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Technical Paper

Design and Analysis of an Adaptive Real-Time Advisory System for Improving Real World Fuel Economy in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2010-04-12
2010-01-0835
Environmental awareness and fuel economy legislation has resulted in greater emphasis on developing more fuel efficient vehicles. As such, achieving fuel economy improvements has become a top priority in the automotive field. Companies are constantly investigating and developing new advanced technologies, such as hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, improved turbo-charged gasoline direct injection engines, new efficient powershift transmissions, and lighter weight vehicles. In addition, significant research and development is being performed on energy management control systems that can improve fuel economy of vehicles. Another area of research for improving fuel economy and environmental awareness is based on improving the customer's driving behavior and style without significantly impacting the driver's expectations and requirements.
Technical Paper

National Science Foundation Workshop on Environmentally Benign Manufacturing for the Transportation Industries

2002-03-04
2002-01-0593
The National Science Foundation recently sponsored a Workshop on Environmentally Benign Manufacturing (EBM) for the Transportation Industries. The objective of the workshop was to determine future directions of research in the EBM area and to construct a roadmap for development of future research programs. While research in the fields of Design for the Environment (DfE) and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) have focused on the product and product life cycles, an additional focus is needed to find and develop processes with less environmental impact within the manufacturing environment. This workshop explored EBM issues with respect to the enterprise, the products, the processes and the materials.
Technical Paper

Compound Electroformed Metal Nozzles for High Pressure Gasoline Injection

1998-02-23
980818
The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects that higher fluid injection pressures and nozzle geometry have on compound fuel injector nozzle performance. Higher pressures are shown to significantly reduce droplet size, increase the discharge coefficient and reduce the overall size of a nozzle spray. It is also shown that the geometry has a significant effect on nozzle performance, and it can be manipulated to give a desired spray shape.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Modeling of Forces on Snowplow Equipped Trucks

1997-11-17
973193
A major task of road and airfield maintenance for transportation departments in the Northern United States and in cold regions globally is snow removal. In addition, there is a service industry built on snowplow equipped light trucks to remove snow from vehicle serviceways and parking lots. Thus, a source of stresses on a truck frame are the forces applied by the plow. Unfortunately, very little research has been performed to provide design models that will predict these forces. In this paper, both theoretical and experimental work on developing expressions for snowplow forces will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Computational Design of Experiments for Compound Fuel Injector Nozzles

1997-05-01
971617
A computational design of experiments was constructed to analyze two basic nozzle designs. Several geometric features of the nozzles such as cavity height, exit orifice area, turbulence generator area and exit orifice position in addition to the pressure differential across the injector were used in a 2k factorial design study. Performance characteristic which were analyzed in an analysis of variance study included the discharge coefficient. atomization efficiency and predicted spray pattern. The computational design of experiments revealed which of the studied parameters had the greatest influence on a given nozzle performance characteristic. These results were compared to a similar investigation which was later performed experimentally from which similar conclusions were drawn.
Technical Paper

Research Advances in Dry and Semi-Dry Machining

1997-02-24
970415
The current trend in the automotive industry is to minimize/eliminate cutting fluid use in most machining operations. Research is required prior to achieving dry or semi-dry machining. Issues such as heat generation and transfer, thermal deformation and fluid lubricity related effects on tool life and surface roughness determine the feasibility of dry machining. This paper discusses recent advances in achieving dry/semi-dry machining. As the first step, research has been conducted to investigate the actual role of fluids (if any) in various machining operations. A predictive heat generation model for orthogonal cutting of visco-plastic material was created. A control volume approach allowed development of a thermal model for convective heat transfer during machining. The heat transfer performance of an air jet in dry machining was explored. The influence of machining process variables and cutting fluid presence on chip morphology was investigated through designed experiments.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Flow Separation in a Two Stroke Engine

1996-02-01
960744
The two stroke direct injected gasoline engine is in part characterized by low temperature exhaust flow, particularly at light loads, due to the fresh air scavenging of the combustion chamber during the exhaust process. This study investigated the possibility of separating the exhaust flow into two regimes: 1) high temperature flow of the combustion products, and 2) low temperature flow from the fresh air scavenging process. Separation of the exhaust flow was accomplished by a mechanical device placed in the exhaust stream. In this way, emissions from the exhaust could be handled by two different catalysts and/or processes, each optimized for different temperature ranges and flow compositions. The first portion of this study involved validation of a computer model, using experimental data from a single cylinder engine with a stationary exhaust port and splitter.
Technical Paper

Compound Port Fuel Injector Nozzle Droplet Sizes and Spray Patterns

1996-02-01
960114
The goal of this research was to determine an empirical method of relating the droplet sizes and the spray patterns to the parameters and the geometries of the compound nozzles. Two different types of compound nozzles were studied, the compound silicon micro machined nozzle and the compound metal disk nozzle. Several different orifice geometries of each nozzle type were examined. The injector components upstream of the compound nozzle of two different types of injectors were also studied. A nondimensional characterization of the droplet sizes and the mass flow rates was proposed. The results of this study show that there exists optimum geometric features that will produce sprays with the minimum steady state and dynamic Sauter mean diameter. The spray of a compound nozzle can be characterized by the atomization efficiency and the discharge coefficient. Nozzle testing results show that many flow characteristics are developed in the compound nozzle.
Technical Paper

Strain Path Effects on the Modified FLD Caused by Variable Blank Holder Force

1995-02-01
950695
The objective in this research is to investigate the effects of variable blank holder force (VBHF) on the material formability, due to its effect on the strain path. It is found in a recent study [9] that VBHF does not significantly affect the overall trend of the strain path. This strain path in deep drawing process is linear for the materials in the flange and under punch face, and is roughly bi-linear for the material around the punch nose. The second segment of the strain path in the punch nose region is plane-strain. VBHF, however, affects the strain ratio ρ1 = ε2/ε1 of the first segment of the bi-linear strain path. These effects, especially ρ1, on limit strain were studied using M-K method. A strain path dependent modified forming limit diagram (MFLD) was calculated based on the actual strain path. It is found that the MFLD is strongly dependent on ρ1.
Technical Paper

A Review of Diesel Particulate Control Technology and Emissions Effects - 1992 Horning Memorial Award Lecture

1994-03-01
940233
Studies have been conducted at Michigan Technological University (MTU) for over twenty years on methods for characterizing and controlling particulate emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines and the resulting effects on regulated and unregulated emissions. During that time, control technologies have developed in response to more stringent EPA standards for diesel emissions. This paper is a review of: 1) modern emission control technologies, 2) emissions sampling and chemical, physical and biological characterization methods and 3) summary results from recent studies conducted at MTU on heavy-duty diesel engines with a trap and an oxidation catalytic converter (OCC) operated on three different fuels. Control technology developments discussed are particulate traps, catalysts, advances in engine design, the application of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and modifications of fuel formulations.
Technical Paper

Pneumatic Atomization in an Annular Flow Nozzle

1987-02-01
870611
A simple geometry pneumatic atomizer which could be used on internal combustion engine was tested with water as the working fluid. The pneumatic atomizer consists of a cylindrical chamber with an orifice plate at the outlet end. Liquid flows down the chamber walls and onto the nozzle orifice plate as a film. Air flows down the center of the chamber. The interaction of the air and water, which occurs at the orifice, atomizes the water. Large droplets form near the nozzle orifice and break up as they go down stream. Variations in the droplet size occurred in the spray. When geometry and flow rates were varied, changes which decreased the water film thickness or increased the air velocity at the nozzle orifice yielded smaller droplets in the spray. Droplet size data was measured by Malvern Laser Particle Sizer.
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