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Technical Paper

Fuel-Optimal Strategies for Vehicle Supported Military Microgrids

Vehicles with power exporting capability are microgrids since they possess electrical power generation, onboard loads, energy storage, and the ability to interconnect. The unique load and silent watch requirements of some military vehicles make them particularly well-suited to augment stationary power grids to increase power resiliency and capability. Connecting multiple vehicles in a peer-to-peer arrangement or to a stationary grid requires scalable power management strategies to accommodate the possibly large numbers of assets. This paper describes a military ground vehicle power management scheme for vehicle-to-grid applications. The particular focus is overall fuel consumption reduction of the mixed asset inventory of military vehicles with diesel generators typically used in small unit outposts.
Journal Article

A Novel Singular Perturbation Technique for Model-Based Control of Cold Start Hydrocarbon Emission

High hydrocarbon (HC) emission during a cold start still remains one of the major emission control challenges for spark ignition (SI) engines in spite of about three decades of research in this area. This paper proposes a cold start HC emission control strategy based on a reduced order modeling technique. A novel singular perturbation approximation (SPA) technique, based on the balanced realization principle, is developed for a nonlinear experimentally validated cold start emission model. The SPA reduced model is then utilized in the design of a model-based sliding mode controller (SMC). The controller targets to reduce cumulative tailpipe HC emission using a combination of fuel injection, spark timing, and air throttle / idle speed controls. The results from the designed multi-input multi-output (MIMO) reduced order SMC are compared with those from a full order SMC. The results show the reduced SMC outperforms the full order SMC by reducing both engine-out and tailpipe HC emission.
Technical Paper

Stochastic Knock Detection, Control, Software Integration, and Evaluation on a V6 Spark-Ignition Engine under Steady-State Operation

The ability to operate a spark-ignition (SI) engine near the knock limit provides a net reduction of engine fuel consumption. This work presents a real-time knock control system based on stochastic knock detection (SKD) algorithm. The real-time stochastic knock control (SKC) system is developed in MATLAB Simulink, and the SKC software is integrated with the production engine control strategy through ATI's No-Hooks. The SKC system collects the stochastic knock information and estimates the knock level based on the distribution of knock intensities fitting to a log-normal (LN) distribution. A desired knock level reference table is created under various engine speeds and loads, which allows the SKC to adapt to changing engine operating conditions. In SKC system, knock factor (KF) is an indicator of the knock intensity level. The KF is estimated by a weighted discrete FIR filter in real-time.
Journal Article

A Comparison of Cold-Start Behavior and its Impact on Fuel Economy for Advanced Technology Vehicles

Vehicle operation during cold-start powertrain conditions can have a significant impact on drivability, fuel economy and tailpipe emissions in modern passenger vehicles. As efforts continue to maximize fuel economy in passenger vehicles, considerable engineering resources are being spent in order to reduce the consumption penalties incurred shortly after engine start and during powertrain warmup while maintaining suitably low levels of tailpipe emissions. Engine downsizing, advanced transmissions and hybrid-electric architecture can each have an appreciable effect on cold-start strategy and its impact on fuel economy. This work seeks to explore the cold-start strategy of several passenger vehicles with different powertrain architectures and to understand the resulting fuel economy impact relative to warm powertrain operation. To this end, four vehicles were chosen with different powertrain architectures.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Lithium-Ion Battery Management System and Regeneration Control Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Battery management system (BMS) plays a key role in the power management of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). It measures the state of charge (SOC), state of health (SOH) of the battery, protects the battery package and extends cells' life cycles. For HEV applications, lithium-ion battery is usually selected as electric power source due to its high specific energy, high energy density, and long life cycle. However, the non-linear characteristic of a Li-ion battery, complicated electro-chemical model, and environmental factors, raises the difficulties in the real-time estimation of the SOC for a Li-ion battery. To address this challenge, a BMS for HEVs is modeled with MATLAB/Simulink. In addition, a regenerative braking control strategy is proposed to determine the magnitude of the regenerative torque based on the battery SOC.
Journal Article

Rapid Prototyping Energy Management System for a Single Shaft Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle Using Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation

Energy management is one of the key challenges for the development of Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) due to its complex powertrain structure. Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulation provides an open software architecture which enables rapid prototyping HEV energy management system. This paper presents the investigation of the energy management system for a single shaft parallel hybrid electric vehicle using dSPACE eDrive HIL system. The parallel hybrid electric vehicle, energy management system, and low-level Electronic Control Unit (ECU) were modeled using dSPACE Automotive Simulation Models and dSPACE blocksets. Vehicle energy management is achieved by a vehicle-level controller called hybrid ECU, which controls vehicle operation mode and torque distribution among Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and electric motor. The individual powertrain components such as ICE, electric motor, and transmission are controlled by low-level ECUs.
Technical Paper

Methods for Modeling and Code Generation for Custom Lookup Tables

Lookup tables and functions are widely used in real-time embedded automotive applications to conserve scarce processor resources. To minimize the resource utilization, these lookup tables (LUTs) commonly use custom data structures. The lookup function code is optimized to process these custom data structures. The legacy routines for these lookup functions are very efficient and have been in production for many years. These lookup functions and the corresponding data structures are typically used for calibration tables. The third-party calibration tools are specifically tailored to support these custom data structures. These tools assist the calibrators in optimizing the control algorithm performance for the targeted environment for production. Application software typically contains a mix of both automatically generated software and manually developed code. Some of the same calibration tables may be used in both auto generated and hand-code [ 1 ] [ 2 ].

Emission Control and Fuel Economy for Port and Direct Injected SI Engines

Emission and fuel economy regulations and standards are compelling manufacturers to build ultra-low emission vehicles. As a result, engineers must develop spark-ignition engines with integrated emission control systems that use reformulated low-sulfur fuel. Emission Control and Fuel Economy for Port and Direct Injected SI Engines is a collection of SAE technical papers that covers the fundamentals of gasoline direct injection (DI) engine emissions and fuel economy, design variable effects on HC emissions, and advanced emission control technology and modeling approaches. All papers contained in this book were selected by an accomplished expert as the best in the field; reprinted in their entirety, they present a pathway to integrated emission control systems that meet 2004-2009 EPA standards for light-duty vehicles.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Model Based Feedback Controlled Cooling System for Heavy Duty Diesel Truck Applications Using a Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation

A thermal management system for heavy duty diesel engines is presented for maintaining acceptable and constant engine temperatures over a wide range of operational conditions. It consists of a computer controlled variable speed coolant pump, a position controlled thermostat, and a model-based control strategy. An experimentally validated, diesel engine cooling system simulation was used to demonstrate the thermal management system's capability to reduce power consumption. The controller was evaluated using a variety of operating scenarios across a wide range of loads, vehicle speeds, and ambient temperatures. Three metrics were used to assess the effects of the computer controlled system: engine temperature, energy savings, and cab temperature. The proposed control system provided very good control over the engine coolant temperatures while maintaining engine metal temperatures within a desired range.
Technical Paper

The Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation Part 2 – Model Validation Using Transient Data

The Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation (VECSS) computer code has been developed at the Michigan Technological University to simulate the thermal response of a cooling system for an on-highway heavy duty diesel powered truck under steady and transient operation. In Part 1 of this research, the code development and verification has been presented. The revised and enhanced VECSS (version 8.1) software is capable of simulating in real-time a Freightliner FLD 120 truck with a Detroit Diesel Series 60 engine, Behr McCord radiator, Allied signal / Garrett Automotive charge air cooler and turbocharger, Kysor DST variable speed fan clutch, DDC oil and coolant thermostat. Other cooling system components were run and compared with experimental data provided by Kysor Cooling Systems. The experimental data were collected using the Detroit Diesel Electronic Control's (DDEC) Electronic Control Module (ECM) and the Hewlett Packard (HP) data acquisition system.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for Rapid Calculation of Computational Thermal Models

Too often many heat management problems are not solved with thermal analysis because of excessive complexity, time, and cost. A method for quickly solving a sophisticated thermal/fluid system with minimal user interaction and with common desktop computer resources is presented. A desktop (Microsoft Windows™) thermal analysis package, WinTherm, consists of the Generic Processor (pre-processing software), the 3-D Thermal Model (a finite difference nodal network solver), and an Image Viewer (wireframe and animated thermal display). The theoretical basis for this thermal analysis toolkit will be discussed as well as examples of its implementation.
Technical Paper

Computer Simulation of Refrigerant Vapor Condenser in Transient Operation

The formulation of mathematical model for the computational simulation of transient temperature response and phase change of refrigerant in a vapor condenser of an automotive air conditioning unit is described. A demonstrative computational simulation of a sample air cooled vapor condenser charged with Freon 12 is presented. The computational analysis predicts an initial surge and followed by an oscillation of the condensate outflow rate from the condenser when the air-conditioning unit is started, and the tube length required for complete condensation of inflow vapor is a maximum value at start up. The rise of the temperatures of the condenser tubes and cooling air flow during the start-up and load change operations rate found to be gradual but the scale of these temperature changes are considered small.
Technical Paper

Automated Radiation Modeling for Vehicle Thermal Management

A fast, semi-automated method for visualizing the time-varying effects of radiative heat transfer, including obscuration and multiple reflections, is presented. Starting with a finite element surface description, an analyst assigns “groups” to a model by indicating which elements have the same material and surface properties. The elements within each group are combined into isothermal nodes. View factors are then calculated using a variant of the hemi-cube method. Transient nodal temperatures are calculated using an implicit solution to the finite difference equations derived from the thermal properties of each node and the radiation exchange between nodes.
Technical Paper

Fuel Film Dynamics in the Intake Port of a Fuel Injected Engine

Up to 80 percent of the total hydrocarbons emitted during the EPA Federal emissions test are produced in the first five minutes of this procedure. It has been theorized that this is in part due to wall wetting of the intake port and cylinder. This study measures the behavior of the fuel film thickness in the intake port during cold starting, steady state and transient operation. Three injector spray patterns with varying droplet sizes were utilized for the tests. The fuel film thickness in the intake port of a Ford 1.9L engine was measured using optical sensors. It was found that the spray pattern and droplet size affected the port wall wetting characteristics.
Technical Paper

Pneumatic Atomization in an Annular Flow Nozzle

A simple geometry pneumatic atomizer which could be used on internal combustion engine was tested with water as the working fluid. The pneumatic atomizer consists of a cylindrical chamber with an orifice plate at the outlet end. Liquid flows down the chamber walls and onto the nozzle orifice plate as a film. Air flows down the center of the chamber. The interaction of the air and water, which occurs at the orifice, atomizes the water. Large droplets form near the nozzle orifice and break up as they go down stream. Variations in the droplet size occurred in the spray. When geometry and flow rates were varied, changes which decreased the water film thickness or increased the air velocity at the nozzle orifice yielded smaller droplets in the spray. Droplet size data was measured by Malvern Laser Particle Sizer.