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Technical Paper

Determination of Principal Variables for Prediction of Fuel Economy using Principal Component Analysis

The complexity of Urban driving conditions and the human behavior introduces undesired variabilities while establishing Fuel economy for a vehicle. These variabilities pose a great challenge while trying to determine that single figure for assessment of vehicle’s fuel efficiency on an urban driving cycle. This becomes even more challenging when two or more vehicles are simultaneously evaluated with respect to a reference vehicle. The attempt to fit a generalized linear model, between Fuel Economy as predicted variable and components of a driving cycle as predictor variables produced oxymoronic and counter-institutive results. This is primarily due to existence of multi-collinearity among the predictor variables. The context of the study is to consider the event of driving on a cycle as a random sampling experiment. The outcome of a driving cycle is summarized into a list of predictor variables or components.
Technical Paper

Optimisation of Scooter Frame for Target Life on 2-Poster Rig with Virtual Simulation

Vehicle frame evaluation at early stages of product development cycle is essential to reduce product turnaround time to market. In conventional approach of virtual validation it is required to evaluate the strength of the vehicle structure to account for the standard Service Load Analysis (SLA) loading conditions. But this paper describes on the strength analysis of scooter frame with derivation of critical static load cases. The critical load cases are extracted from the load-time history while the vehicle was simulated on durability virtual test rigs which is equivalent to proving ground tests. This methodology gives the better accuracy in prediction of stress levels and avoids the overdesign of components based on traditional validation technique. There is significant drop in stress levels using the critical load case approach as compared to conventional load case method.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Oil Flow inside Tractor Transmission for Splash Type Lubrication

This study introduces a method to examine the flow path of the lubricant inside a transmission housing of a tractor. A typical gearbox has several loads bearing elements which are in relative sliding motion to each other which causes heat to be released. The major sources of friction as well as heat are the meshing teeth between gears (sun/planet, planet/ring & power/range drive gear), thrust washers, thrust bearings and needle roller bearings. The churning of oil performs the vital function of both lubricating these sliding interfaces and cooling these sources of heat, thereby preventing failure of the gearbox. In this paper, we have applied VOF multiphase flow model and sliding meshing to simulate the fluid flow during splashed lubrication within a mating gear box. Lubrication oil dynamics and oil surface interaction with the air is modeled using VOF multiphase approach.
Technical Paper

Comparative Studies of Different VGT Designs on Performance and Smoke of CRDe Engine

Diesel engines have occupied a significant position in passenger car applications in the present automotive sector. Turbochargers find a very prominent role in diesel engines of all applications in order to achieve desired power and better fuel economy. Gaining higher torque at lower engine speeds with low smoke levels is a very tough task with fixed geometry turbochargers due to availability of lower air mass resulting in higher smoke emissions. Variable geometry turbochargers are capable of providing better torque at lower speeds and reduced smoke emissions on Common Rail Diesel engines. The Variable Geometry Turbocharger types used in this study are straight profile nozzle vanes (sample A) and curved profile nozzle vanes (sample B). The curved profile vanes as seen in sample B results in reduced variation of circumferential pressure distortions.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Interior Space Optimization through Occupant Seating Layout Apportioning

Digital human models (DHM) have greatly enhanced design for the automotive environment. The major advantage of the DHMs today is their ability to quickly test a broad range of the population within specific design parameters. The need to create expensive prototypes and run time consuming clinics can be significantly reduced. However, while the anthropometric databases within these models are comprehensive, the ability to position the manikin’s posture is limited and needs lot of optimization. This study enhances the occupant postures and their seating positions, in all instances the occupant was instructed to adjust to the vehicle parameters so they were in their most comfortable position. While all the Occupants are accommodated to their respective positions which finally can be stacked up for space assessments. This paper aims at simulating those scenarios for different percentiles / population which will further aid in decision making for critical parameters.
Technical Paper

Low Rolling Resistance Tires and Their Impact on Electric Vehicles

This paper details the methodology used to show the importance of Low rolling resistance tires in Electric Vehicles. Fuel efficiency and range is paramount with most of the electric vehicle buyers. Although many people are now becoming aware of low rolling resistance tires but its development started way back in 1990’s. It is always challenging to achieve low rolling resistance in smaller tires of size 12 inch or 13 inch along meeting the other critical vehicle parameters such as ride and handling, NVH, durability and many more. The reduction in rolling resistance can also affect the traction properties of tires. In case of very low rolling resistance tires the traction will be very less but it can badly affect the other vehicle parameters. Selection of tires further depend upon the RWUP (Real World Usage Profile). It means the vehicle is targeted for which region and what is the condition of roads there.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Cabin Leakage on Thermal Comfort and Fuel Efficiency of an SUV

The main function of an air conditioning system in a vehicle is to provide the thermal comfort to the occupant at minimum possible energy consumption in all environmental conditions. To ensure the best possible thermal comfort, air conditioning system is optimized on various parameters like heat load, air flow distribution, glass area, trim quality, insulations and cabin leak rate. A minimum cabin leakage is regulatory requirements to ensure the air quality of cabin. Anything above the minimum cabin leak rate ultimately turn into reduced thermal comfort and additional energy consumption. The additional energy consumption to maintain the required thermal comfort in the cabin due to cabin leakage affects the fuel efficiency severely. In the present study, the effect of cabin leakage on fuel efficiency and thermal comfort is studied in details by varying the cabin leakage through mechanical means. The experiments are carried out in normal environmental condition and road condition.
Technical Paper

New Simulation Methodology for Improved Visual Interaction between Physical Test and CAE in Seat Anchorage Test

For effective occupant protection, automotive vehicle structure needs to be developed for seat anchorage test to prevent the failure of seat anchorages during high speed impacts. Seat anchorages (SA) certification test is mandatory for M & N category vehicles in India. Conventional way of testing automotive vehicle structures for seat anchorage test is using deceleration sled with the help of bungee ropes. Deceleration pulse generated from the physical test is used as a loading input in the current CAE process. With the current CAE method, final deformation of the vehicle structure looks similar to physical test, however, the vehicle visual interactions differ significantly during the deformation event. In the current study, a modified loading methodology is proposed to match both the final deformation as well as vehicle visual interactions. Loading and boundary conditions of physical test were understood in detail with the help of simple free body diagrams.
Technical Paper

Cost and Weight Efficient Differential Housing for Off-Road Vehicles

Differential in Gear Box play vital role in Tractors for assisting it in turning and also to take straight path. Light weight machine always have advantage in terms of fuel economy and performance. Weight optimized rotating part have additional benefits of saving power loss, against stationary dead weight. Differential Housing is such a part, which rotates during the vehicle motion and torque transmission. [1] This paper describes a method by which weight of the Differential Housing is optimized. In this particular body of work, additional constraints of avoiding any change in existing cold forged parts like Bevel Gear & Pinion. This also have additional benefit of enhanced flow of Oil inside Differential Housing for better lubrication of Bevel Gears and Pinion. This resulted in weight saving of Differential Housing and finally fuel economy of Tractor.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Vehicle Electrical Energy Consumption

This paper focuses on optimizing the electrical energy consumption of vehicle. By introduction three concepts. 1) Innovative speed control logic for radiator fan motor according to vehicle speed and air flow through radiator. 2) Introducing regeneration of energy from radiator fan motor while free running and deceleration of vehicle. 3) Using BLDC motors (generation mode and motoring mode) in radiator and blower motors. About 50 % of total electrical energy consumption of vehicle is contributed by radiator fan motor and blower motor (proven data by performing alternator charge balance test during NEDC cycle). By introducing above three concepts, 50 % electrical energy consumption can be reduced to 25 - 30 %, which gives more than 3.5 % fuel economy improvement and more than 10 gmCO2 reduction per kilometer. Further reduction in conducted emission at motor level, soft starting for radiator fan and blower motor and elimination of high inrush current.
Technical Paper

Design For Affordability -Composite Running Board

Light weighting is the Current trends in automotive to achieve better fuel economy which helps for meeting fuel economy standards & to offset the higher fuel prices. Thus there is a need to develop composite running board which is light weight & structurally sound enough to meet the performance. The present paper provides a composite running board assembly for an automobile. The running board assembly includes a board, an insert body and a plurality of brackets. Upon stepping of a passenger on the board, the board transfers load on the insert body which subsequently transfers the load to the plurality of brackets thus facilitating even distribution of the load on the automobile body. This paper also put lights on the use of improved TRIZ application - an approach to inventive problem solving for designing highly affordable & light weight running board. The cost & weight reduction achieved with innovative design is about 40 % & 35 % comparing to existing cost & weight.
Technical Paper

Computational and Experimental Investigations to Improve Performance, Emissions and Fuel Efficiency of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

From International Energy Statistics (IES) survey, China, US and India are top three countries in emitting CO2 emissions. Further, worldwide national governments are focused to control CO2 emissions at source by stringent regulatory limits. OEMs and Research laboratories are working on several technology options such as advanced fuel injection system, optimizing in cylinder combustion system, thermal management and reduced engine friction to meet this legal requirements. In this paper, research work focused on improving combustion system through selection optimum bowl geometry and increasing volumetric efficiency through valve timings, profile and intake system using both 1D and 3D-CFD numerical approach. The main objective of this approach to utilize fossil fuel to its maximum potential in a single cylinder Naturally Aspirated (NA) water cooled engine with CRDI.
Technical Paper

Development & Customization of Test Cases for Start-stop Functionality to Achieve On-road Robustness

The Micro-hybrid technology otherwise called as stop start system offers a significant improvement in fuel economy particularly in urban driving conditions, where more often the engine idles unnecessarily at traffic signals/jams. Micro-hybrid technology stops the engine at traffic signals/jams and starts the engine automatically on clearance of traffic signals/jams leading to reduced fuel consumption and emissions. This is achieved by monitoring several vehicle and engine parameters through appropriate sensing elements. In this study, the system architecture and functional definitions of start/stop system is defined. Equivalence class, boundary value and decision-table testing are used to generate test cases. On generation of test cases, their relevance on on-road robustness and scope for optimization towards time/efforts are analyzed. In the process, a matrix of different conditions and criteria are formulated. Under these conditions, the system behavior is evaluated.
Technical Paper

Strain Correlation Improvement in Fuel Tank

In current competitive environment automobile industry is under heavy pressure to reduce time to market. First time right design is an important aspect to achieve the time and cost targets. CAE is a tool which helps designer to come up with first time right design. This also calls for high degree of confidence in CAE simulation results which can only be achieved by undertaking correlation exercises. Fuel tank is one of the important system in vehicle. At the validation stage leak test is carried out to find the leakage in the tank. This test is regulatory requirement which also ensures that the spot weld joineries have sufficient strength. Same test was mapped in CAE and high stress locations were identified. In test, strain gauging was done at the three selected locations. Paper highlights the test vs. CAE strain correlation and its finding. The effect of thinning is also discussed for the strain correlation of fuel tank.
Technical Paper

Selection of Gear Ratio for Smooth Gear Shifting

Manual transmissions are characterized by gear ratios that are selectable by locking selected gear pairs to the output shaft inside the transmission. Top gear is selected to get a maximum speed and is limited by the engine power, speed and the fuel economy. Lower gears are selected to get maximum speed at maximum gradient. Lower gears are also expected to give creeping speed to avoid usage of clutch and brake in city traffic. Selection of intermediate gears is such that it provides a smoother gear shift. Gear spacing is done in geometric progression. Spacing between the higher gears is usually closer than in the lower gears because drivers shift more often between the lower gears. This is opposed to the conventional idea of progressive spacing where higher gears had more space between them. An objective method is provided for selecting gear ratios for use in vehicle transmission having multiple selectable gears.
Journal Article

Analysis of Gear Geometry and Durability with Asymmetric Pressure Angle

Gear design is one of the most critical components in the Mechanical Power Transmission industry. Among all the gear design parameters pressure angle is the most critical parameter, which mainly affects the load carrying capacity of the gear. Generally gears are designed with a symmetric pressure angle for drive and coast side. It means that both flank side of gear are able to have same load carrying capacity. In some applications, such as in wind turbines, the gears experience only uni-directional loading. In such cases, the geometry of the drive side need not be symmetric to the coast side. This allows for the design of gears with asymmetric teeth. Therefore new gear designs are needed because of the increasing performance requirements, such as high load capacity, high endurance, long life, and high speed. These gears provide flexibility to designers due to their non-standard design.
Journal Article

A Systematic Approach for Load Cycle Generation Based on Real World Indian Drive Profile

Within the last decade, due to increasing fuel prices, unstable political situation in major oil producing nations and global warming, there is an increased demand for fuel efficient and environment friendly vehicles. In this context, research is being concentrated in the field of advanced, greener powertrain configurations ranging from hybrids to EVs to fuel cells to HCCI engines. The efficacy for any of the above stated powertrain technology, lies in the optimum component specification. Component specification, operational reliability, & life prediction are highly dependent on the traffic condition, driving nature and vary from country to country. For developing countries, like India, where the traffic & drive pattern are dense & slow moving, there is a dire need for generating load cycle based on Real World Usage Profile (RWUP). The paper will propose a systematic approach to create load cycles in order to derive component specifications for the powertrain based on RWUP.
Technical Paper

Turbocharging a Small Two Cylinder DI Diesel Engine - Experiences in Improving the Power, Low End Torque and Specific Fuel Consumption

Turbocharged common rail direct injection engines offer multiple benefits compared to their naturally aspirated counterparts by allowing for a significant increase in the power and torque output, while simultaneously improving the specific fuel consumption and smoke. They also make it possible for the engine to operate at a leaner air/fuel mixture ratio, thereby reducing particulate matter emission and permitting higher EGR flow rates. In the present work, a two cylinder, naturally aspirated common rail injected engine for use on a load carrier platform has been fitted with a turbocharger for improving the power and torque output, so that the engine can be used in a vehicle with a higher kerb weight. The basic architecture and hardware remain unchanged between the naturally aspirated and turbocharged versions. A fixed geometry, waste gated turbocharger with intercooling is used.
Technical Paper

A Durability Analysis Case Study of SUV and MUV Using Measured Proving Ground Road Profiles

With an increasing demand to reduce the product development time cycle from concept-to-vehicle, weight saving effort and less prototype initiative, CAE evaluation technique in the vehicle durability development must allow the computer simulation to reproduce the actual driving condition over a proving ground. This paper describes the case study to predict the durability performance of full vehicle using vehicle FE parts in ADAMS model. The objective is to carry out full vehicle simulation in actual road load condition using reduced full vehicle FE model, condensed with the ADAMS model. The measured acceleration is applied to the vehicle FE model and dynamic loads converted to equivalent static loads. The FE model solved in MSC.Nastran® with number of static load subcases converted from the measured proving ground road data. It also verifies the validity of the evaluation methodologies by simulation-to-experiment comparisons.