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Technical Paper

Spot Weld Fatigue Correlation Improvement in Automotive Structures Using Stress Based Approach with Contact Modelling

2020-04-14
2020-01-0182
In automotive Body-In-White (BIW) structures, stiffness and the fatigue behavior is greatly influenced by the properties of its joints. Spot welding is one of the most widely used process for joining of sheet metals in BIW. Spot weld fatigue life under Accelerated Durability Test (ADT) is crucial for durability performance of BIW structures. Experience of BIW validations highlighted more number of spot weld failures in CAE when compared to actual tests. Hence, lot of iterations in the form of design modifications are required to be carried out to make these spot welds meet the targets which increases design & development time as well as cost. Current practice uses force-based approach for predicting spot weld fatigue life in CAE. To improve the spot weld fatigue life correlation, extensive study has been carried out on the approaches used for calculating spot weld fatigue life, namely force & stress-based approaches.
Technical Paper

Mitigation for Edge Corrosion Protection for Automotive Bodies

2019-11-21
2019-28-2561
A major challenge to automotive industry is to protect the vehicle from corrosion in varying environments with respect to different service conditions. One of the main types of corrosion that affects aesthetic look is edge corrosion on sheet metal. Mostly edge is acting as starting point of corrosion due to unprotected metal exposed to environment. Special attention needs to be given to exposed edges to protect from rust formation. Samples were prepared as per design of experiments with respect to manufacturing process condition, material usage, and design. These samples were tested for corrosion test and painting process compatibility. In this study effect and limitation of burr and optimum solution with respect to corrosion was evaluated and results will be discussed.
Technical Paper

High Durable PU Metallic Monocoat System for Tractor Sheet Metal Application

2019-11-21
2019-28-2541
In sheet metal painting for various applications like tractor and automobiles, most attractive coating is metallic paints. It is widely applied using 3 coat 2 bake or 3 coat 1 bake technology. Both options, results in high energy consumption, higher production through put time and lower productivity in manufacturing process. During various brainstorming and sustainability initiatives, paint application process was identified to reduce burden on environment and save energy. Various other industry benchmarking and field performance requirement studies helped to identify critical quality parameters. There was collaboration with supplier to develop monocoat system without compromising any performance and aesthetic properties. This resulted in achieving better productivity, elimination of two paint layers, substantial reduction in volatile organic content, elimination of one baking cycle and energy saving.
Technical Paper

Design of Light Weight Footstep Using Continuous Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics

2019-10-11
2019-28-0172
Utility or Off-road vehicles are characterized with their higher ground clearances. Higher ground clearance of vehicle requires the vehicle to have footsteps for easy entry and exit of passengers from the vehicle. A typical foot step construction consists of structural steel brackets with an Aluminum or plastic top panel. Conventional steel construction is heavier to meet weight bearing capacity and durability requirements. Our objective of this work is to explore lightweight materials which can meet these performance requirements with a lighter construction. We chose to study the continuous glass fiber reinforced plastic as an alternative to the metal construction.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Piston Skirt Profile Design to Eliminate Scuffing and Seizure in a Water Cooled Gasoline Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-1726
Piston is a critical component of the engine as it exposed to high inertial and thermal loads. With the advent of high performance engines, the requirement of the piston to perform in extreme conditions have become quintessential. Piston scuffing is a common engine problem where there is a significant material loss at the piston and the liner, which could drastically affect the performance and the longevity of the components. This detrimental phenomenon would occur if the piston is not properly designed taking into consideration the thermal and structural intricacies of the engine. A water-cooled gasoline engine which had significant wear pattern on its piston skirt and liner was considered for this study. The engine block was made of aluminum alloy with a cast iron sleeve acting as liner. The piston-liner system was simulated through a commercially available numerical code which could capture the piston's primary and secondary motion.
Technical Paper

Effect of Aluminum on Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Automotive Grade Gray Cast Iron

2015-01-14
2015-26-0066
Mechanical and wear properties of Al alloyed gray cast iron (0.5% and 1.0%) were compared with that of Mo (1.0%) and Cu (0.77%) alloyed gray cast iron in this investigation. All the alloys showed pearlitic microstructure. The graphite morphology varied due to varying chemistry. The fracture surface showed “cabbage” like dimpled morphology indicating the predominant ductile fracture. It was found that the Mo containing cast iron show 25 to 30% higher strength and 6 to 7 times better wear resistance compared to Al containing cast irons. The worn surface showed oxide formation during sliding.
Technical Paper

Study of Optimal Magnification for Retained Austenite Evaluation in Low carbon Case Hardening steel Using Metallurgical Microscopy

2014-04-01
2014-01-1017
This study on optimum magnification at which Retained austenite to be evaluated by comparing the difference in determining the retained austenite in low carbon carburizing alloy steel using the optical metallurgical micrographic method and X-ray diffraction method. The retained austenite phase will be in surface and color is white in nature also its presented in between the martensite needles. It can be distinguished as separate micro-constituents by using image analyzing software. In another method the RA measurements were carried out on the surface by PROTO iXRD Retained austenite measuring system using Cr K radiation. The (211) and (200) reflections of Martensite and (220) and (200) reflections of Austenite were made for this estimation. However, the calculated values of retained austenite by metallurgical microscope in different magnifications are not identical.
Technical Paper

Investigation on microstructure, mechanical and wear properties of alloyed gray cast iron for brake applications

2013-11-27
2013-01-2881
The strength and wear resistance of four alloyed cast irons with elements like Ni. Mo, Cu, Cr and Al have been compared and analyzed. The increased hardness is reducing the wear resistance of the alloy due to graphite flakes. Higher carbon produces more graphite flakes which act as weak points for reducing strength and wear resistance. The wear rate increases for harder cast iron sample with more graphite flakes. Wear rate drastically increases with increase in carbon equivalent. Strength was found to decrease for samples with higher graphite flakes. The wear debris consisted of graphite flakes in platelet like morphology along with iron particles from the matrix. The presence of carbon at the sliding interface also sometimes decreases wear rate.
Technical Paper

Weight Reduction of Shifter Forks using Steel Inserts

2013-09-24
2013-01-2444
Shift quality of a manual transmission is a critical characteristic that is requires utmost care by the designers while structuring the transmission. Shift quality is affected by many factors viz. synchronizer design, shift fork design, shifter design, gear design, transmission oil selection etc. Designers have realized that shift fork is critical element for improving shift feel of a transmission. This paper focuses upon the reduction in weight of the overall transmission shift system by using steel inserts in aluminum shifter forks. No compromise on the stiffness and strength of the shift fork of a manual transmission is done. Stiffness and strength of shifter fork is optimized using contact pattern analysis and stiffness analysis on MSC Nastran. All the subsystem (i.e. synchronizer and the shift system component) are constrained to optimize the shift fork stiffness. A 5-speed manual transmission is used as an example to illustrate the same.
Technical Paper

New Trends of Material & Heat Treatment in Automotive Transmission Shaft

2013-09-24
2013-01-2446
This paper deals with new trends in materials & heat treatment in automotive transmission shafting. The material is S48C a low carbon alloy steel and material for automotive shaft special significance as it reduces overall cost in vehicle transmission shafts. Conventional method of shaft heat heat-treatment is case hardening for 20MnCr5. S48C is low-carbon alloy steel. This is an alternate proposal to 20MnCr5.There are lot of advantages in induction hardening over case hardening. Also induction hardening process with S48C material becomes cheaper than case-hardening with 20MnCr5.Strength and resistance to stress must therefore be carefully considered during the material selection and heat-treatment process. We have done Static torsion test for 20MnCr5 (case hardened steel) and S48C (induction hardened shaft). Test results were comparable with 20MnCr5 (case hardened steel). Also after test a metallurgical inspection was done on an S48C (induction hardened shaft).
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