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Technical Paper

Battery Entropic Heating Coefficient Testing and Use in Cell-Level Loss Modeling for Extreme Fast Charging

To achieve an accurate estimate of losses in a battery it is necessary to consider the reversible entropic losses, which may constitute over 20% of the peak total loss. In this work, a procedure for experimentally determining the entropic heating coefficient of a lithium-ion battery cell is developed. The entropic heating coefficient is the rate of change of the cell’s open-circuit voltage (OCV) with respect to temperature; it is a function of state-of-charge (SOC) and temperature and is often expressed in mV/K. The reversible losses inside the cell are a function of the current, the temperature, and the entropic heating coefficient, which itself is dependent on the cell chemistry. The total cell losses are the sum of the reversible and irreversible losses, where the irreversible losses consist of ohmic losses in the electrodes, ion transport losses, and other irreversible chemical reactions.
Technical Paper

Comparative Corrosion Evaluation of Ferritic Stainless Steels Utilized in Automotive Exhaust Applications

The purpose of this work was to initiate a comparative evaluation of the aqueous corrosion resistance of ferritic stainless steels currently used to fabricate automotive exhaust systems. Both acid condensate and double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR) testing using both as-received and heat treated test coupons prepared from Types 409, 409Al, 436 and 439 stainless steel was conducted for this purpose. A truncated version of an in-house acid condensate testing protocol revealed that Type 409Al stainless steel was the most resistant to corrosion of the four ferritic stainless steels examined, whereas Type 409 stainless steel was the least resistance to corrosion.
Technical Paper

Comparative Corrosion Assessment of Coated Alloys for Multi-Material Lightweight Vehicle Architectures

The purpose of this study was to conduct a comparative corrosion assessment of alloys and coating schemes of interest for the fabrication of multi-material lightweight vehicle architectures. Alloys considered for this application included galvanized high strength low alloy steel, aluminum alloy AA6111 and magnesium alloy ZEK100. The coating scheme considered for corrosion protection included a layered paint top-coat scheme that was applied to a pre-treated surface. The pre-treatments included an alloy-specific commercial conversion coating (CC) and a plasma electrolytic deposition (PED) process that was applied only to the ZEK100 material. The corrosion assessment of the scribed coated alloy panels was conducted after 1000 h exposure in the ASTM B117 salt fog environment. Characterization of the mode and extent of corrosion damage observed and the role played by the exposed alloy microstructure utilized both light optical microscopy and electron microscopy.
Technical Paper

Measuring the Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Sheets and Their Resistance Spot Welds at Large Strains Using Digital Image Correlation Coupled with a Modified Shear Test

The constitutive behavior of aluminum alloy sheet and their resistance spot welds at large strains is critical for light weight vehicle design analysis and life prediction. However, data from uniaxial tensile tests are usually limited to small strains or by material instability. A novel technique was developed using digital image correlation coupled with a modified shear test to directly measure the stress - strain curves of aluminum alloy sheet at large strains. The modified shear sample prevents end rotation of the shear zone as compared to the ASTM B831 test. The results show that the effective stress - effective strain curves from shear tests match those obtained by uniaxial tension, but only by incorporating material anisotropy using the Barlat-Lian yield function. For the first time, the technique was applied to aluminum resistance spot welds to determine both the shear strength and stress-strain curves of spot welds at large strains.
Technical Paper

Formability of an Automotive Aluminum Alloy-AA5754 CC

We have studied the formability of continuous strip cast (CC) AA5754 aluminum alloy for automotive applications. Strip casting technology can considerably reduce material cost compared with conventional direct chill (DC) cast aluminum sheets. However, the CC material tends to exhibit much less post-localization deformation and lower fracture strains compared with DC sheets with similar Fe content, although both alloys show similar strains for the onset of localization. Bendability of the CC alloy is also found to be inferior. The inferior behavior (post-necking and bendability) of the CC alloy can be attributed to the higher incidence of stringer-type particle distributions in the alloy. The formability of the AA5754 alloy has also been studied using two dimensional microstructure-based finite element modeling. The microstructures are represented by grains and experimentally measured particle distributions.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation of Mg AZ80 Alloy Forging Behaviour

Magnesium AZ80 is a medium strength alloy with good corrosion resistance and very good forging capability which offers an affordable commercial alternative to the Mg ZK60 alloy used for wheels in racing cars. Extending the market of Mg AZ80 alloy to automotive wheels requires a better understanding of macro- and micro-properties of this structural material, especially its forging behaviour. In this study the deformation behaviour of Mg AZ80 alloy is characterized by uniaxial compression tests from ambient to 420°C at a variety of strain rates using a Gleeble 1500 simulator. A constitutive relationship coupling materials work hardening and strain rate and temperature dependences is calibrated based on test results. This flow behaviour is input into a finite element model to simulate the forging operation of an automotive wheel with ABAQUS codes.
Technical Paper

Damage and Formability of AKDQ and High Strength DP600 Steel Tubes

Using standard tensile testing methods, the material properties of AKDQ and DP600 steels tubes along the axial direction were determined. A novel in-situ optical strain mapping system ARAMIS® was utilized to evaluate the strain distribution during tensile testing along the axial direction. Microstructural and damage characterization was carried out using microscopy and image analysis techniques to compare the damage evolution and formability of both materials. Failure in both steels was observed to occur via a ductile failure mode. AKDQ was found to be the more formable material as it can achieve higher strains, total elongations and thinning prior to failure than the higher strength DP600.
Technical Paper

Experimental and FEA Investigation of Tensile Behaviour of High Strength Dual-Phase DP600 Steel

The application of high strength steels in tube hydroforming is being considered as one of the most effective ways to achieve the overall weight reduction without compromising the vehicle safety (crashworthiness). In this paper, the tensile behaviour of high strength dual-phase steel DP600 was investigated. The microstructure, mechanical performance and damage evolution was evaluated. A new finite element (FE) model based on crystal plasticity theory was developed to investigate large strain phenomena in multi-phase materials.