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Technical Paper

Numerical Simulations for Spray Characterization of Uneven Multiple Jet-to-Jet Impingement Injectors

2016-04-05
2016-01-0840
Spray structure has a significant effect on emissions and performance of an internal combustion engine. The main objective of this study is to investigate spray structures based on four different multiple jet impingement injectors. These four different multiple jet-to-jet impingement injectors include 1). 4-hole injector (Case 1), which has symmetric inwardly opening nozzles; 2). 5-1-hole (Case 2); 3). 6-2-hole (Case 3); and 4). 7-3-hole (Case 4) which corresponding to 1, 2, 3 numbers of adjacent holes blocked in a 5-hole, 6-hole, and 7-hole symmetrical drill pattern, respectively. All these configurations are basically 4-holes but with different post collision spray structure. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) work of these sprays has been performed using an Eulerian-Lagrangian modelling approach.
Journal Article

Characteristics of Formaldehyde (CH2O) Formation in Dimethyl Ether (DME) Spray Combustion Using PLIF Imaging

2016-04-05
2016-01-0864
Recognition of Dimethyl Ether (DME) as an alternative fuel has been growing recently due to its fast evaporation and ignition in application of compression-ignition engine. Most importantly, combustion of DME produces almost no particulate matter (PM). The current study provides a further understanding of the combustion process in DME reacting spray via experiment done in a constant volume combustion chamber. Formaldehyde (CH2O), an important intermediate species in hydrocarbon combustion, has received much attention in research due to its unique contribution in chemical pathway that leads to the combustion and emission of fuels. Studies in other literature considered CH2O as a marker for UHC species since it is formed prior to diffusion flame. In this study, the formation of CH2O was highlighted both temporally and spatially through planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging at wavelength of 355-nm of an Nd:YAG laser at various time after start of injection (ASOI).
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Studies on Combustion Model Selection for Split Injection Spray Combustion

2015-04-14
2015-01-0374
A wide variety of spray models and their associated sub-models exist to assist with numerical spray development studies in the many applicable areas viz., turbines, internal combustion engines etc. The accuracy of a simulation when compared to the experiments varies, as these models chosen are varied. Also, the computational grid plays a crucial role in model correctness; a grid-converged CFD study is more valuable and assists in proper validation at later stages. Of primary relevance to this paper are the combustion models for a grid-converged Lagrangian spray modeling scenario. CONVERGE CFD code is used for simulation of split injection diesel (n-heptane) sprays and a structured methodology, using RNG k-ε turbulence model, is followed to obtain a grid-converged solution for the key Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) parameters viz., grid size, injected parcels and spray break-up time constant.
Technical Paper

Development of Chemical Kinetic Mechanism for Dimethyl Ether (DME) with Comprehensive Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) and NOx Chemistry

2015-04-14
2015-01-0807
Dimethyl ether (DME) appears to be an attractive alternative to common fossil fuels in compression ignition engines due to its smokeless combustion and fast mixture formation. However, in order to fully understand the complex combustion process of DME, there is still a remaining need to develop a comprehensive chemical kinetic mechanism that includes both soot and NOx chemistry. In this study, a detailed DME mechanism with 305 species is developed from the basic DME mechanism of Curran et al. (2000) with addition of soot and NOx chemistry from Howard's mechanism et al. (1999), and GRI 3.0 mechanism, respectively. Soot chemistry in Howard mechanism consisting hydrogen abstraction acetylene addition (HACA) and growth of small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), assesses over a wide range of temperature and is able to predict good to fair the formation of PAH up to coronene.
Journal Article

Investigation of Key Mechanisms for Liquid Length Fluctuations in Transient Vaporizing Diesel Sprays

2013-04-08
2013-01-1594
Diesel combustion and emissions formation is spray and mixing controlled and understanding spray parameters is key to determining the impact of fuel injector operation and nozzle design on combustion and emissions. In this study, both spray visualization and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling were undertaken to investigate key mechanisms for liquid length fluctuations. For the experimental portion of this study a common rail piezoelectric injector was tested in an optically accessible constant volume combustion vessel. Liquid penetration of the spray was determined via processing of images acquired from Mie back scattering under vaporizing conditions by injecting into a charge gas at elevated temperature with a 0% oxygen environment. Tests were undertaken at a gas density of 34.8 kg/m₃, 2000 bar injection pressure, and at ambient temperatures of 900, 1100, and 1300 K.
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