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Technical Paper

Recovery of Waste Polystyrene Generated by Lost Foam Technology in the Automotive Industry

In the automotive industry, lost foam casting is a relatively new technology, which is gaining popularity among manufacturers. Lost foam casting is a process in which an expanded polystyrene pattern is formed into the shape of the part to be cast. More complex parts are fabricated by simply gluing several simple patterns together. The pattern is then coated with a refractory material consisting of a mineral mixture and binders. Finally, hot metal is poured into the pattern, evaporating the expanded polystyrene and taking shape of the coating shell. However, the automotive industry has observed that a significant number of these fabricated, coated patterns are damaged, or do not meet specifications prior to casting. These are not reusable and inevitably are landfilled. It is the goal of this project to develop a simple, reliable, and inexpensive technology to recover expanded polystyrene from the glue and coating constituents.
Technical Paper

An Automated Patternator for Fuel Injector Sprays

The spray pattern of a fuel injector is a key factor in the mixing of the fuel with the air. One effective means of determining the fuel distribution in the spray is to collect the fuel in tubes, from various regions of the spray. The amount of fuel in the tubes is measured. These measurements are used to create diagrams and curves which graphically represent the fuel distribution within the spray. The term “Patternator” has come to mean a device which determines the spray distribution, in the sense that the device determines the pattern of the spray. The objective of this paper is to describe the operation, features, and performance of an automated patternator designed and built at Michigan Technological University for Ford Motor Company. The patternator system was constructed for rapid determination of the spray pattern in order to expedite the development of automotive port fuel injectors.
Technical Paper

Spray Characteristics of Compound Silicon Micro Machined Port Fuel Injector Orifices

Steady state and dynamic spray characteristics of compound silicon micro machined port fuel injector orifices have been analyzed. Primary interest was placed on the Sauter mean diameter and the spray distribution. Orifice design parameters that influence droplet size and spray distribution were identified. The influence of injection pressure was investigated. The results of this investigation indicate that spray characteristics can be controlled by orifice geometry. Peak dynamic droplet sizes have been found to be significantly larger than steady state droplet sizes. Moderate increases in injector line pressure reduce spray droplet size without significantly affecting spray distribution.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for Rapid Calculation of Computational Thermal Models

Too often many heat management problems are not solved with thermal analysis because of excessive complexity, time, and cost. A method for quickly solving a sophisticated thermal/fluid system with minimal user interaction and with common desktop computer resources is presented. A desktop (Microsoft Windows™) thermal analysis package, WinTherm, consists of the Generic Processor (pre-processing software), the 3-D Thermal Model (a finite difference nodal network solver), and an Image Viewer (wireframe and animated thermal display). The theoretical basis for this thermal analysis toolkit will be discussed as well as examples of its implementation.
Technical Paper

Physical Size Distribution Characterization of Diesel Particulate Matter and the Study of the Coagulation Process

Diesel particulate matter in both the diluted and undiluted state is subject to the processes of coagulation, condensation or evaporation, and nucleation which causes continuous changes in its physical characteristics. The Electrical Aerosol Analyzer (EAA) is used to measure the diesel particle size distribution in the MTU dilution tunnel for a naturally aspirated direct-injection diesel engine operated on the EPA 13 mode cycle. The design and development of accurate and repeatable sampling methods using the EAA are presented. These methods involve both steady-state tunnel and bag measurements. The data indicate a bimodal nature within the 0.001 to 1 μm range. The first mode termed the “embroynic mode” has a saddle point between 0.005 to 0.015 μm and the second mode termed the “aggregation mode” lies between .08 to .15 μm for the number distribution.