material pairs can minimize the possibilities of squeak conditions. Stick-slip behavior of different plastics is discussed in the present study, along with critical parameters during material compatibility testing in a tribological test stand. Friction coefficient of different material pairs for a defined normal load and sliding velocity are analyzed for patterns to recognize squeaks versus time.
Technical Paper

Study of Energy Absorbing Front Cabin Mount, Its Stiffness Balance with Chassis and Test Correlation in Frontal Impact of Commercial Vehicle Cabin

2019-04-02
2019-01-1034
During design and development of a cabin for any commercial vehicle, meeting the strength requirements of front impact as per Indian regulation (AIS-029) is a very critical milestone. AIS-029 regulation consists of three destructive tests, i.e. Front Impact Test (Test A), Roof Strength (Test B) and Rear Wall Strength (Test C). Study of energy absorbing front cabin mount, its stiffness balance with chassis and CAE correlation with physical test is demonstrated in this study. [1]
Technical Paper

Durability of Customer Perceived Quality of Molded-in-Color Car Bumper

2019-01-09
2019-26-0319
Customer perceived quality (CPQ) of the car is the impression of excellence that a customer experiences the brand through sight, sound, touch, and scent. Molded-in-color (MIC) bumper’s aesthetic appeal contributes significantly to the CPQ of the car. Typical parameters used to define CPQ are color, gloss, grain definition, grain depth, geometry and draft. In this work the durability of the color and gloss post ageing is understood by using analytical and characterization tools. Using the results of ageing characterization, an attempt has been made to understand the retained newness of MIC bumper.
Technical Paper

Methodology to Determine Optimum Suspension Hard Points at an Early Design Stage for Achieving Steering Returnability in Any Vehicle

2019-01-09
2019-26-0074
Steering returnability while driving is one of the most important parameter which affects the drive pleasure and handling of a vehicle. Steering returnability refers to the automatic returning response of the steering wheel after taking a full turn while vehicle is being steered during driving. Evaluating steering response characteristics of any vehicle in a virtual environment at early stage of a product development saves significant development time and cost. Through this paper an attempt has been made to develop a methodology for selection of suspension hard points which influences steering returnability characteristics of a vehicle at an early product design stage. Conventionally, suspension kinematic parameters such as Caster angle, Steering axis inclination (SAI), etc. are iterated during vehicle design stage to achieve desired Steering returnability.
Technical Paper

Alternate Manufacturing Process for Automotive Input Shafts

2017-10-13
2017-01-5013
The input shafts are conventionally developed through Hot forging route. Considering upcoming new technologies the same part was developed through cold forging route which resulting in better Mechanical properties than existing hot forging process. It has added benefit of cost as well as environmental friendly. Generally, the part like Input shaft which having gear teeth, splines etc., will be manufactured through Hot forging process due to degree of deformation, availability of press capacity, diameter variations etc., This process consumes more energy in terms of electricity for heating the bar and also creates pollution to the atmosphere. Automotive input shaft design modified to accommodate cold forging process route to develop the shaft with press capacity of 2500T which gives considerable benefit in terms of mechanical and metallurgical Properties, close dimensional tolerances, less machining time, higher material yield when compared to hot forging and metal cutting operation.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Driveline Boom Noise and Vibration of 40 Seat Bus through Structural Optimization

2017-07-10
2017-28-1926
In today’s automotive scenario, noise vibration and harshness (NVH) has become a synonym for quality perception. This paper evaluates the problem of vibration and noise experienced in M2 category 40 seat bus and suggests the counter measures. Severe vibration is experienced on the bus floor, predominantly towards rear part of the bus. Vibration along with acoustic boom occurs prominently in 4th gear wide open throttle operating condition between 1300-1600 rpm of the engine. This paper focuses on reducing NVH levels by working on the transfer path with little modifications on power-train. Preliminary torsional measurements conducted on powertrain indicated high torsional excitation in the driveline during the problematic rpm zone. Further, Operational Deflection Shape (ODS) analysis revealed that the transfer path to the cabin is rear differential unit and suspension links. The dominant frequencies were identified along the transfer path and suitable modifications were done.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Analysis of a Tractor Muffler

2017-06-05
2017-01-1791
Parametric model of a production hybrid (made up of reactive and dissipative elements) muffler for tractor engine is developed to compute the acoustic Transmission Loss (TL). The objective is to simplify complex muffler acoustic simulations without any loss of accuracy, robustness and usability so that it is accessible to all product development engineers and designers. The parametric model is a 3D Finite Element Method (FEM) based built in COMSOL model builder which is then converted into a user-friendly application (App) using COMSOL App builder. The uniqueness of the App lies in its ability to handle not only wide range of parametric variations but also variations in the physics and boundary conditions. This enables designers to explore various design options in the early design phase without the need to have deep expertise in a specific simulation tool nor in numerical acoustic modeling.
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