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Technical Paper

Impact of CO2 Dilution on Ignition Delay Times of Iso-Octane at 15% and 30% Dilution Levels in a Rapid Compression Machine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0569
Iso-Octane (2,2,4-trimethlypentane) is an important gasoline primary reference fuel (PRF) surrogate. Auto ignition of iso-octane was examined using a rapid compression machine (RCM) with iso-octane, air and carbon dioxide (CO2) mixtures. Experiments were conducted over a temperature range of 650K-900K at 20bar and 10 bar compressed conditions for equivalence ratios (Φ =) 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.3. CO2 dilution by mass was introduced at 0%, 15% and 30% levels with the O2:N2 mole ratio fixed at 1:3.76 emulating the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) substitution in spark ignition (SI) engines. In this study the direct test chamber (DTC) approach is used for introducing iso-octane directly into the RCM test chamber via a direct injector. The results using this approach are compared with other RCM data available in the literature at undiluted Φ = 1.0 and 20 bar compressed pressure and show good agreement.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on the Factors Affecting Ethanol Ignition Delay Times in a Rapid Compression Machine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0576
Ignition delay, using a rapid compression machine (RCM), is defined as the time period between the end of compression and the maximum rate of pressure rise due to combustion, at a given compressed condition of temperature and pressure. The same compressed conditions can be reached by a variety of combinations of compression ratio, initial temperature, initial pressure, diluent gas composition, etc. It has been assumed that the value of ignition delay, for a given fuel and at a given set of compressed conditions, would be the same, irrespective of the variety of the above-mentioned combinations that were used to achieve the compressed conditions. In this study, a range of initial conditions and compression ratios are studied to determine their effect on ignition delay time and to show how ignition delay time can differ even at the same compressed conditions.
Technical Paper

Visual Sensor Fusion and Data Sharing across Connected Vehicles for Active Safety

2018-04-03
2018-01-0026
The development of connected-vehicle technology, which includes vehicle-vehicle and vehicle-infrastructure communications, opens the door for unprecedented active safety and driver-enhanced systems. In addition to exchanging basic traffic messages among vehicles for safety applications, a significantly higher level of safety can be achieved when vehicles and designated infrastructure-locations share their sensor data. In this paper, we propose a new system where cameras installed on multiple vehicles and infrastructure-locations share and fuse their visual data and detected objects in real-time. The transmission of camera data and/or detected objects (e.g., pedestrians, vehicles, cyclists, etc.) can be accomplished by many communication methods. In particular, such communications can be accomplished using the emerging Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC) technology.
Technical Paper

CFD Modeling and Experimental Analysis of a Homogeneously Charged Turbulent Jet Ignition System in a Rapid Compression Machine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0557
Three dimensional numerical simulation of the transient turbulent jet and ignition processes of a premixed methane-air mixture of a turbulent jet ignition (TJI) system is performed using Converge computational software. The prechamber initiated combustion enhancement technique that is utilized in a TJI system enables low temperature combustion by increasing the flame propagation rate and therefore decreasing the burn duration. Two important components of the TJI system are the prechamber where the spark plug and injectors are located and the nozzle which connects the prechamber to the main chamber. In order to model the turbulent jet of the TJI system, RANS k-ε and LES turbulent models and the SAGE chemistry solver with a reduced mechanism for methane are used.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of the Impact of Nozzle Endwall Clearance Distribution on Variable Nozzle Turbine Performance

2017-03-28
2017-01-1034
As the variable nozzle turbine(VNT) becomes an important element in engine fuel economy and engine performance, improvement of turbine efficiency over wide operation range is the main focus of research efforts for both academia and industry in the past decades. It is well known that in a VNT, the nozzle endwall clearance has a big impact on the turbine efficiency, especially at small nozzle open positions. However, the clearance at hub and shroud wall sides may contribute differently to the turbine efficiency penalty. When the total height of nozzle clearance is fixed, varying distribution of nozzle endwall clearance at the hub and shroud sides may possibly generate different patterns of clearance leakage flow at nozzle exit that has different interaction with and impact on the main flow when it enters the inducer.
Technical Paper

Camless Variable Valve Actuator with Two Discrete Lifts

2015-04-14
2015-01-0324
Camless Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) technologies have been known for improving fuel economy, reducing emissions, and enhancing engine performance. VVA can be divided into electro-magnetic, electro-hydraulic, and electro-pneumatic actuation. This paper presents an electro-hydraulic VVA design (called GD-VVA-2) that offers continuously variable timing and two discrete lifts (low lift S1 and high lift S2). The lift control is achieved through a lift control sleeve, which is hydraulically switched between two mechanically defined positions to provide accurate lifts. The low lift S1 has a wide design range, anywhere between zero and the high lift S2, i.e., 0 < S1 < S2. If S1 ≥ 0.5*S2, engine valves may operate at the low lift during most of a typical drive cycle. Operation at the low lift reduces energy consumption significantly. The GD-VVA-2 design offers compact package size and reasonable energy consumption.
Journal Article

A New Automotive Air Conditioning System Simulation Tool Developed in MATLAB/Simulink

2013-04-08
2013-01-0850
Accurate evaluation of vehicles' transient total power requirement helps achieving further improvements in vehicle fuel efficiency. When operated, the air-conditioning (A/C) system is the largest auxiliary load on a vehicle, therefore accurate evaluation of the load it places on the vehicle's engine and/or energy storage system is especially important. Vehicle simulation models, such as "Autonomie," have been used by OEMs to evaluate vehicles' energy performance. However, the load from the A/C system on the engine or on the energy storage system has not always been modeled in sufficient detail. A transient A/C simulation tool incorporated into vehicle simulation models would also provide a tool for developing more efficient A/C systems through a thorough consideration of the transient A/C system performance. The dynamic system simulation software MATLAB/Simulink® is frequently used by vehicle controls engineers to develop new and more efficient vehicle energy system controls.
Journal Article

Progress in Camless Variable Valve Actuation with Two-Spring Pendulum and Electrohydraulic Latching

2013-04-08
2013-01-0590
Camless Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) technologies have been known for improving fuel economy, reducing emissions, and enhancing engine performance. VVA can be divided into electro-magnetic, electro-hydraulic, and electro-pneumatic actuation. A family of camless VVA designs (called LGD-VVA or Gongda-VVA) has been presented in an earlier SAE publication (SAE 2007-01-1295) that consists of a two-spring actuation, a bypass passage, and an electrohydraulic latch-release mechanism. The two-spring pendulum system is used to provide efficient conversion between the moving mass kinetic energy and the spring potential energy for reduced energy consumption and to be more robust to the operational temperature than the conventional electrohydraulic actuation; and the electrohydraulic mechanism is intended for latch-release function, energy compensation and seating velocity control.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulations of Turbulent Sprays with a Multicomponent Evaporation Model

2013-04-08
2013-01-1603
A multicomponent droplet evaporation model which discretizes the one-dimensional mass and temperature profiles inside a droplet with a finite volume method has been developed and implemented into a large-eddy simulation (LES) model for spray simulations. The LES and multicomponent models were used along with the KH-RT secondary droplet breakup model to simulate realistic fuel sprays in a closed vessel. The effect of various spray and ambient gas parameters on the liquid penetration length of different single component and multicomponent fuels was investigated. The numerical results indicate that the spray penetration length decreases non-linearly with increasing gas temperature or pressure and is less sensitive to changes in ambient gas conditions at higher temperatures or pressures. The spray models and LES were found to predict the experimental results for n-hexadecane and two multicomponent surrogate diesel fuels reasonably well.
Technical Paper

Establishment of a Database by Conducting Intake Manifold and In-Cylinder Flow Measurements inside an Internal Combustion Engine Assembly

2013-04-08
2013-01-0565
An experimental study has been conducted to quantify the velocity and pressure inside an idealized intake manifold of a motored internal combustion engine assembly. The aim of this work is to provide the real-time boundary conditions for more accurate multi-dimensional numerical simulations of complex in-cylinder flows in an internal combustion engine as well as the resultant in-cylinder flow patterns. The geometry of the intake manifold is simplified for this purpose. A hot-wire anemometer and a piezoresistive absolute pressure transducer are used to measure the velocity and pressure, respectively, over a plane inside the circular section of the intake manifold. In addition, pressure measurements are performed over an elliptical section near the intake port. Phase-averaged velocity and pressure profiles are then calculated from the instantaneous measurements. Experiments were performed at 900 and 1200 rpm engine speeds with wide open throttle.
Journal Article

Visualization of Propane and Natural Gas Spark Ignition and Turbulent Jet Ignition Combustion

2012-10-23
2012-32-0002
This study focuses on the combustion visualization of spark ignition combustion in an optical single cylinder engine using natural gas and propane at several air to fuel ratios and speed-load operating points. Propane and natural gas fuels were compared as they are the most promising gaseous alternative fuels for reciprocating powertrains, with both fuels beginning to find wide market penetration on the fleet level across many regions of the world. Additionally, when compared to gasoline, these gaseous fuels are affordable, have high knock resistance and relatively low carbon content and they do not suffer from the complex re-fueling and storage problems associated with hydrogen.
Technical Paper

Spark Ignition and Pre-Chamber Turbulent Jet Ignition Combustion Visualization

2012-04-16
2012-01-0823
Natural gas is a promising alternative fuel as it is affordable, available worldwide, has high knock resistance and low carbon content. This study focuses on the combustion visualization of spark ignition combustion in an optical single cylinder engine using natural gas at several air to fuel ratios and speed-load operating points. In addition, Turbulent Jet Ignition optical images are compared to the baseline spark ignition images at the world-wide mapping point (1500 rev/min, 3.3 bar IMEPn) in order to provide insight into the relatively unknown phenomenon of Turbulent Jet Ignition combustion. Turbulent Jet Ignition is an advanced spark initiated pre-chamber combustion system for otherwise standard spark ignition engines found in current passenger vehicles. This next generation pre-chamber design simply replaces the spark plug in a conventional spark ignition engine.
Technical Paper

Optical Diagnostic Combustion Comparisons of Pump Diesel with Bio-Derived Diesel Blends in an Optical DI Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0868
Combustion studies were completed using an International VT275-based, optical DI Diesel engine fueled with Diesel fuel, a Canola-derived FAMES biodiesel, as well as with a blend of the Canola-derived biodiesel and a cetane-reducing, oxygenated fuel, Di-Butyl Succinate. Three engine operating conditions were tested to examine the combustion of the fuels across a range of loads and combustion schemes. Pressure data and instantaneous images were recorded using a high-speed visible imaging, infrared imaging, and high-speed OH imaging techniques. The recorded images were post processed to analyze different metrics, such as projected areas of in-cylinder soot, OH, and combustion volumes. A substantially reduced in-cylinder area of soot formation is observed for the Canola-DBS blended fuel with a slight reduction from the pure FAMES biodiesel compared to pump Diesel fuel.
Journal Article

A Turbulent Jet Ignition Pre-Chamber Combustion System for Large Fuel Economy Improvements in a Modern Vehicle Powertrain

2010-05-05
2010-01-1457
Turbulent Jet Ignition is an advanced pre-chamber initiated combustion system for an otherwise standard spark ignition engine found in current on-road vehicles. This next-generation pre-chamber design overcomes previous packaging obstacles by simply replacing the spark plug in a modern four-valve, pent roof spark ignition engine. Turbulent Jet Ignition enables very fast burn rates due to the ignition system producing multiple, distributed ignition sites, which consume the main charge rapidly and with minimal combustion variability. The fast burn rates allow for increased levels of dilution (lean burn and/or EGR) when compared to conventional spark ignition combustion, with dilution levels being comparable to other low temperature combustion technologies (homogeneous charge compression ignition - HCCI) without the complex control drawbacks.
Journal Article

Air-to-Fuel and Dual-Fuel Ratio Control of an Internal Combustion Engine

2009-11-02
2009-01-2749
Air-to-fuel (A/F) ratio is the mass ratio of the air-to-fuel mixture trapped inside a cylinder before combustion begins, and it affects engine emissions, fuel economy, and other performances. Using an A/F ratio and dual-fuel ratio control oriented engine model, a multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) sliding mode control scheme is used to simultaneously control the mass flow rate of both port fuel injection (PFI) and direct injection (DI) systems. The control target is to regulate the A/F ratio at a desired level (e.g., at stoichiometric) and fuel ratio (ratio of PFI fueling vs. total fueling) to any desired level between zero and one. A MIMO sliding mode controller was designed with guaranteed stability to drive the system A/F and fuel ratios to the desired target under various air flow disturbances.
Technical Paper

Humidity Effects on a Carbon Hydrocarbon Adsorber

2009-04-20
2009-01-0873
Because combustion engine equipped vehicles must conform to stringent hydrocarbon (HC) emission requirements, many of them on the road today are equipped with an engine air intake system that utilizes a hydrocarbon adsorber. Also known as HC traps, these devices capture environmentally dangerous gasoline vapors before they can enter the atmosphere. A majority of these adsorbers use activated carbon as it is cost effective and has excellent adsorption characteristics. Many of the procedures for evaluating the adsorbtive performance of these emissions devices use mass gain as the measurand. It is well known that activated carbon also has an affinity for water vapor; therefore it is useful to understand how well humidity must be controlled in a laboratory environment. This paper outlines investigations that were conducted to study how relative humidity levels affect an activated carbon hydrocarbon adsorber.
Technical Paper

Production Solutions for Utilization of Both R1234yf and R134a in a Single Global Platform

2009-04-20
2009-01-0172
As global automobile manufacturers prepare for the phase-out of R134a in Europe, they must address the issue of using the new refrigerant for European sales only or launching the product worldwide. Several factors play into this decision, including cost, service, risk, customer satisfaction, capacity, efficiency, etc. This research effort addresses the minimal vehicle-level hardware differences necessary to provide a European solution of R1234yf while continuing to install R134a into vehicles for the rest of the world. It is anticipated that the same compressor, lubricant and condenser; most fluid transport lines; and in most cases the evaporator can be common between the two systems.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine with Different Fuels

2009-04-20
2009-01-0325
This paper focuses on the numerical investigation of the mixing and combustion of ethanol and gasoline in a single-cylinder 3-valve direct-injection spark-ignition engine. The numerical simulations are conducted with the KIVA code with global reaction models. However, an ignition delay model mitigates some of the deficiencies of the global one-step reaction model and is implemented via a two-dimensional look-up table, which was created using available detailed kinetics models. Simulations demonstrate the problems faced by ethanol operated engines and indicate that some of the strategies used for emission control and downsizing of gasoline engines can be employed for enhancing the combustion efficiency of ethanol operated engines.
Technical Paper

Knock Detection for a Large Displacement Air-Cooled V-Twin Motorcycle Engine Using In-Cylinder Ionization Signals

2008-09-09
2008-32-0028
To obtain the maximum output power and fuel economy from an internal combustion engine, it is often necessary to detect engine knock and operate the engine at its knock limit. This paper presents the ability to detect knock using in-cylinder ionization signals on a large displacement, air-cooled, “V” twin motorcycle engine over the engine operational map. The knock detection ability of three different sensors is compared: production knock (accelerometer) sensor, in-cylinder pressure sensor, and ionization sensor. The test data shows that the ionization sensor is able to detect knock better than the production knock sensor when there is high mechanical noise present in the engine.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of a Single-Cylinder Engine Equipped with Gasoline and Ethanol Dual-Fuel Systems

2008-06-23
2008-01-1767
The requirement of reduced emissions and improved fuel economy led the introduction of direct-injection (DI) spark-ignited (SI) engines. Dual-fuel injection system (direct-injection and port-fuel-injection (PFI)) was also used to improve engine performance at high load and speed. Ethanol is one of the several alternative transportation fuels considered for replacing fossil fuels such as gasoline and diesel. Ethanol offers high octane quality but with lower energy density than fossil fuels. This paper presents the combustion characteristics of a single cylinder dual-fuel injection SI engine with the following fueling cases: a) gasoline for PFI and DI, b) PFI gasoline and DI ethanol, and c) PFI ethanol and DI gasoline. For this study, the DI fueling portion varied from 0 to 100 percentage of the total fueling over different engine operational conditions while the engine air-to-fuel ratio remained at a constant level.
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