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Technical Paper

Enhanced Extra-Vehicular Activity Operations Through Custom Human Modeling Analysis

1997-07-01
972457
To sustain the extra-vehicular activity (EVA) rate required to assemble and maintain the International Space Station (ISS), we must enhance our ability to plan, train for, and execute EVAs. An underlying analysis capability must be in place to ensure EVA access to all external worksites either as a starting point for ground training, to generate information needed for on-orbit training, or to react quickly to develop contingency EVA plans, techniques, and procedures. This paper describes a potential flight experiment for application of custom human modeling analysis to plan and train for EVAs to enhance space station functionality and usability through assembly and operation.
Technical Paper

Operations and Staff Support for Chamber Testing of Advanced Life Support Systems

1995-07-01
951487
The successes of the long-duration MDA/NASA test programs for advanced life-support systems conducted prior to 1971 were highly dependent on the selection and training of both the test crews that remained inside the test chamber throughout the test periods and the outside operating staff. The operating staff was responsible for overall test performance, crew safety monitoring, operation and maintenance of the test facilities, and collection and maintenance of data. A selection, training, and certification program was developed and performed to ensure operating staff members had the correct technical skills and could work effectively together with the inside crew. A training program was designed to ensure that each selected operating staff member was capable of performing all assigned functions and was sufficiently cross-trained to serve at other positions on a contingency basis, if needed.
Technical Paper

Charlotte™ Robot Technology for Space and Terrestrial Applications

1995-07-01
951520
A novel robot architecture has been developed which promises cost savings in a variety of applications in Space and on Earth. Utilizing cables in order to effect motion in a general workspace provides large weight savings, as well as high end effector stiffness. The architecture has been built and successfully tested in space. The capability of the robotic system to actuate those switches, dials, and buttons expected in space environments, as well as to read displays and transmit video to earth for operator feedback have been proven, and are discussed herein.
Technical Paper

Initial Identification of Aircraft Tire Wear

1995-05-01
951394
Tactical aircraft have tire lives as low as 3-5 landings per tire causing excessive support costs. The goal of the Improved Tire Life (ITL) program was to begin developing technology to double aircraft tire life, particularly for tactical aircraft. ITL examined not only the tire, but also aircraft/landing gear design, aircraft operations, and the operational environment. ITL had three main thrusts which were successfully accomplished: 1) development of an analytical tire wear model, 2) initiation of technology development to increase tire life, and 3) exploration of new and unique testing methods for tire wear. This paper reports the work performed and the results of the USAF sponsored ITL program.
Technical Paper

Applications of Free-Flying Cameras for Space-Based Operations

1994-06-01
941442
This paper defines the value of free-flying cameras to the Space Station. The use of free-flying cameras is an alternative to reliance on fixed cameras. The analysis is based upon results from recent neutral buoyancy evaluations of a free-flying camera known as the Supplemental Camera and Maneuvering Platform (SCAMP). SCAMP was evaluated for inspection and viewing capabilities that will be required by Space Station. Test results demonstrated that a free-flying camera could be used effectively for inspecting structure, viewing labels, providing views for control of extravehicular robotics (EVR) and for ground assistance during extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks.
Technical Paper

Lunar Base Life Support System and Site Selection

1994-06-01
941457
The selection of a life support system for a lunar base depends on many interrelated factors, both programmatic and technical. Many factors are identifiable through the application of a systems engineering approach to the lunar base design, in which base and mission requirements are determined. In addition, there is a range of evolving technology options whose cost and maturity affect their potential for inclusion in base designs. Results of ongoing lunar base design are presented with emphasis on the selection of promising approaches for advanced life support systems that decrease overall cost for a single, permanently inhabited lunar base. We identify critical technology areas that inhibit the selection of closed life support systems and propose alternative basing scenarios to alleviate development and operational costs. In particular, we quantify the cost savings associated with establishing a base at a lunar pole in a region of permanent sunlight.
Technical Paper

Microgravity Payload Vibration Isolation System Development

1994-06-01
941416
The objective of this paper is to present results of MDA's payload vibration isolation system research and development program. A unique isolation system with passive or active capabilities designed to provide isolation down to 10-6 g was developed and tested in our 1-g testbed under simulated microgravity conditions. Fluid and electrical umbilicals are also included in the system. The established isolation system performance requirements were met and the testbed data were used to refine our analytical models for predicting flight performance. Simulations using an updated Space Station configuration showed that the payload microgravity requirement can be met by upgrading the hardware from laboratory to flight tolerances and improving the control system design. The next step is to flight test the systems verified in 1 g on the STS/SPACEHAB using a middeck locker size development unit.
Technical Paper

Integrated Failure Detection and Management for the Space Station Freedom External Active Thermal Control System

1993-07-01
932149
This paper presents the integrated approach toward failure detection, isolation, and recovery/reconfiguration to be used for the Space Station Freedom External Active Thermal Control System (EATCS). The on-board and on-ground diagnostic capabilities of the EATCS are discussed. Time and safety critical failures, as well as noncritical failures, and the detection coverage for each provided by existing capabilities are reviewed. The allocation of responsibility between onboard software and ground-based systems, to be shown during ground testing at the Johnson Space Center, is described. Failure isolation capabilities allocated to the ground include some functionality originally found on orbit but moved to the ground to reduce on-board resource requirements. Complex failures requiring the analysis of multiple external variables, such as environmental conditions, heat loads, or station attitude, are also allocated to ground personnel.
Technical Paper

Space Station Freedom Resource Nodes Internal Thermal Control System

1993-07-01
932148
This paper presents an overview of the design and operation of the internal thermal control system (ITCS) developed for Space Station Freedom by the NASA-Johnson Space Center and McDonnell Douglas Aerospace to provide cooling for the resource nodes, airlock, and pressurized logistics modules. The ITCS collects, transports, and rejects waste heat from these modules by a dual-loop, single-phase water cooling system. ITCS performance, cooling, and flow rate requirements are presented. An ITCS fluid schematic is shown and an overview of the current baseline system design and its operation is presented. Assembly sequence of the ITCS is explained as its configuration develops from Man Tended Capability (MTC), for which node 2 alone is cooled, to Permanently Manned Capability (PMC) where the airlock, a pressurized logistics module, and node 1 are cooled, in addition to node 2.
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