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Technical Paper

Manufacturing of Transmission Quill Gear by Sinter Hardening

Transmission quill gears are hot forged steel parts often used in constant mesh manual transmissions. The quill gear, which helps to transmit the power from input drive shaft to output shaft through driving gears. It’s having external teeth which is positively engaged with driving gear and sleeve. During gear selection sleeve take load from input shaft and transmit to driven gear. Quill gear directly engaged with driving gears on outer surface and bearing in inner surface which needs to have high strength and durability. These properties can be improved by carburization heat treatment in existing design such processes can lead to increased costs. We have developed quill gear through powder metallurgical process and then cooled rapidly in the furnace to get high strength and wear properties. Material composition are optimized to suit for sinter hardening process conditions.
Technical Paper

Application of Reliability Technique for Developing a Test Methodology to Validate the Engine Mounted Components for Off-Road Applications under Vibration

Vibrational fatigue is a metal fatigue caused by the forced vibrations which are purely random in nature. The phenomenon is predominantly important for the components/systems which are subjected to extreme vibration during its operation. In a vehicle, an engine is the main source of vibration. The vibrational fatigue, therefore, plays a key role in the deterioration of engine mounted components. Multiple test standards and methodologies are available for validating engine mounted parts of an automobile. These might not be appropriate in the case of an off- road vehicle as the vibrational exposure of engine mounted components of an off-road vehicle is entirely different. In the case of an off-road vehicle, the engine mounted components are subjected to a comparatively higher level of vibration for a longer duration of time as compared to the passenger cars.
Technical Paper

Novel, Compact and Light Weight Plenum Assembly for Automobiles

Plenum is the part located between the front windshield and the bonnet of an automobile . It is primarily used as an air inlet to the HVAC during fresh air mode operation. It’s secondary functions include water drainage, aesthetic cover to hide the gap between windshield to bonnet, concealing wiper motors and mechanisms etc. The plenum consists mainly two sub parts viz. upper plenum and lower plenum. Conventional plenum design which is found in majority of global OEMs employ a plastic upper plenum and a metal lower plenum which spans across the entire width of engine compartment. This conventional lower plenum is bulky, consumes more packaging space and has more weight. In this paper, we propose a novel design for the plenum lower to overcome above mentioned limitations of the conventional design. This novel design employs a dry and wet box concept for its working and is made up of complete plastic material.
Technical Paper

Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of Automobile Tail Door

Stringent emission norms by government and higher fuel economy targets have urged automotive companies to look beyond conventional methods of optimization to achieve an optimal design with minimum mass, which also meets the desired level of performance targets at the system as well as at vehicle level. In conventional optimization method, experts from each domain work independently to improve the performance based on their domain knowledge which may not lead to optimum design considering the performance parameters of all domain. It is time consuming and tedious process as it is an iterative method. Also, it fails to highlight the conflicting design solutions. With an increase in computational power, automotive companies are now adopting Multi-Disciplinary Optimization (MDO) approach which is capable of handling heterogeneous domains in parallel. It facilitates to understand the limitations of performances of all domains to achieve good balance between them.
Technical Paper

Scaling Model of Heat Exchangers in Automotive Air Conditioning Systems

Heat exchangers are thermoregulatory system of an automotive air conditioning system. They are responsible for heat exchange between refrigerant and air. Sizing of the heat exchanger becomes critical to achieve the required thermal performance. In the present work, the behavior of heat exchanger with respect to change in size is studied in detail by developing a scaling model. The limited experiments have been conducted for 3 different condensers. Commercially available 1D tool GT Suite is used for simulations. The heat exchangers are modeled using COOL3D module of GT Suite. The experimental thermal capacities of heat exchanger are compared with the simulated values. A good agreement up to ±2.3% is found between the experiments and simulations. Then developed scaling model in GT Suite is used for predicting the thermal behavior of heat exchangers by changing the size of the heat exchanger. Scaled thermal capacities of each model is compared with the corresponding experimental results.
Technical Paper

Migration Phenomenon in Gear Teeth of Hypoid Crown Wheels (Ring Gears) - Controlling and Eliminating the Same in Manufacturing

The paper talks about the migration phenomenon that is observed in gears. The phenomenon discussed here is that observed on hypoid gears which due to their high spiral angles cause the issue to be more sensitive, but the analogy to other gears is applicable. Mahindra manufactures hypoid gear sets for its axles in-house that go on a wide range of its products; with performance benefits also come the stringent quality requirements for hypoid gear sets. Migration is the phenomenon that causes the furling or unfurling of individual gear teeth with respect to each other. This in effect causes the circular tooth spacing between two teeth to become non-uniform. This has a direct effect on the performance of the mated gear set.
Technical Paper

Detent Profile Optimization to Improve Shift Quality of Manual Transmissions

The customer of today is sensitive towards shift quality. The demand is for a crisp and precise gear shift with low shift effort. The impulses from synchronizers make shifts feel notchy. After synchronization the blocker ring releases the sleeve. The sleeve then hits the teeth of the clutch body ring. The second impulse causes a phenomenon called double bump. This can be felt at the hand and makes a shift feel notchy or sluggish. An ideal way to overcome this is to optimize the detent profile. This paper explains in detail the various factors that contribute to the perceived shift feel. Various methods to optimize the forces on the knob by changing the detent profile are discussed. Gear Shift Quality Assessment (referred as GSQA henceforth) is a tool to acquire the required shift feel data. Using this tool shift efforts and kinematics of a 5 speed manual transmission are plotted for illustration. The calculations required to optimize the detent profile are explained in detail.
Technical Paper

A Supervisory Learning Based Two-Wheeler Drive Pattern

The life of a two-wheeler and its parts depend much on its usage during its years of running. The quality of its parts determine the life and efficiency; however the handling of the two-wheeler also plays a major role in estimating it's life and other performance parameters. Hence, it is beneficial to have an efficient system which enhances the life of a two-wheeler and also gives better mileage. This paper constitutes an efficient drive pattern system which addresses the above. This system consists of two main parts: the data collection system and an Android-based mobile application which runs on a mobile phone. The data collection system collects data from various sensors on the vehicle and then the data is processed and sent to the mobile phone of the rider during the run time of the two-wheeler. The application uses this data to depict useful information like drive pattern and various indicators.
Technical Paper

An Alternative Method to Improve the CFD Predictions for Vehicle Front End Flow

In vehicle Front End Flow (FEF) analysis, the basic objective is to predict the mass flow/velocity of air at radiator inlet with constant fan rotation. In general, the Multiple Reference Frame (MRF) model is used to model the fan. The flow velocity distribution at radiator inlet due to fan rotation should be uniform in circumferential direction whereas, it should vary in radial direction depending upon the blade geometry. However, the drawback with MRF model is that, it gives higher velocities near radiator inlet at regions corresponding to the fan blades and lower velocities at other regions, which is not realistic. This issue is more predominant when the vehicle is at low speeds or when radiator is placed at mid or back of the vehicle or the fan is having less number of blades. In order to nullify this uneven velocity distribution at radiator inlet, Mixing Plane (MP) approach was used in addition to the MRF model.
Technical Paper

Evaluation and Comparative Study of ValveTrain Layouts with Different Rocker Ratio

The Valve Train system is an integral part of any engine and the impact of its design is very crucial, particularly in high speed engines. Maintaining the required valve timing throught the engine operating speed and longer component life are the two important parameters which drive current valvetrain designs. An engine ValveTrain system designed for a valve lift of 7mm is to be modified for an increased valve lift of 8mm. A study was conducted to understand which design parameters are to be changed /modified to make this possible. For this study, the valvetrain of an air-cooled motorcycle engine is taken up. The valvetrain arrangement was an Over Head Camshaft (OHC) design with a Roller-Follower. A 1D commercially available numerical code was used to simulate the kinematics and dynamics of the system.
Technical Paper

Structural Evaluation Technique Based on RWUP for Scooter Using RLDA

Scooter segment growth is tremendously increasing in India. The increased competition challenges automotive manufacturers to deliver the high quality and high reliable product to the market. Higher reliability involves increased durability testing which involves time and cost. Stress testing a part of durability is initially conducted on prototype vehicles for structural design validation and then later on production units to ensure its structural integrity. The obtained data from the tests can be used for future structural design improvements. Scooters with small tires, suspension limitations transfers more loads to structure, challenges engineers to design robust structure without compromising on weight much. It is necessary to look at Real World Usage Pattern (RWUP) and to create a stress life cycle block for simulation of accelerated testing, thereby optimizing the testing time and the development costs.
Technical Paper

A Simple Mechanism for AC Compressor Operation

One of the most essential components of automotive HVAC system is compressor. In a vehicle it is directly mounted on the engine. It derives power from the engine feed system to keep refrigerant moving in the HVAC system of the vehicle. It is also essential to complete the vapor compression cycle. During the operation, it causes considerable load on the engine and thus results in lower fuel efficiency and higher pollution. There are several types of compressors available globally. According to construction it can be classified as reciprocating piston type, scroll type and rotary vane type. The reciprocating piston types of compressors are further classified as fixed displacement and variable displacement. Normally the fixed displacement compressors have good idling cooling performance, but it increases the load on the engine. To reduce the load on the engine and to have good idling cooling performance, generally a variable displacement compressor is used.
Technical Paper

In-house Design and Development of Pedestrian Protection Test Rig

Regulations on pedestrian safety have been introduced globally since the year 1990 and in India it will have to be met around the year 2016. Process of making vehicle compliant to this regulation requires rigorous design development and testing. Testing involves propelling head-forms (Child and Adult) on bonnet at 35 km/h and 40 km/h and leg-forms (Upper and Lower) on bumper at 40 km/h according to the different National / International / NCAP regulatory requirements A pedestrian protection test rig has been indigenously designed and developed in-house to perform pedestrian protection impact testing in-house. The paper describes the salient features of the pedestrian protection test rig, its functioning, operation and process of acquiring the data for determination of the values required by crash safety regulations.
Technical Paper

Studies on Neutral Gear Rattle in Early Stage Design

In today's competitive automobile market, customers have become more sensitive towards NVH behavior of the vehicle than ever. The noise generated by gear rattle is one of the main contributors towards customer's overall NVH perception. This paper adopts a model based design approach towards gear rattle phenomenon to predict the tendency of gear rattle at a very early stage of design. This up-front understanding of gear rattle will potentially reduce the expensive design changes and iterations at later stages. A single unloaded gear pair is modeled in AMESim software, which is then extended to the complete gearbox in neutral condition. The sensitivity of rattle index for different input parameters is studied. Analysis on uncertainty propagation is carried out to find the rattle index distribution for Gaussian variation of input parameters. A novel rattle index based on Jerk is proposed and compared with the existing index.
Technical Paper

Experimental Approach to Improve the Door Slam Noise Quality in Utility Vehicles

The customer perception about the door slam noise and its feel would indicate the brand image of the car. In this paper the authors have made an effort to improve the door slam noise quality of the vehicle, which is currently in production. This paper describes the probable areas in the door to improve the slam noise quality by attempting modifications in the door design factors, such as door alignments, door panel stiffness, door trims, window glass rattle, latch striker alignment, door seals, air extractor. Since the door closing event is a transient phenomenon, it requires special tools such as wavelet transforms, Zwicker loudness to understand the slam events precisely. Subjective jury evaluations have been conducted to understand the effect of these modifications and rank the modifications based on their contributions to the door slam quality.
Technical Paper

Shift System Inertia Mass Optimization Techniques to Minimize Double Bump for Manual Transmission

The demand of gear shift quality in vehicles has increased considerably in the past few years. The gear shift is the key interface between driver and vehicle transmission. The essential criterions for the operating quality of the gear shift is the operating force and feel on the gear shift knob at each stage of gear shift, starting from start of gear shift to the end of gear shift. This paper deals with techniques to reduce secondary force due to synchronizer sleeve hitting on dog ring at the end of gear shift which is also known as Double Bump. The double bump ratio should be less than 0.4 to achieve the best in class shift feel for passenger car segment. Normal driver will not feel if double bump ratio is less than 0.6. Inertia mass mounted on shift system of manual transmission helps to generate momentum at the end of gear shift to nullify the double bump force.
Technical Paper

Deriving the Compressed Accelerated Test Cycle from Measured Road Load Data

Validation of vehicle structure is at the core of reduction of product development time. Robust and accelerated validation becomes an important task. In service the vehicle is subjected to variable loads. These act upon the components that originate from road roughness, manoeuvres and powertrain loads. Majority of the body in white and chassis structural failures are caused due to vertical loading. Measured road load data in test track have variable amplitude histories. These histories often contain a large percentage of small amplitude cycles which are non damaging. This paper describes a systematic approach to derive the compressed load cycle from the measured road load data in order to produce representative and meaningful yet economical load cycle for fatigue simulation. In-house flow was developed to derive the compressed load time history.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Vehicle Systems Structural Durability Using PSD Based Fatigue Life Approach

In current competitive environment automobile industry is under heavy pressure to reduce time to market. First time right design is an important aspect to achieve the time and cost targets. CAE is a tool which helps designer to come up with first time right design. This also calls for high degree of confidence in CAE simulation results which can only be achieved by undertaking correlation exercises. In automobiles most of the structures are subjected to vibration from dynamic loads. All the dynamic road loads are random in nature and can be very easily expressed in terms of power spectral density functions. In the current scenario structural durability of the parts subjected to vibration is done partially through modal performance and partially though frequency response analysis. The only question that arises is what amplitude to use at what frequency and how to map all the accelerated tests dynamic load frequency spectrum to simulation domain.
Technical Paper

Analytical Approach to Gear Reverse Engineering (Spur and Helical)

In today's automotive industry Benchmarking plays a vital role to improve performance, quality of critical functions and key areas of an organization by understanding and evaluating the products & processes in relation to Best Practices. Gear Reverse Engineering (here in after called as GRE) a part of Benchmarking is an activity which follows an analytical approach to calculate basic key parameters for an unknown gear pair. This paper propose a diagnostic tool/method, which determines basic gear parameters for an unknown gear pair, by simply measuring few dimensions as input followed by step wise analytical approach. This tool/method simplifies the gear designer job at initial stage by eliminating frequent trial & errors, iterations and complex measurements, which saves time & cost.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the Passenger Airbag Module to Meet Interior Fittings Compliance Requirements of ECE R21

Airbags play a vital role in occupant protection during a crash event. Apart from the crash test the airbags have to additionally meet the requirements of the ECE R 12 headform impact test with Driver's Airbag (DAB) located in the steering wheel being deployed and the ECE R21 headform impact test for Passenger Airbag (PAB) in undeployed condition. Improper location of the PAB module below the Instrument Panel, the design of the air bag housing and the Instrument Panel are some of the factors that could lead to non compliance of the components of the uninflated PAB. The paper deals with the investigation conducted for compliance of the PAB to ECE R 21 with the uninflated air bag in meeting the requirements of 80 g at 19.3 km/h by proper location, changes to the design of the PAB cover, air bag housing brackets, etc.