Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Determination of Principal Variables for Prediction of Fuel Economy using Principal Component Analysis

2019-01-09
2019-26-0359
The complexity of Urban driving conditions and the human behavior introduces undesired variabilities while establishing Fuel economy for a vehicle. These variabilities pose a great challenge while trying to determine that single figure for assessment of vehicle’s fuel efficiency on an urban driving cycle. This becomes even more challenging when two or more vehicles are simultaneously evaluated with respect to a reference vehicle. The attempt to fit a generalized linear model, between Fuel Economy as predicted variable and components of a driving cycle as predictor variables produced oxymoronic and counter-institutive results. This is primarily due to existence of multi-collinearity among the predictor variables. The context of the study is to consider the event of driving on a cycle as a random sampling experiment. The outcome of a driving cycle is summarized into a list of predictor variables or components.
Technical Paper

Optimisation of Scooter Frame for Target Life on 2-Poster Rig with Virtual Simulation

2019-01-09
2019-26-0307
Vehicle frame evaluation at early stages of product development cycle is essential to reduce product turnaround time to market. In conventional approach of virtual validation it is required to evaluate the strength of the vehicle structure to account for the standard Service Load Analysis (SLA) loading conditions. But this paper describes on the strength analysis of scooter frame with derivation of critical static load cases. The critical load cases are extracted from the load-time history while the vehicle was simulated on durability virtual test rigs which is equivalent to proving ground tests. This methodology gives the better accuracy in prediction of stress levels and avoids the overdesign of components based on traditional validation technique. There is significant drop in stress levels using the critical load case approach as compared to conventional load case method.
Technical Paper

Development of Low Cost FEAD System with Stretch Fit Belt

2018-07-09
2018-28-0064
In Current scenario all Vehicle Manufacturer are looking towards cost effectiveness in their product development without compromising product quality and performance. With this reference, development of low cost FEAD (Front End Accessory Drive) system with stretch fit belt & idlers for multiple accessories has emerged as one of the alternative smart engineering solution against the FEAD with auto tensioner. The beauty of this low cost FEAD system is not only the cost saving but also the long lasting performance without affecting component life. In the current work, development of a low cost FEAD for 3 cylinder 1.5 litre diesel engine has been presented. It was one of the challenges to introduce stretch fit belt for 3 cylinder engine considering the high torsional vibration. The performance of this FEAD system was evaluated in terms of accessories pulley slip and belt flapping. The component durability was assessed both at engine as well as at vehicle level.
Technical Paper

Comparative Studies of Different VGT Designs on Performance and Smoke of CRDe Engine

2018-07-09
2018-28-0074
Diesel engines have occupied a significant position in passenger car applications in the present automotive sector. Turbochargers find a very prominent role in diesel engines of all applications in order to achieve desired power and better fuel economy. Gaining higher torque at lower engine speeds with low smoke levels is a very tough task with fixed geometry turbochargers due to availability of lower air mass resulting in higher smoke emissions. Variable geometry turbochargers are capable of providing better torque at lower speeds and reduced smoke emissions on Common Rail Diesel engines. The Variable Geometry Turbocharger types used in this study are straight profile nozzle vanes (sample A) and curved profile nozzle vanes (sample B). The curved profile vanes as seen in sample B results in reduced variation of circumferential pressure distortions.
Technical Paper

Novel, Compact and Light Weight Plenum Assembly for Automobiles

2017-07-10
2017-28-1924
Plenum is the part located between the front windshield and the bonnet of an automobile . It is primarily used as an air inlet to the HVAC during fresh air mode operation. It’s secondary functions include water drainage, aesthetic cover to hide the gap between windshield to bonnet, concealing wiper motors and mechanisms etc. The plenum consists mainly two sub parts viz. upper plenum and lower plenum. Conventional plenum design which is found in majority of global OEMs employ a plastic upper plenum and a metal lower plenum which spans across the entire width of engine compartment. This conventional lower plenum is bulky, consumes more packaging space and has more weight. In this paper, we propose a novel design for the plenum lower to overcome above mentioned limitations of the conventional design. This novel design employs a dry and wet box concept for its working and is made up of complete plastic material.
Technical Paper

DMADV Approach for Engineering Optimization and Quality - Application and Adaptability in Indian Automobile Industry

2017-07-10
2017-28-1930
Indian Automobile Industry has started using Six Sigma for Vehicle Design and process improvement to compete with Global competition. This Paper describes how the Tools of Six Sigma shall be used as an Effective Tool for both redefining the Design and the Process Improvement. This Paper talks on the evolution of DMADV approach in Indian Automobile Industry compared to the related Trends in Other Manufacturing Sectors. The Author describes how the warranty failures in Commercial Segment Vehicle Category which was the selling talk for the Competition was addressed in Leading Indian Automobile OEM. As this Failure was adversely impacting customer satisfaction and no solution seemed forthcoming, top Management indicated to use a radically different approach to solve the problem within a years’ time.
Technical Paper

Methodological Approach for Converting Conventional Powertrain Platform into an Electrified One

2017-07-10
2017-28-1943
This paper details about the approach and challenges in converting a conventional vehicle platform designed for diesel/gasoline powertrain into an electrified one. It is not always feasible to accommodate electric powertrain in conventional platforms based on the target requirements. Electrification of conventional vehicles will cut back dependence on fossil fuels, emission of greenhouse gases and emission of pollutants. Fossil fuel are going to be depleted in few decades. Moreover, the emission from traditional vehicle has raised a huge threat to the atmosphere. Auto OEM’s have recognized that electric drive vehicles are critical to the future of the industry. However, some difficulties exist to more noteworthy selection: the view of cost, EV range, access to charging, potential impacts, and absence of open mindfulness about the accessibility and common sense of these vehicles.
Technical Paper

Low Rolling Resistance Tires and Their Impact on Electric Vehicles

2017-07-10
2017-28-1941
This paper details the methodology used to show the importance of Low rolling resistance tires in Electric Vehicles. Fuel efficiency and range is paramount with most of the electric vehicle buyers. Although many people are now becoming aware of low rolling resistance tires but its development started way back in 1990’s. It is always challenging to achieve low rolling resistance in smaller tires of size 12 inch or 13 inch along meeting the other critical vehicle parameters such as ride and handling, NVH, durability and many more. The reduction in rolling resistance can also affect the traction properties of tires. In case of very low rolling resistance tires the traction will be very less but it can badly affect the other vehicle parameters. Selection of tires further depend upon the RWUP (Real World Usage Profile). It means the vehicle is targeted for which region and what is the condition of roads there.
Technical Paper

Comparative Study of Olfactory Stimuli Influences on Hand-Eye Co-ordinated Tasks in Operators Fatigued by Circadian Effects

2016-04-05
2016-01-0141
Several studies in the field of hedonics using subjective responses to gauge the nature and influence of odors have attempted to explain the complex psychological and chemical processes. Work on the effect of odors in alleviating driver fatigue is limited. The potential to improve road safety through non-pharmacological means such as stimulating odors is the impetus behind this paper. This is especially relevant in developing countries today with burgeoning economies such as India. Longer road trips by commercial transport vehicles with increasingly fatigued drivers and risk of accidents are being fuelled by distant producer - consumer connections. This work describes a two stage comparative study on the effects of different odors typically obtainable in India. The stages involve administration of odorants orthonsally and retronasally after the onset of circadian fatigue in test subjects. This is followed by a small cognitive exercise to evaluate hand-eye coordination.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Cabin Leakage on Thermal Comfort and Fuel Efficiency of an SUV

2016-04-05
2016-01-0259
The main function of an air conditioning system in a vehicle is to provide the thermal comfort to the occupant at minimum possible energy consumption in all environmental conditions. To ensure the best possible thermal comfort, air conditioning system is optimized on various parameters like heat load, air flow distribution, glass area, trim quality, insulations and cabin leak rate. A minimum cabin leakage is regulatory requirements to ensure the air quality of cabin. Anything above the minimum cabin leak rate ultimately turn into reduced thermal comfort and additional energy consumption. The additional energy consumption to maintain the required thermal comfort in the cabin due to cabin leakage affects the fuel efficiency severely. In the present study, the effect of cabin leakage on fuel efficiency and thermal comfort is studied in details by varying the cabin leakage through mechanical means. The experiments are carried out in normal environmental condition and road condition.
Technical Paper

New Simulation Methodology for Improved Visual Interaction between Physical Test and CAE in Seat Anchorage Test

2016-02-01
2016-28-0226
For effective occupant protection, automotive vehicle structure needs to be developed for seat anchorage test to prevent the failure of seat anchorages during high speed impacts. Seat anchorages (SA) certification test is mandatory for M & N category vehicles in India. Conventional way of testing automotive vehicle structures for seat anchorage test is using deceleration sled with the help of bungee ropes. Deceleration pulse generated from the physical test is used as a loading input in the current CAE process. With the current CAE method, final deformation of the vehicle structure looks similar to physical test, however, the vehicle visual interactions differ significantly during the deformation event. In the current study, a modified loading methodology is proposed to match both the final deformation as well as vehicle visual interactions. Loading and boundary conditions of physical test were understood in detail with the help of simple free body diagrams.
Technical Paper

Cost and Weight Efficient Differential Housing for Off-Road Vehicles

2016-02-01
2016-28-0133
Differential in Gear Box play vital role in Tractors for assisting it in turning and also to take straight path. Light weight machine always have advantage in terms of fuel economy and performance. Weight optimized rotating part have additional benefits of saving power loss, against stationary dead weight. Differential Housing is such a part, which rotates during the vehicle motion and torque transmission. [1] This paper describes a method by which weight of the Differential Housing is optimized. In this particular body of work, additional constraints of avoiding any change in existing cold forged parts like Bevel Gear & Pinion. This also have additional benefit of enhanced flow of Oil inside Differential Housing for better lubrication of Bevel Gears and Pinion. This resulted in weight saving of Differential Housing and finally fuel economy of Tractor.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Vehicle Electrical Energy Consumption

2015-09-29
2015-01-2882
This paper focuses on optimizing the electrical energy consumption of vehicle. By introduction three concepts. 1) Innovative speed control logic for radiator fan motor according to vehicle speed and air flow through radiator. 2) Introducing regeneration of energy from radiator fan motor while free running and deceleration of vehicle. 3) Using BLDC motors (generation mode and motoring mode) in radiator and blower motors. About 50 % of total electrical energy consumption of vehicle is contributed by radiator fan motor and blower motor (proven data by performing alternator charge balance test during NEDC cycle). By introducing above three concepts, 50 % electrical energy consumption can be reduced to 25 - 30 %, which gives more than 3.5 % fuel economy improvement and more than 10 gmCO2 reduction per kilometer. Further reduction in conducted emission at motor level, soft starting for radiator fan and blower motor and elimination of high inrush current.
Technical Paper

Optimizing OSRVM Package for Maximizing In-vehicle Visibility

2015-09-29
2015-01-2837
Overall in-vehicle visibility is considered as a key safety parameter essentially mandated due to the increasing traffic scenario as seen in developing countries. Driver side bottom corner visibility is one such parameter primarily defined by A-pillar bottom and outside rear-view mirror (OSRVM). While defining the OSRVM package requirements such as size, position and regulatory aspects, it is also vital to consider other influencing parameters such as position of pillars, waist-line height, and Instrument panel which affect the in-vehicle visibility. This study explains the various package considerations, methods to optimize OSRVM position, shape and housing design in order to maximize the in-vehicle visibility considering the road and traffic conditions. A detailed study on in-vehicle visibility impacted by OSRVM packaging explained and had been verified for the results.
Technical Paper

Systematic Approach to Design Hand Controlled Parking Brake System for Passenger Car

2015-01-14
2015-26-0078
This paper is an attempt to compile a systematic approach which can be easily incorporated in the product development system used in the design and development of parking brake systems for passenger cars having rear drum brakes, which in turn can effectively reduce the lead time and give improved performance. The vehicle GVW, percentage gradient and maximum effort limits (as per IS 11852 - Part 3), tire and drum brake specifications were taken as front loading. This data is used for target setting of functional and engineering parameters, such as lever pull effort, lever ratio and angular travel of lever. Design calculations were performed to obtain theoretical values of critical parameters like lever effort and travel. The comparison between target and theoretical values give the initial confidence to the system engineer. Further, the outcome was taken to conceptualize the hard points of lever on vehicle for ergonomics.
Technical Paper

Design For Affordability -Composite Running Board

2015-01-14
2015-26-0070
Light weighting is the Current trends in automotive to achieve better fuel economy which helps for meeting fuel economy standards & to offset the higher fuel prices. Thus there is a need to develop composite running board which is light weight & structurally sound enough to meet the performance. The present paper provides a composite running board assembly for an automobile. The running board assembly includes a board, an insert body and a plurality of brackets. Upon stepping of a passenger on the board, the board transfers load on the insert body which subsequently transfers the load to the plurality of brackets thus facilitating even distribution of the load on the automobile body. This paper also put lights on the use of improved TRIZ application - an approach to inventive problem solving for designing highly affordable & light weight running board. The cost & weight reduction achieved with innovative design is about 40 % & 35 % comparing to existing cost & weight.
Technical Paper

Computational and Experimental Investigations to Improve Performance, Emissions and Fuel Efficiency of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

2015-01-14
2015-26-0099
From International Energy Statistics (IES) survey, China, US and India are top three countries in emitting CO2 emissions. Further, worldwide national governments are focused to control CO2 emissions at source by stringent regulatory limits. OEMs and Research laboratories are working on several technology options such as advanced fuel injection system, optimizing in cylinder combustion system, thermal management and reduced engine friction to meet this legal requirements. In this paper, research work focused on improving combustion system through selection optimum bowl geometry and increasing volumetric efficiency through valve timings, profile and intake system using both 1D and 3D-CFD numerical approach. The main objective of this approach to utilize fossil fuel to its maximum potential in a single cylinder Naturally Aspirated (NA) water cooled engine with CRDI.
Technical Paper

Development & Customization of Test Cases for Start-stop Functionality to Achieve On-road Robustness

2013-11-27
2013-01-2875
The Micro-hybrid technology otherwise called as stop start system offers a significant improvement in fuel economy particularly in urban driving conditions, where more often the engine idles unnecessarily at traffic signals/jams. Micro-hybrid technology stops the engine at traffic signals/jams and starts the engine automatically on clearance of traffic signals/jams leading to reduced fuel consumption and emissions. This is achieved by monitoring several vehicle and engine parameters through appropriate sensing elements. In this study, the system architecture and functional definitions of start/stop system is defined. Equivalence class, boundary value and decision-table testing are used to generate test cases. On generation of test cases, their relevance on on-road robustness and scope for optimization towards time/efforts are analyzed. In the process, a matrix of different conditions and criteria are formulated. Under these conditions, the system behavior is evaluated.
Journal Article

Virtual Road Approach for Vehicle Durability Simulations

2013-04-08
2013-01-1165
In current scenario, virtual validation is one of the important phase for any new product development process. The initial step for virtual validation for durability analysis of vehicle is to understand the loads which are transmitted to body from the roads. In current methodology standard 3g load cases are considered. These are worst load cases which show more number of high stress locations on vehicle. In actual vehicle running condition, dynamic loads are coming on vehicle structure. These dynamic loads can be obtained by measuring the loads coming on the vehicle through road load data acquisition system. The use of measured loads posed challenges due to the non-availability of representative mule in the initial phase of vehicle development. To overcome these challenges, Mahindra & Mahindra developed a new approach which enabled the direct substitution of analytically synthesized loads for measured data.
Technical Paper

Selection of Gear Ratio for Smooth Gear Shifting

2012-09-24
2012-01-2005
Manual transmissions are characterized by gear ratios that are selectable by locking selected gear pairs to the output shaft inside the transmission. Top gear is selected to get a maximum speed and is limited by the engine power, speed and the fuel economy. Lower gears are selected to get maximum speed at maximum gradient. Lower gears are also expected to give creeping speed to avoid usage of clutch and brake in city traffic. Selection of intermediate gears is such that it provides a smoother gear shift. Gear spacing is done in geometric progression. Spacing between the higher gears is usually closer than in the lower gears because drivers shift more often between the lower gears. This is opposed to the conventional idea of progressive spacing where higher gears had more space between them. An objective method is provided for selecting gear ratios for use in vehicle transmission having multiple selectable gears.
X