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Technical Paper

Determination of Principal Variables for Prediction of Fuel Economy using Principal Component Analysis

2019-01-09
2019-26-0359
The complexity of Urban driving conditions and the human behavior introduces undesired variabilities while establishing Fuel economy for a vehicle. These variabilities pose a great challenge while trying to determine that single figure for assessment of vehicle’s fuel efficiency on an urban driving cycle. This becomes even more challenging when two or more vehicles are simultaneously evaluated with respect to a reference vehicle. The attempt to fit a generalized linear model, between Fuel Economy as predicted variable and components of a driving cycle as predictor variables produced oxymoronic and counter-institutive results. This is primarily due to existence of multi-collinearity among the predictor variables. The context of the study is to consider the event of driving on a cycle as a random sampling experiment. The outcome of a driving cycle is summarized into a list of predictor variables or components.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Analysis of Turbocharger for a High Power Density Diesel Engine

2019-01-09
2019-26-0051
Passenger cars claim their presence in market by its pick up, top speed and maximum power of the engine. The study described in this paper is focused on improving the low-end performance of a 4-cylinder 1.6 L diesel engine while meeting the targeted maximum power. To meet the cause turbocharger works as an important element of the engine. A comparative study between regulated two stage turbocharger (R2S) and variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) shows that on a 4-cylinder engine VGT is superior by providing higher boost at 1000 engine rpm full load, than R2S, while in 3-cylinder (same displacement) the opposite effect can be seen. After simulations and iterations, it was confirmed that the in 4-cylinder the exhaust pulse cancellation were leading to a lesser exhaust energy at the turbine inlet. This pulse interaction leads to higher residual gas content which affects the low-end performance.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Oil Separation Unit for Two Stage Turbocharged Engine

2018-07-09
2018-28-0066
In addition to performance target, recent stringent emission legislation and reduction in oil consumption are the major driving force for engine design and development. In this reference importance of crankcase ventilation has increased immensely and the manufacturers are bound to develop most efficient system with high oil trap efficiency. In crankcase ventilation system, the blow-by gases from the crankcase are routed to the intake manifold through Oil separator system. The oil separator task is to retain the oil part from the blow by gas and send it back to sump. Developing an oil separator for the engine studied here was very challenging considering double stage turbocharger which produces very fine mist of oil and is difficult to separate. The study shows that oil mist coming in blow by is of size 0.3 micron and lesser than it. The major contribution of these fine mists was from turbocharger.
Technical Paper

Development of Low Cost FEAD System with Stretch Fit Belt

2018-07-09
2018-28-0064
In Current scenario all Vehicle Manufacturer are looking towards cost effectiveness in their product development without compromising product quality and performance. With this reference, development of low cost FEAD (Front End Accessory Drive) system with stretch fit belt & idlers for multiple accessories has emerged as one of the alternative smart engineering solution against the FEAD with auto tensioner. The beauty of this low cost FEAD system is not only the cost saving but also the long lasting performance without affecting component life. In the current work, development of a low cost FEAD for 3 cylinder 1.5 litre diesel engine has been presented. It was one of the challenges to introduce stretch fit belt for 3 cylinder engine considering the high torsional vibration. The performance of this FEAD system was evaluated in terms of accessories pulley slip and belt flapping. The component durability was assessed both at engine as well as at vehicle level.
Technical Paper

Comparative Studies of Different VGT Designs on Performance and Smoke of CRDe Engine

2018-07-09
2018-28-0074
Diesel engines have occupied a significant position in passenger car applications in the present automotive sector. Turbochargers find a very prominent role in diesel engines of all applications in order to achieve desired power and better fuel economy. Gaining higher torque at lower engine speeds with low smoke levels is a very tough task with fixed geometry turbochargers due to availability of lower air mass resulting in higher smoke emissions. Variable geometry turbochargers are capable of providing better torque at lower speeds and reduced smoke emissions on Common Rail Diesel engines. The Variable Geometry Turbocharger types used in this study are straight profile nozzle vanes (sample A) and curved profile nozzle vanes (sample B). The curved profile vanes as seen in sample B results in reduced variation of circumferential pressure distortions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Friction Reduction by Reducing Piston Ring Pre-Load

2018-07-09
2018-28-0101
The prime objective of this study is to check the friction reduction by reducing the tangential load of the piston ring. To examine this experimental study has been carried out under motored engine condition from 500 to 4000 engine speed at the step of 500 rpm at different oil temperatures ranging from 40 °C to 120 °C. 15 W40 oil was used for this study. Standard Strip down approach was followed in accessing the Friction. The whole friction measurement was split in crank train and piston group friction and was measured with base and modified piston ring pack. The modified piston ring pack was having 24% less ring tension as compared to base ring pack. The study was carried out using block, crankshaft & Piston of 100 hp, 1.5 litre, 3 cylinder engine with 92 mm stroke and 83 mm bore. In each test ring pack was tested as a part of complete piston assembly.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Failure Analysis of Diesel Engine Connecting Rod

2018-07-09
2018-28-0067
Connecting rod of a high performance reciprocating internal combustion engine is one of the critical components exhibiting complex motion. This is subjected to both compressive load due to combustion force as well as tensile load due to inertia of the moving components. These loadings are cyclic in nature and the component is highly prone to fatigue failure if not deigned or manufactured carefully. Therefore connecting rods are designed and manufactured with high degree of precision for infinite loading cycle. But failures in connecting rod is often reported which is associated to either fatigue, bending, bearing failure or assembly faults. This study deals with one of such failure of connecting rod reported during fatigue testing. Failures occurred at around 1 million fatigue loading cycle as against target life of 5 million cycles. The present study represents the investigations done for engine connecting rod and with a view to identify the root cause of failure.
Technical Paper

Application of Reliability Technique for Developing a Test Methodology to Validate the Engine Mounted Components for Off-Road Applications under Vibration

2017-09-29
2017-01-7004
Vibrational fatigue is a metal fatigue caused by the forced vibrations which are purely random in nature. The phenomenon is predominantly important for the components/systems which are subjected to extreme vibration during its operation. In a vehicle, an engine is the main source of vibration. The vibrational fatigue, therefore, plays a key role in the deterioration of engine mounted components. Multiple test standards and methodologies are available for validating engine mounted parts of an automobile. These might not be appropriate in the case of an off- road vehicle as the vibrational exposure of engine mounted components of an off-road vehicle is entirely different. In the case of an off-road vehicle, the engine mounted components are subjected to a comparatively higher level of vibration for a longer duration of time as compared to the passenger cars.
Technical Paper

Low Rolling Resistance Tires and Their Impact on Electric Vehicles

2017-07-10
2017-28-1941
This paper details the methodology used to show the importance of Low rolling resistance tires in Electric Vehicles. Fuel efficiency and range is paramount with most of the electric vehicle buyers. Although many people are now becoming aware of low rolling resistance tires but its development started way back in 1990’s. It is always challenging to achieve low rolling resistance in smaller tires of size 12 inch or 13 inch along meeting the other critical vehicle parameters such as ride and handling, NVH, durability and many more. The reduction in rolling resistance can also affect the traction properties of tires. In case of very low rolling resistance tires the traction will be very less but it can badly affect the other vehicle parameters. Selection of tires further depend upon the RWUP (Real World Usage Profile). It means the vehicle is targeted for which region and what is the condition of roads there.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Cabin Leakage on Thermal Comfort and Fuel Efficiency of an SUV

2016-04-05
2016-01-0259
The main function of an air conditioning system in a vehicle is to provide the thermal comfort to the occupant at minimum possible energy consumption in all environmental conditions. To ensure the best possible thermal comfort, air conditioning system is optimized on various parameters like heat load, air flow distribution, glass area, trim quality, insulations and cabin leak rate. A minimum cabin leakage is regulatory requirements to ensure the air quality of cabin. Anything above the minimum cabin leak rate ultimately turn into reduced thermal comfort and additional energy consumption. The additional energy consumption to maintain the required thermal comfort in the cabin due to cabin leakage affects the fuel efficiency severely. In the present study, the effect of cabin leakage on fuel efficiency and thermal comfort is studied in details by varying the cabin leakage through mechanical means. The experiments are carried out in normal environmental condition and road condition.
Technical Paper

Cost and Weight Efficient Differential Housing for Off-Road Vehicles

2016-02-01
2016-28-0133
Differential in Gear Box play vital role in Tractors for assisting it in turning and also to take straight path. Light weight machine always have advantage in terms of fuel economy and performance. Weight optimized rotating part have additional benefits of saving power loss, against stationary dead weight. Differential Housing is such a part, which rotates during the vehicle motion and torque transmission. [1] This paper describes a method by which weight of the Differential Housing is optimized. In this particular body of work, additional constraints of avoiding any change in existing cold forged parts like Bevel Gear & Pinion. This also have additional benefit of enhanced flow of Oil inside Differential Housing for better lubrication of Bevel Gears and Pinion. This resulted in weight saving of Differential Housing and finally fuel economy of Tractor.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Vehicle Electrical Energy Consumption

2015-09-29
2015-01-2882
This paper focuses on optimizing the electrical energy consumption of vehicle. By introduction three concepts. 1) Innovative speed control logic for radiator fan motor according to vehicle speed and air flow through radiator. 2) Introducing regeneration of energy from radiator fan motor while free running and deceleration of vehicle. 3) Using BLDC motors (generation mode and motoring mode) in radiator and blower motors. About 50 % of total electrical energy consumption of vehicle is contributed by radiator fan motor and blower motor (proven data by performing alternator charge balance test during NEDC cycle). By introducing above three concepts, 50 % electrical energy consumption can be reduced to 25 - 30 %, which gives more than 3.5 % fuel economy improvement and more than 10 gmCO2 reduction per kilometer. Further reduction in conducted emission at motor level, soft starting for radiator fan and blower motor and elimination of high inrush current.
Technical Paper

Vinyl Ester Based SMC Material for Automotive Oil Sump Application

2015-04-14
2015-01-0718
This paper describes vinyl ester based SMC (Sheet molding composite) material for oil sump part in automotive application. This sheet moulding composite is a ready to mould glass-fibre reinforced vinyl ester material primarily used in compression moulding process. This vinyl ester resin is compounded with glass fibre to meet the product functional requirements. Oil sump is a structural component under bonnet that forms the bottommost part of the crankcase and also contain the engine oil before and after it has been circulated through the engine. Generally, metals are preferred material for this application. In this paper, fibre filled vinyl ester based thermoset resin (SMC) material has been explored for oil sump application. They possess excellent properties in terms of tensile strength, modulus, impact strength, dimensional stability, high/low temperature resistance and oil resistance.
Technical Paper

Sealing Prediction and Improvement at Cylinder Head & Block Interface under Thermo-Mechanical Loading involving Multi- Layer Steel Gasket

2015-04-14
2015-01-1743
An inadequate sealing of the combustion chamber gasket interface may have severe consequences on both the performance & emission of an engine. In this investigation, both the distribution of the contact pressure on the gasket and the stresses of the cylinder head at different loading conditions are explored and improved by modifying the design. A single cylinder gasoline engine cylinder head assembly has been analyzed by means of an uncoupled FEM simulation to find the sealing pressure of the multi-layer steel (MLS) gasket, strength & deformation of the components involved. The thermal loads are computed separately from CFD simulations of cylinder head assembly. The cylinder head assembly consisting of head, blocks, liner, cam shaft holder, bolts, gaskets, valve guides & valve seats, is one of the most complicated sub-assembly of an IC engine.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the Dynamic Behaviour of Gasoline Engine to Reduce Valve Train Noise

2015-01-14
2015-26-0132
High fuel efficiency, low ownership/ maintenance cost and favorable driving climate are the major reasons for the increasing demand for low-power commuter motorcycles and scooters, particularly in developing countries like India, Brazil and China. Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) has now become a new subject for the battle between competing manufacturers in attracting customers. Valvetrain noise is quite significant in the engines of these cost gasoline vehicles as they don't incorporate a Hydraulic Lash Adjuster (HLA) to keep the manufacturing costs less. The aim of this study was to understand how the cam ramp velocity and height affects the noise generated by the engine and what effect they have on its performance.For this study, a small scooter gasoline engine with an Over Head Camshaft (OHC) and a rocker arrangement with a roller-follower was considered. A commercially available numerical code was used to simulate the kinematic and dynamic behaviour of the valvetrain system.
Technical Paper

Design For Affordability -Composite Running Board

2015-01-14
2015-26-0070
Light weighting is the Current trends in automotive to achieve better fuel economy which helps for meeting fuel economy standards & to offset the higher fuel prices. Thus there is a need to develop composite running board which is light weight & structurally sound enough to meet the performance. The present paper provides a composite running board assembly for an automobile. The running board assembly includes a board, an insert body and a plurality of brackets. Upon stepping of a passenger on the board, the board transfers load on the insert body which subsequently transfers the load to the plurality of brackets thus facilitating even distribution of the load on the automobile body. This paper also put lights on the use of improved TRIZ application - an approach to inventive problem solving for designing highly affordable & light weight running board. The cost & weight reduction achieved with innovative design is about 40 % & 35 % comparing to existing cost & weight.
Technical Paper

Computational and Experimental Investigations to Improve Performance, Emissions and Fuel Efficiency of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

2015-01-14
2015-26-0099
From International Energy Statistics (IES) survey, China, US and India are top three countries in emitting CO2 emissions. Further, worldwide national governments are focused to control CO2 emissions at source by stringent regulatory limits. OEMs and Research laboratories are working on several technology options such as advanced fuel injection system, optimizing in cylinder combustion system, thermal management and reduced engine friction to meet this legal requirements. In this paper, research work focused on improving combustion system through selection optimum bowl geometry and increasing volumetric efficiency through valve timings, profile and intake system using both 1D and 3D-CFD numerical approach. The main objective of this approach to utilize fossil fuel to its maximum potential in a single cylinder Naturally Aspirated (NA) water cooled engine with CRDI.
Journal Article

An Experimental Study of Turbocharged Hydrogen Fuelled Internal Combustion Engine

2015-01-14
2015-26-0051
Hydrogen is considered as one of the potential alternate fuel and when compared to other alternate fuels like CNG, LPG, Ethanol etc., it has unique properties due to absence of carbon. In the current work, Hydrogen engine of 2.5 L, four cylinder, spark ignited Turbocharged-Intercooled engine is developed for Mini Bus application. Multi-point fuel injection system is used for injecting the hydrogen in the intake manifold. Initially, boost simulation is performed to select the optimum compression ratio and turbocharger. The literature review has shown that in-order to get the minimum NOx emissions Hydrogen engines must be operated between equivalence ratios ranging from 0.5 to 0.6. In the present study, full throttle performance is conducted mainly with the above equivalence ratio range with minimum advance for Maximum Brake Torque (MBT) ignition timing. At each operating point, the performance, emissions and combustion parameters are recorded and analyzed in detail.
Technical Paper

Development & Customization of Test Cases for Start-stop Functionality to Achieve On-road Robustness

2013-11-27
2013-01-2875
The Micro-hybrid technology otherwise called as stop start system offers a significant improvement in fuel economy particularly in urban driving conditions, where more often the engine idles unnecessarily at traffic signals/jams. Micro-hybrid technology stops the engine at traffic signals/jams and starts the engine automatically on clearance of traffic signals/jams leading to reduced fuel consumption and emissions. This is achieved by monitoring several vehicle and engine parameters through appropriate sensing elements. In this study, the system architecture and functional definitions of start/stop system is defined. Equivalence class, boundary value and decision-table testing are used to generate test cases. On generation of test cases, their relevance on on-road robustness and scope for optimization towards time/efforts are analyzed. In the process, a matrix of different conditions and criteria are formulated. Under these conditions, the system behavior is evaluated.
Technical Paper

Effects of Governing Parameters on the Performance and Emissions of Hydrogen Engine for Automotive Application

2013-11-27
2013-01-2891
This report describes work performed jointly by Mahindra & Mahindra and IIT Delhi, including both simulations and single-cylinder engine development for three wheeler application, to quantify the effects of various parameters on the performance and NOx emission of an internal combustion engine fuelled by hydrogen. AVL Boost software was used to simulate the experimental conditions, by using Vibe 2-Zone combustion and Woschni heat models, together with kinetic equations for emission calculations. Developed AVL Boost Model was validated against the test result from a modified single cylinder CNG engine for three wheeler application fuelled with Hydrogen by comparing the performance and NOx emission at the same operating conditions. A good agreement was obtained between the results of the Boost Model and Experimental results.
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