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Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Multi-phase Physics-Based Modeling Methodology to Study Engine Cylinder-kit Assembly Tribology and Design Considerations- Part I

2020-09-15
2020-01-2230
Understanding cylinder-kit tribology is pivotal to durability, emission management, reduced oil consumption, and efficiency of the internal combustion engine. This work addresses the understanding of the fundamental aspects of oil transport and combustion gas flow in the cylinder kit, using simulation tools and high-performance computing. A dynamic three-dimensional multi-phase, multi-component modeling methodology is demonstrated to study cylinder-kit assembly tribology during the four-stroke cycle of a piston engine. The percentage of oil and gas transported through different regions of the piston ring pack is predicted, and the mechanisms behind this transport are analyzed. The velocity field shows substantial circumferential flow in the piston ring pack, leading to blowback into the combustion chamber during the expansion stroke.
Technical Paper

Effect of Changing Compression Ratio on Ignition Delay Times of Iso-Octane in a Rapid Compression Machine

2020-04-14
2020-01-0338
Previous studies have shown that several facility dependent factors can influence ignition delay times measured in a rapid compression machine. Compression ratio variation represents one such aspect of many facility-to facility differences in RCMs, and can have a major impact on measured ignition delay times due to changes in surface-area-to-volume ratio, initial conditions and compression duration even when the same compressed conditions are maintained. In this study, iso-octane, which exhibits two stage ignition delay and has a pronounced negative temperature coefficient (NTC) region, is used to investigate the effects of changing compression ratio on ignition delay. Resulting trends are also compared to previous results obtained with ethanol, which has very different combustion properties. Experiments were carried out for rich mixtures (ϕ = 1.3) of iso-octane and air over a compressed temperature range of 675-900 K at 20 bar compressed pressure.
Technical Paper

Engine Calibration Using Global Optimization Methods with Customization

2020-04-14
2020-01-0270
The automotive industry is subject to stringent regulations in emissions and growing customer demands for better fuel consumption and vehicle performance. Engine calibration, a process that optimizes engine performance by tuning engine controls (actuators), becomes challenging nowadays due to significant increase of complexity of modern engines. The traditional sweep-based engine calibration method is no longer sustainable. To tackle the challenge, this work considers two powerful global optimization methods: genetic algorithm (GA) and Bayesian optimization for steady-state engine calibration for single speed-load point. GA is a branch of meta-heuristic methods that has shown a great potential on solving difficult problems in automotive engineering. Bayesian optimization is an efficient global optimization method that solves problems with computationally expensive testing such as hyperparameter tuning in deep neural network (DNN), engine testing, etc.
Technical Paper

Ultra-Lean and High EGR Operation of Dual Mode, Turbulent Jet Ignition (DM-TJI) Engine with Active Pre-chamber Scavenging

2020-04-14
2020-01-1117
Continuous efforts to improve thermal efficiency and reduce exhaust emissions of internal combustion engines have resulted in development of various solutions towards improved lean burn ignition systems in spark ignition engines. The Dual Mode, Turbulent Jet Ignition (DM-TJI) system is one of the leading technologies in that regard which offers higher thermal efficiency and reduced NOx emissions due to its ability to operate with very lean or highly dilute mixtures. Compared to other pre-chamber ignition technologies, the DM-TJI system has the distinct capability to work with a very high level of EGR dilution (up to ~40%). Thus, this system enables the use of a three-way catalyst (TWC). Auxiliary air supply for pre-chamber purge allows this system to work with such high EGR dilution rate. This work presents the results of experimental investigation carried out with a Dual Mode, Turbulent Jet Ignition (DM-TJI) optical engine equipped with a cooled EGR system.
Technical Paper

Impact of CO2 Dilution on Ignition Delay Times of Iso-Octane at 15% and 30% Dilution Levels in a Rapid Compression Machine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0569
Iso-Octane (2,2,4-trimethlypentane) is an important gasoline primary reference fuel (PRF) surrogate. Auto ignition of iso-octane was examined using a rapid compression machine (RCM) with iso-octane, air and carbon dioxide (CO2) mixtures. Experiments were conducted over a temperature range of 650K-900K at 20bar and 10 bar compressed conditions for equivalence ratios (Φ =) 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.3. CO2 dilution by mass was introduced at 0%, 15% and 30% levels with the O2:N2 mole ratio fixed at 1:3.76 emulating the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) substitution in spark ignition (SI) engines. In this study the direct test chamber (DTC) approach is used for introducing iso-octane directly into the RCM test chamber via a direct injector. The results using this approach are compared with other RCM data available in the literature at undiluted Φ = 1.0 and 20 bar compressed pressure and show good agreement.
Journal Article

Laminar Flame Speeds of Premixed Iso-Octane/Air Flames at High Temperatures with CO2 Dilution

2019-04-02
2019-01-0572
Spherically expanding flames are employed to measure the laminar flame speed of premixed iso-octane/air mixtures at elevated temperatures through both experiments and numerical simulations. Iso-octane (2,2,4-trimethlypentane) is an important gasoline primary reference fuel (PRF). While most studies on laminar burning velocity of iso-octane focus on low temperatures (less than 400 K), the experiments here were conducted in an optically accessible constant volume combustion chamber between 373 K-473 K, at a pressure of 1 bar, and from ϕ=0.8 to ϕ=1.6. The effect of diluent is investigated through the addition of 15% CO2 dilution in order to simulate the effect of exhaust gas recirculation. The decreased reactivity with diluent addition reduces mixture reactivity, which can reduce the propensity for knock in spark ignition engines. All laminar flame speeds were calculated using the constant pressure method enabled via schlieren visualization of the spherically propagating flame front.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on the Factors Affecting Ethanol Ignition Delay Times in a Rapid Compression Machine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0576
Ignition delay, using a rapid compression machine (RCM), is defined as the time period between the end of compression and the maximum rate of pressure rise due to combustion, at a given compressed condition of temperature and pressure. The same compressed conditions can be reached by a variety of combinations of compression ratio, initial temperature, initial pressure, diluent gas composition, etc. It has been assumed that the value of ignition delay, for a given fuel and at a given set of compressed conditions, would be the same, irrespective of the variety of the above-mentioned combinations that were used to achieve the compressed conditions. In this study, a range of initial conditions and compression ratios are studied to determine their effect on ignition delay time and to show how ignition delay time can differ even at the same compressed conditions.
Technical Paper

POD-Based Analysis of In-Cylinder Flow Data from Molecular Tagging Velocimetry in a Spark-Ignition Engine

2018-09-10
2018-01-1770
The fluid motion inside the engine cylinder is transient, three-dimensional and highly turbulent. It is also well known that cycle-to-cycle flow variations have a considerable influence on cycle-to-cycle combustion variations. Laser-based diagnostic techniques, for example, particle image velocimetry (PIV) or molecular tagging velocimetry, can be used to measure two or three components of the velocity field simultaneously at multiple locations over a plane. The use of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) allows quantification of cycle-to-cycle flow variations, as demonstrated using PIV data [1]. In the present work, POD is used to explore the cycle-to-cycle flow variations utilizing molecular tagging velocimetry data. The instantaneous velocity fields were obtained over a swirl measurement plane when engine was operated at 1500 rpm and 2500 rpm.
Technical Paper

Performance Assessment of a Single Jet, Dual Diverging Jets, and Dual Converging Jets in an Auxiliary Fueled Turbulent Jet Ignition System

2018-04-03
2018-01-1135
An auxiliary fueled prechamber ignition system can be used in an IC engine environment to provide lean limit extension with minimal cyclic variability and low emissions. Geometry and distribution of the prechamber orifices form an important criterion for performance of these systems since they are responsible for transferring and distributing the ignition energy into the main chamber charge. Combustion performance of nozzles with a single jet, dual diverging jets and dual converging jets for a methane fueled prechamber ignition system is evaluated and compared in a rapid compression machine (RCM). Upon entering the main chamber, the dual diverging jets penetrate the main chamber in opposite directions creating two jet tips, while the dual converging jets, after exiting the orifices, converge into a single location within the main chamber. Both these configurations minimize jet-wall impingement compared to the single jet.
Technical Paper

CFD Modeling and Experimental Analysis of a Homogeneously Charged Turbulent Jet Ignition System in a Rapid Compression Machine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0557
Three dimensional numerical simulation of the transient turbulent jet and ignition processes of a premixed methane-air mixture of a turbulent jet ignition (TJI) system is performed using Converge computational software. The prechamber initiated combustion enhancement technique that is utilized in a TJI system enables low temperature combustion by increasing the flame propagation rate and therefore decreasing the burn duration. Two important components of the TJI system are the prechamber where the spark plug and injectors are located and the nozzle which connects the prechamber to the main chamber. In order to model the turbulent jet of the TJI system, RANS k-ε and LES turbulent models and the SAGE chemistry solver with a reduced mechanism for methane are used.
Journal Article

Optical Engine Operation to Attain Piston Temperatures Representative of Metal Engine Conditions

2017-03-28
2017-01-0619
Piston temperature plays a major role in determining details of fuel spray vaporization, fuel film deposition and the resulting combustion in direct-injection engines. Due to different heat transfer properties that occur in optical and all-metal engines, it becomes an inevitable requirement to verify the piston temperatures in both engine configurations before carrying out optical engine studies. A novel Spot Infrared-based Temperature (SIR-T) technique was developed to measure the piston window temperature in an optical engine. Chromium spots of 200 nm thickness were vacuum-arc deposited at different locations on a sapphire window. An infrared (IR) camera was used to record the intensity of radiation emitted by the deposited spots. From a set of calibration experiments, a relation was established between the IR camera measurements of these spots and the surface temperature measured by a thermocouple.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Crankcase Pressure Variation during the Engine Cycle of an Internal Combustion Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-1088
High frequency variations in crankcase pressure have been observed in Inline-four cylinder (I4) engines and an understanding of the causes, frequency and magnitude of these variations is helpful in the design and effective operation of various engine systems. This paper shows through a review and explanation of the physics related to engine operation followed by comparison to measured vehicle data, the relationship between crankcase volume throughout the engine cycle and the observed pressure fluctuations. It is demonstrated that for a known or proposed engine design, through knowledge of the key engine design parameters, the frequency and amplitude of the cyclic variation in crankcase pressure can be predicted and thus utilized in the design of other engine systems.
Journal Article

Experimental Studies of a Liquid Propane Auxiliary Fueled Turbulent Jet Igniter in a Rapid Compression Machine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0708
Lean combustion is a promising combustion technology that has the potential to improve engine efficiency while decreasing emissions. One reason why lean combustion has not been more widely implemented is that as the air-fuel ratio increases, the resulting flame propagation speed becomes slower and combustion becomes unstable. Turbulent jet ignition is a pre-chamber ignition enhancement concept that facilitates ultra-lean combustion by using a hot combusting jet as a distributed ignition source. The jet penetration allows for shorter flame travel distances, which decreases the overall burn duration and improves stability. By using a rich mixture in the pre-chamber, the pre-chamber mixture is easily ignitable and the transport of chemically active radical species and unburned fuel into the main-chamber charge improves ignition quality.
Technical Paper

CFD Modeling of an Auxiliary Fueled Turbulent Jet Ignition System in a Rapid Compression Machine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0599
Three-dimensional numerical simulation of the turbulent jet ignition combustion process of a premixed methane-air mixture in a Rapid Compression Machine (RCM) was performed using the Converge computational software. Turbulent jet ignition is a prechamber initiated combustion system that can replace the spark plug in a spark ignition engine. The prechamber is a small volume chamber where an injector and spark plug are located and is connected to the main combustion chamber via one or multiple small orifices. Turbulent jet ignition is capable of enabling low temperature combustion, through either lean or dilute combustion. A RANS model, which included a k-ε turbulence model to solve the mean flow and the SAGE chemistry solver with a reduced methane mechanism to solve the chemistry, was used to model the turbulent jet ignition system.
Technical Paper

A Computational Study of the Effects of Spark Location on the Performance of a Turbulent Jet Ignition System

2016-04-05
2016-01-0608
In this purely computational study, fluid dynamic simulations with active combustion are performed for a Turbulent Jet Ignition (TJI) system installed in a rapid compression machine. The simulations compare the effects that the location of the TJI system’s spark ignition source inside the TJI’s prechamber have on the combustion within the system through the use of four simulations, which are all identically setup with the same initial and boundary conditions except for the location of their respective ignition sources. The four ignition sources are located along the centerline of the axisymmetric prechamber and at varied distances from the orifice exit of the prechamber. Comparison of the simulations demonstrate that the locations furthest from the orifice produce better main chamber ignition as reflected in shorter 0-10% mass fraction burn times. Meanwhile all three of the test cases that were not closest to the orifice all produced similar 10-90% mass fraction burn times.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Variations in Fuel Spray, Combustion, and Soot Production in an Optical Diesel Engine Operating Under High Simulated Exhaust Gas Recirculation Operating Conditions

2016-04-05
2016-01-0727
In-cylinder visualization experiments were completed using an International VT275-based optical DI Diesel engine operating under high simulated exhaust gas recirculation combustion conditions. Experiments were run at four load conditions to examine variations in fuel spray, combustion, and soot production. Mass fraction burned analyses of pressure data were used to investigate the combustion processes of the various operating conditions. An infrared camera was used to visualize fuel spray events and exothermic combustion gases. A visible, high-speed camera was used to image natural luminosity produced by soot. The recorded images were post-processed to analyze the fuel spray, the projected exothermic areas produced by combustion, as well as soot production of different load conditions. Probability maps of combustion and fuel spray occurrence in the cylinder are presented for insight into the combustion processes of the different conditions.
Journal Article

Combustion Visualization, Performance, and CFD Modeling of a Pre-Chamber Turbulent Jet Ignition System in a Rapid Compression Machine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0779
Turbulent jet ignition is a pre-chamber ignition enhancement method that produces a distributed ignition source through the use of a chemically active turbulent jet which can replace the spark plug in a conventional spark ignition engine. In this paper combustion visualization and characterization was performed for the combustion of a premixed propane/air mixture initiated by a pre-chamber turbulent jet ignition system with no auxiliary fuel injection, in a rapid compression machine. Three different single orifice nozzles with orifice diameters of 1.5 mm, 2 mm, and 3 mm were tested for the turbulent jet igniter pre-chamber over a range of air to fuel ratios. The performance of the turbulent jet ignition system based on nozzle orifice diameter was characterized by considering both the 0-10 % and the 10-90 % burn durations of the pressure rise due to combustion.
Technical Paper

Computational Study of a Turbulent Jet Ignition System for Lean Burn Operation in a Rapid Compression Machine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0396
Fully three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic simulations with detailed chemistry of a single-orifice turbulent jet ignition device installed in a rapid compression machine are presented. The simulations were performed using the computational fluid dynamics software CONVERGE and its RANS turbulence models. Simulations of propane fueled combustion are compared to data collected in the optically accessible rapid compression machine that the model's geometry is based on to establish the validity and limitations of the simulations and to compare the behavior of the different air-fuel ratios that are used in the simulations.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Piston Ring-Cylinder Bore-Piston Groove Contact

2015-04-14
2015-01-1724
A three-dimensional piston ring model has been developed using finite element method with eight-node hexahedral elements. The model predicts the piston ring conformability with the cylinder wall as well as the separation gap between the interfaces if existing in the radial direction. In addition to the radial interaction between the ring front face and the cylinder wall, the model also predicts the contact between the ring and groove sides in the axial direction. This means, the ring axial lift, ring twist, contact forces with the groove sides along the circumferential direction are all calculated simultaneously with the radial conformability prediction. The ring/groove side contact can be found for scraper ring at static condition, which is widely used as the second compression ring in a ring pack. Thermal load is believed having significant influence on the ring pack performance.
Technical Paper

Establishment of a Database by Conducting Intake Manifold and In-Cylinder Flow Measurements inside an Internal Combustion Engine Assembly

2013-04-08
2013-01-0565
An experimental study has been conducted to quantify the velocity and pressure inside an idealized intake manifold of a motored internal combustion engine assembly. The aim of this work is to provide the real-time boundary conditions for more accurate multi-dimensional numerical simulations of complex in-cylinder flows in an internal combustion engine as well as the resultant in-cylinder flow patterns. The geometry of the intake manifold is simplified for this purpose. A hot-wire anemometer and a piezoresistive absolute pressure transducer are used to measure the velocity and pressure, respectively, over a plane inside the circular section of the intake manifold. In addition, pressure measurements are performed over an elliptical section near the intake port. Phase-averaged velocity and pressure profiles are then calculated from the instantaneous measurements. Experiments were performed at 900 and 1200 rpm engine speeds with wide open throttle.
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