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Technical Paper

Life Estimation and Thermal Management of a 48V Mild-Hybrid Battery Pack

2019-04-02
2019-01-1001
The 48V mild-Hybrid system uses a 48V Lithium - Ion battery pack to boost the engine performance, to harness recuperative energy and to supply the accessory boardnet power requirement. Thermal management of the 48V battery pack is critical for its optimal utilization to realize the mild hybrid functionality, to meet CO2 reduction targets and useful life particularly under usage in hot ambient conditions. This paper discusses the various challenges and options of thermal management for the 48V battery pack based on the usage pattern and environmental conditions. The lifetime for a passively cooled battery pack is estimated for a typical Indian usage pattern. Active-air cooling is evaluated for the thermal management of the 48V mild-Hybrid battery pack. The tradeoffs are compared in terms of availability of hybrid functions and battery life.
Technical Paper

Sound Package Development for a Vehicle in Static Condition

2019-01-09
2019-26-0174
Sound package material selection plays a vital role in maintaining passenger comfort by suppressing noise inside cabin. Sound package development in static condition minimizes the extrinsic variables which influence the measurements. The consideration of static condition favors simulation and its correlation with test data. Once correlation is achieved, simulation inputs are used for further optimization and improvements. Noise control can be done in three levels by working either on source, path or receiver. In automobiles, there are many sources of noise such as engine, tire and wind. This topic deals with quantification of various transfer paths between source and receiver location using Power Based Noise Reduction (PBNR) method. This methodology is used in both simulation and testing along with its overall scope for improvement. It is best to quantify path strength in terms of energy levels instead of mere amplitude due to its independency on external test conditions.
Technical Paper

Identification and Resolution of Vehicle Pull and Steering Wobble Using Virtual Simulation and Testing

2018-10-05
2018-01-1895
A vehicle drifts due to several reasons from its intended straight path even in the case of no steering input. Vehicle pull is a condition where the driver must apply a constant correction torque to the steering wheel to maintain a straight-line course of the vehicle. This paper presents an investigation study into the characteristics of a vehicle experiencing steering drift. The aim of the work is to study vehicle stability and the causes of vehicle drift/pull during straight line to minimize vehicle pull level and hence optimize safety measures. A wobble in the steering wheel feels like the steering wheel is shaking to the left and right. This may get worse, if speed increases. This paper focuses on modelling and evaluating effects of suspension parameters, differential friction, brake drag variation, Unbalanced mass in the wheel assembly and C.G. location of the vehicle under multibody dynamic simulation environment.
Technical Paper

A Case Study on Durability Analysis of Automotive Lower Control Arm Using Self Transducer Approach

2018-04-03
2018-01-1208
A competitive market and shrinking product development cycle have forced automotive companies to move from conventional testing methods to virtual simulation techniques. Virtual durability simulation of any component requires determination of loads acting on the structure when tested on the proving ground. In conventional method wheel force transducers are used to extract loads at wheel center. Extracted wheel center forces are used to derive component loads through multi-body simulation. Another conventional approach is to use force transducers mounted directly on the component joineries where load needs to be extracted. Both the methods are costly and time-consuming. Sometimes it is not feasible to place a load cell in the system to measure hard point loads because of its complexities. In that case, it would be advantageous to use structure itself as a load transducer by strain gauging the component and use those strain values to extract hard point loads in virtual simulation.
Technical Paper

Generating a Real World Drive Cycle–A Statistical Approach

2018-04-03
2018-01-0325
Drive cycles have been an integral part of emission tests and virtual simulations for decades. A drive cycle is a representation of running behavior of a typical vehicle, involving the drive pattern, road characteristics and traffic characteristics. Drive cycles are typically used to assess vehicle performance parameters, perform system sizing and perform accelerated testing on a test bed or a virtual test environment, hence reducing the expenses on road tests. This study is an attempt to design a relatively robust process to generate a real world drive cycle. It is based on a Six Sigma design approach which utilizes data acquired from real world road trials. It explicitly describes the process of generating a drive cycle which closely represents the real world road drive scenario. The study also focuses on validation of the process by simulation and statistical analysis.
Technical Paper

Integration of 1D and 3D CFD Software for Cabin Cool Down Simulation

2018-04-03
2018-01-0773
This study presents a method for a cool down simulation of passenger compartments. The purpose was to integrate the 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software StarCCM+ with the 1D thermal management software KULI. The targets were to achieve accurate prediction of temperature diffusion inside the cabin for a transient cycle simultaneously reducing the modelling effort and CPU-time consumption. The 1D simulation model was developed in KULI and the flow field data required to simulate mass flow and diffusion inside the cabin was implemented from Star CCM+. The simulation model consists of a multi-zone cabin and models the complete refrigerant circuit consisting of evaporator, condenser, Thermal Expansion Valve (TXV) and compressor. This paper describes the process flow, definition of the inputs required and finally the validation of the simulation data with experiments.
Technical Paper

Systematic Approach for Structural Optimization of Automotive Systems

2017-10-13
2017-01-5018
In today’s cost-competitive automotive market, use of finite element simulations and optimization tools has become crucial to deliver durable and reliable products. Simulation driven design is the key to reduce number of physical prototypes, design iterations, cost and time to market. However, simulation driven design optimization tools have struggled to find global acceptance and are typically underutilized in many applications; especially in situations where the algorithms have to compete with existing know-how decision making processes. In this study, systematic multi-phase approach for optimization driven design is presented. Approach includes three optimization phases. In first phase, topology optimization is performed on concept BIW design volume to identify critical load paths. Architectural inputs from topology are used to design base CAD.
Technical Paper

Novel, Compact and Light Weight Plenum Assembly for Automobiles

2017-07-10
2017-28-1924
Plenum is the part located between the front windshield and the bonnet of an automobile . It is primarily used as an air inlet to the HVAC during fresh air mode operation. It’s secondary functions include water drainage, aesthetic cover to hide the gap between windshield to bonnet, concealing wiper motors and mechanisms etc. The plenum consists mainly two sub parts viz. upper plenum and lower plenum. Conventional plenum design which is found in majority of global OEMs employ a plastic upper plenum and a metal lower plenum which spans across the entire width of engine compartment. This conventional lower plenum is bulky, consumes more packaging space and has more weight. In this paper, we propose a novel design for the plenum lower to overcome above mentioned limitations of the conventional design. This novel design employs a dry and wet box concept for its working and is made up of complete plastic material.
Technical Paper

Front Loading of Foot Swing Envelop during Egress to Vehicle Architecture

2017-07-10
2017-28-1960
In automotive industry, design of vehicle to end customer with proper ergonomics and balancing the design is always a challenge, for which an accurate prediction of postures are needed. Several studies have used Digital Human Models (DHM) to examine specific movements related to ingress and egress by translating complex tasks, like vehicle egress through DHMs. This requires an in-depth analysis of users to ensure such models reflect the range of abilities inherent to the population. Designers are increasingly using digital mock-ups of the built environment using DHMs as a means to reduce costs and speed-up the “time-to-market” of products. DHMs can help to improve the ergonomics of a product but must be representative of actual users.
Technical Paper

Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of Automobile Tail Door

2017-03-28
2017-01-0251
Stringent emission norms by government and higher fuel economy targets have urged automotive companies to look beyond conventional methods of optimization to achieve an optimal design with minimum mass, which also meets the desired level of performance targets at the system as well as at vehicle level. In conventional optimization method, experts from each domain work independently to improve the performance based on their domain knowledge which may not lead to optimum design considering the performance parameters of all domain. It is time consuming and tedious process as it is an iterative method. Also, it fails to highlight the conflicting design solutions. With an increase in computational power, automotive companies are now adopting Multi-Disciplinary Optimization (MDO) approach which is capable of handling heterogeneous domains in parallel. It facilitates to understand the limitations of performances of all domains to achieve good balance between them.
Technical Paper

Novel Approach for Model-Based Development - Part II: Developing Virtual Environment and Its Application

2016-04-05
2016-01-0322
With continuous pressure for reducing vehicle development time and cost, without compromising on system reliability, it is imperative to move from Road to Lab to Model (RLM) based development. Every OEM is currently using virtual environment to complete functional checks of systems during development. The method of developing control functions and calibration in virtual environment brings repeatability and reproducibility which typically is challenging in real world testing. This process is cost effective and optimizes the time for development and brings high level of system maturity before testing it in the vehicle. This paper focuses on defining a front-loading approach for setting up of virtual test environment. Development of virtual test environment and its validation with respect to real vehicle data will be discussed, with focus on vehicle plant model and driver model.
Technical Paper

Novel Approaches for Model-Based Development - Part I: Developing a Real-World Driver Model

2016-04-05
2016-01-0323
OEMs these days are focusing on front loading the activities to Virtual Test Environment (VTE) based development owing to high development cost and complexity in achieving repeatability during testing phase of vehicle development,. This process not only helps in reducing the cost and time but also helps in increasing the maturity and confidence level of the developed system before actual prototype is built. In the past, extensive research has happened for increasing the fidelity of VTE by improving plant model efficacy which involves powertrain and other vehicle systems. On the other hand, improving the precision of driver model which is one of the most complex nonlinear systems of virtual environment still remains a challenge. It is apparent that various drivers show different behavior in real world for a given drive profile. While modelling a driver for a VTE, the real world driver attributes are seldom considered.
Technical Paper

A Cost Effective System Test-Bed using Model Based Approach

2016-04-05
2016-01-0048
The effort involved in automotive software test/calibration at road level is very high and cost involved is also commendable because of the involved proto level samples. Further the on-road test/calibration process is sensitive to external factors like drive pattern and environmental conditions. It is always a challenge for any OEM, to come up with an efficient process, which optimizes development cost, time and reliability of the product. The model based test/calibration process is always a dream for any engineer to work on, as it has big advantage of cost, reproducibility and repeatability of test cases [1]. But the challenge lies in achieving the closeness to reality with limited availability of crucial data for model parameterization. Activity at test bed level bridges the gap between the on-road and model based test/calibration achieving high maturity level at optimal cost/time. Current vehicle has many systems, which work in synergy to create an impact on end customer.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Engine Thermal Behavior during Emission Cycle Using 1D Four Point Mass Model

2016-04-05
2016-01-0197
The traditional approach of engine thermal behavior of engine during startup has largely been dependent on experimental studies and high fidelity simulations like CFD. However, these techniques require considerable effort, cost and time. The low fidelity simulations validated with experimental results are becoming more popular due to their ease in handling the several parameters such as cost effectiveness and quick predictive results. A four point mass model of engine thermal behavior during cold start has been developed to study the engine warm up temperature behavior. The four point mass model considers the lumped mass of coolant, mass of engine directly associated with the coolant, mass of engine oil and mass of engine directly associated with the engine oil. The advantage of four point model is to predict the coolant temperature as well as lubricant temperature during the transient warm up cycle of the engine.
Technical Paper

1D Transient Thermal Model of an Automotive Electric Engine Cooling Fan Motor

2016-04-05
2016-01-0214
For the thermal management of an automobile, the induced airflow becomes necessary to enable the sufficient heat transfer with ambient. In this way, the components work within the designed temperature limit. It is the engine-cooling fan that enables the induced airflow. There are two types of engine-cooling fan, one that is driven by engine itself and the other one is electrically driven. Due to ease in handling, reduced power consumption, improved emission condition, electrically operated fan is becoming increasingly popular compared to engine driven fan. The prime mover for electric engine cooling fan is DC motor. Malfunction of DC motor due to overheating will lead to engine over heat, Poor HVAC performance, overheating of other critical components in engine bay. Based upon the real world driving condition, 1D transient thermal model of engine cooling fan motor is developed. This transient model is able to predict the temperature of rotor and casing with and without holes.
Technical Paper

Scaling Model of Heat Exchangers in Automotive Air Conditioning Systems

2016-04-05
2016-01-0227
Heat exchangers are thermoregulatory system of an automotive air conditioning system. They are responsible for heat exchange between refrigerant and air. Sizing of the heat exchanger becomes critical to achieve the required thermal performance. In the present work, the behavior of heat exchanger with respect to change in size is studied in detail by developing a scaling model. The limited experiments have been conducted for 3 different condensers. Commercially available 1D tool GT Suite is used for simulations. The heat exchangers are modeled using COOL3D module of GT Suite. The experimental thermal capacities of heat exchanger are compared with the simulated values. A good agreement up to ±2.3% is found between the experiments and simulations. Then developed scaling model in GT Suite is used for predicting the thermal behavior of heat exchangers by changing the size of the heat exchanger. Scaled thermal capacities of each model is compared with the corresponding experimental results.
Technical Paper

CAE Prediction and Test Correlation for Tractor Roll-over Protective Structure (ROPS)

2015-04-14
2015-01-1476
Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) are safety devices which provide a safe environment for the tractor operator during an accidental rollover. The ROPS must pass either a dynamic or static testing sequence or both in accordance with SAE J2194. These tests examine the performance of ROPS to withstand a sequence of loadings and to see if the clearance zone around the operator station remains intact in the event of an overturn. In order to shorten the time and reduce the cost of new product development, non-linear finite element (FE) analysis is practiced routinely in ROPS design and development. By correlating the simulation with the results obtained from testing a prototype validates the CAE model and its assumptions. The FE analysis follows SAE procedure J2194 for testing the performance of ROPS. The Abaqus version 6.12 finite element software is used in the analysis, which includes the geometric, contact and material nonlinear options.
Technical Paper

Detent Profile Optimization to Improve Shift Quality of Manual Transmissions

2015-04-14
2015-01-1135
The customer of today is sensitive towards shift quality. The demand is for a crisp and precise gear shift with low shift effort. The impulses from synchronizers make shifts feel notchy. After synchronization the blocker ring releases the sleeve. The sleeve then hits the teeth of the clutch body ring. The second impulse causes a phenomenon called double bump. This can be felt at the hand and makes a shift feel notchy or sluggish. An ideal way to overcome this is to optimize the detent profile. This paper explains in detail the various factors that contribute to the perceived shift feel. Various methods to optimize the forces on the knob by changing the detent profile are discussed. Gear Shift Quality Assessment (referred as GSQA henceforth) is a tool to acquire the required shift feel data. Using this tool shift efforts and kinematics of a 5 speed manual transmission are plotted for illustration. The calculations required to optimize the detent profile are explained in detail.
Technical Paper

Low Temperature Thermal Energy Storage (TES) System for Improving Automotive HVAC Effectiveness

2015-04-14
2015-01-0353
The prime focus of automotive industries in recent times is to improve the energy efficiency of automotive subsystem and system as whole. Harvesting the waste energy and averaging the peak thermal loads using thermal energy storage (TES) materials and devices can help to improve the energy efficiency of automotive system and sub-system. The phase change materials (PCM) well suit the requirement of energy storage/release according to demand requirement. One such example of TES using PCM is extended automotive cabin comfort during vehicle idling and city traffics including start/stop of the engine at traffic stops. PCM as TES poses high density and capacity in thermal energy storage and release. It is due to latent heat absorption and release during phase change. Generally the latent heat of a material compare to it sensible heat is much higher, almost an order of 2. For example, latent heat of ice is almost 160 times higher than sensible heat for a kelvin temperature rise of ice.
Technical Paper

Fluid Structure Interaction Simulation of Automotive Fuel Tank Sloshing using Nonlinear Fluid Properties

2015-01-14
2015-26-0240
In commercial vehicles which generally have large capacity fuel tank, sloshing of fuel and its effect on the tank structure is very important aspect during fuel tank design. Dynamic pressures exerted by the fuel on baffles, end plates and tank shell during sloshing can lead to structural failures and fuel leakage problems. Fluid structure interaction simulation of automotive fuel tank sloshing and its correlation with physical test is demonstrated in this study. During physical sloshing test of 350 L fuel tank, cracks were observed on center baffle and spot weld failures developed on fuel tank shell. Same sloshing test was simulated for one sloshing cycle using fluid structure interaction approach in LS Dyna explicit FE solver. Water was used instead of fuel. Mesh free Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method is used to represent water as it requires less computational time as compared to Eulerian or ALE method.
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