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Towards Developing an Unleaded High Octane Test Procedure (RON >100) using Toluene Standardization Fuels (TSF)

2020-09-17
An increase in spark-ignition engine efficiency can be gained by increasing the engine compression ratio, which requires fuels with higher knock resistance. Oxygenated fuel components, such as methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, or iso-butanol, all have a Research Octane Number (RON) higher than 100. The octane numbers (ON) of fuels are rated on the CFR F1/F2 engine by comparing the knock intensity of a sample fuel relative to that of bracketing primary reference fuels (PRF). The PRFs are a binary blend of iso-octane, which is defined to an ON of 100, and n-heptane, which represents an ON of 0. Above 100 ON, the PRF scale continues by adding diluted tetraethyl lead (TEL) to iso-octane. However, TEL is banned from use in commercial gasoline because of its toxicity. The ASTM octane number test methods have a ?Fit for Use? test that validate the CFR engine?s compliance with the octane testing method by verifying the defined ON of toluene standardization fuels (TSF).
Technical Paper

Reduced Order Modeling of Engine Transients for Gasoline Compression Ignition Combustion Control

2020-09-15
2020-01-2000
This work focuses on reducing the computational effort of a 0-dimensional combustion model developed for compression ignition engines operating on gasoline-like fuels. As in-cylinder stratification significantly contributes to the ignition delay, which in turn substantially influences the entire gasoline compression ignition combustion process, previous modeling efforts relied on the results of a 1-dimensional spray model to estimate the in-cylinder fuel stratification. Insights obtained from the detailed spray model are leveraged within this approach and applied to a reduced order model describing the spray propagation. Using this computationally efficient combustion model showed a reduction in simulation time by three orders of magnitude for an entire engine cycle over the combustion model with the 1-dimensional spray model.
Technical Paper

Towards Developing an Unleaded High Octane Test Procedure (RON>100) Using Toluene Standardization Fuels (TSF)

2020-09-15
2020-01-2040
An increase in spark-ignition engine efficiency can be gained by increasing the engine compression ratio, which requires fuels with higher knock resistance. Oxygenated fuel components, such as methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, or iso-butanol, all have a Research Octane Number (RON) higher than 100. The octane numbers (ON) of fuels are rated on the CFR F1/F2 engine by comparing the knock intensity of a sample fuel relative to that of bracketing primary reference fuels (PRF). The PRFs are a binary blend of iso-octane, which is defined to an ON of 100, and n-heptane, which represents an ON of 0. Above 100 ON, the PRF scale continues by adding diluted tetraethyl lead (TEL) to iso-octane. However, TEL is banned from use in commercial gasoline because of its toxicity. The ASTM octane number test methods have a “Fit for Use” test that validate the CFR engine’s compliance with the octane testing method by verifying the defined ON of toluene standardization fuels (TSF).
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Spray Numerical Injection Modeling for Gasoline Applications

2020-04-14
2020-01-0330
The modeling of fuel jet atomization is key in the characterization of Internal Combustion (IC) engines, and 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a recognized tool to provide insights for design and control purposes. Multi-hole injectors with counter-bored nozzle are the standard for Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) applications and the Spray-G injector from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) is considered the reference for numerical studies, thanks to the availability of extensive experimental data. In this work, the behavior of the Spray-G injector is simulated in a constant volume chamber, ranging from sub-cooled (nominal G) to flashing conditions (G2), validating the models on Diffused Back Illumination and Phase Doppler Anemometry data collected in vaporizing inert conditions.
Technical Paper

An Analytical Energy-budget Model for Diesel Droplet Impingement on an Inclined Solid Wall

2020-04-14
2020-01-1158
The study of spray-wall interaction is of great importance to understand the dynamics that occur during fuel impingement onto the chamber wall or piston surfaces in internal combustion engines. It is found that the maximum spreading length of an impinged droplet can provide a quantitative estimation of heat transfer and energy transformation for spray-wall interaction. Furthermore, it influences the air-fuel mixing and hydrocarbon and particle emissions at combusting conditions. In this paper, an analytical model of a single diesel droplet impinging on the wall with different inclined angles (α) is developed in terms of βm (dimensionless maximum spreading length, the ratio of maximum spreading length to initial droplet diameter) to understand the detailed impinging dynamic process.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of Fuel Impacts on Advanced Compression Ignition Strategies for Multi-Mode Internal Combustion Engines

2020-04-14
2020-01-1124
Multi-mode combustion strategies may provide a promising pathway to improve thermal efficiency in light-duty spark ignition (SI) engines by enabling switchable combustion modes, wherein an engine may operate under advanced compression ignition (ACI) at low load and spark-assisted ignition at high load. The extension from the SI mode to the ACI mode requires accurate control of intake charge conditions, e.g., pressure, temperature and equivalence ratio, in order to achieve stable combustion phasing and rapid mode-switches. This study presents results from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis to gain insights into mixture charge formation and combustion dynamics pertaining to auto-ignition processes. The computational study begins with a discussion of thermal wall boundary condition that significantly impacts the combustion phasing.
Technical Paper

Real-world Evaluation of National Energy Efficiency Potential of Cold Storage Evaporator Technology in the Context of Engine Start-Stop Systems

2020-04-14
2020-01-1252
National concerns over energy consumption and emissions from the transportation sector have prompted regulatory agencies to implement aggressive fuel economy targets for light-duty vehicles through the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration/Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) program. Automotive manufacturers have responded by bringing competitive technologies to market that maximize efficiency while meeting or exceeding consumer performance and comfort expectations. In a collaborative effort among Toyota Motor Corporation, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the real-world savings of one such technology is evaluated. A commercially available Toyota Highlander equipped with two-phase cold storage technology was tested at ANL’s chassis dynamometer testing facility.
Technical Paper

Combustion System Optimization of a Light-Duty GCI Engine Using CFD and Machine Learning

2020-04-14
2020-01-1313
In this study, the combustion system of a light-duty compression ignition engine running on a market gasoline fuel with Research Octane Number (RON) of 91 was optimized using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and Machine Learning (ML). This work was focused on optimizing the piston bowl geometry at two compression ratios (CR) (17 and 18:1) and this exercise was carried out at full-load conditions (20 bar indicated mean effective pressure, IMEP). First, a limited manual piston design optimization was performed for CR 17:1, where a couple of pistons were designed and tested. Thereafter, a CFD design of experiments (DoE) optimization was performed where CAESES, a commercial software tool, was used to automatically perturb key bowl design parameters and CONVERGE software was utilized to perform the CFD simulations. At each compression ratio, 128 piston bowl designs were evaluated.
Technical Paper

Numerical Evaluation of Gasoline Compression Ignition at Cold Conditions in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2020-04-14
2020-01-0778
Achieving robust ignitability for compression ignition of diesel engines at cold conditions is traditionally challenging due to insufficient fuel vaporization, heavy wall impingement, and thick wall films. Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) has shown the potential to offer an enhanced NOx-particulate matter tradeoff with diesel-like fuel efficiency, but it is unknown how the volatility and reactivity of the fuel will affect ignition under very cold conditions. Therefore, it is important to investigate the impact of fuel physical and chemical properties on ignition under pressures and temperatures relevant to practical engine operating conditions during cold weather. In this paper, 0-D and 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of GCI combustion at cold conditions were performed.
Technical Paper

Performance of a Printed Bimetallic (Stainless Steel and Bronze) Engine Head Operating under Stoichiometric and Lean Spark Ignited (SI) Combustion of Natural Gas

2020-04-14
2020-01-0770
Additive manufacturing was used to fabricate a head for an automotive-scale single-cylinder engine operating on natural gas. The head was consisted of a bimetallic composition of stainless steel and bronze. The engine performance using the bimetallic head was compared against the stock cast iron head. The heads were tested at two speeds (1200 and 1800 rpm), two brake mean effective pressures (6 and 10 bar), and two equivalence ratios (0.7 and 1.0). The bimetallic head showed good durability over the test and produced equivalent efficiencies, exhaust temperatures, and heat rejection to the coolant to the stock head. Higher combustion temperatures and advanced combustion phasing resulted from use with the bimetallic head. The implication is that with optimization of the valve timing, an efficiency benefit may be realized with the bimetallic head.
Technical Paper

Transient Internal Nozzle Flow in Transparent Multi-Hole Diesel Injector

2020-04-14
2020-01-0830
An accurate prediction of internal nozzle flow in fuel injector offers the potential to improve predictions of spray computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in an engine, providing a coupled internal-external calculation or by defining better rate of injection (ROI) profile and spray angle information for Lagrangian parcel computations. Previous research has addressed experiments and computations in transparent nozzles, but less is known about realistic multi-hole diesel injectors compared to single axial-hole fuel injectors. In this study, the transient injector opening and closing is characterized using a transparent multi-hole diesel injector, and compared to that of a single axial hole nozzle (ECN Spray D shape). A real-size five-hole acrylic transparent nozzle was mounted in a high-pressure, constant-flow chamber. Internal nozzle phenomena such as cavitation and gas exchange were visualized by high-speed long-distance microscopy.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Choices for Emerging Engine Technologies

2020-04-14
2020-01-0440
The peak efficiency of modern spark ignited engines varies from 36% to 40% depending on the exact technology utilized. Most engines can achieve this peak efficiency for a limited operating region. Multi-speed transmissions allow the engine to operate closer to its most efficient operating regions for more significant portions of operation. In the case of hybrid powertrains, electric machines help in improving engine efficiency by adjusting operating speed and load. Engine shutdown during idle events and low loads is another avenue for improving the overall efficiency. The choice of the ideal powertrain and component sizes depends on the engine characteristics, drive cycles and vehicle technical requirements. This study examines what type of powertrains will be suitable for more efficient engines that are likely to be available in the near future. Some of the new technologies achieve higher efficiency with a trade off on power or by accepting a more restrictive operating region.
Technical Paper

Experimental Evaluation of Longitudinal Control for Automated Vehicles through Vehicle-in-the-Loop Testing

2020-04-14
2020-01-0714
Automated driving functionalities delivered through Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) have been adopted more and more frequently in consumer vehicles. The development and implementation of such functionalities pose new challenges in safety and functional testing and the associated validations, due primarily to their high demands on facility and infrastructure. This paper presents a rather unique Vehicle-in-the-Loop (VIL) test setup and methodology compared those previously reported, by combining the advantages of the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) and traditional chassis dynamometer test cell in place of on-road testing, with a multi-agent real-time simulator for the rest of test environment.
Technical Paper

Durability Study of a Light-Duty High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Injection System Using E10 Gasoline

2020-04-14
2020-01-0616
A 500-hour test cycle has been used to evaluate the durability of a prototype high pressure common rail injection system operating up to 1800 bar with E10 gasoline. Some aspects of the original diesel based hardware design were optimized in order to accommodate an opposed-piston, two-stroke engine application and also to mitigate the impacts of exposure to gasoline. Overall system performance was maintained throughout testing as fueling rate and rail pressure targets were continuously achieved and no physical damage was observed in the low-pressure components. Injectors showed no deviation in their flow characteristics after exposure to gasoline and high resolution imaging of the nozzle spray holes and pilot valve assemblies did not indicate the presence of cavitation damage. The high pressure pump did not exhibit any performance degradation during gasoline testing and teardown analysis after 500 hours showed no evidence of cavitation erosion.
Technical Paper

Detailed Analysis of U.S. Department of Energy Engine Targets Compared to Existing Engine Technologies

2020-04-14
2020-01-0835
The U.S. Department of Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office (U.S. DOE-VTO) has been developing more energy-efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies that would enable the United States to burn less petroleum on the road. System simulation is an accepted approach for evaluating the fuel economy potential of advanced (future) technology targets. U.S. DOE-VTO defines the targets for advancement in powertrain technologies (e.g., engine efficiency targets, battery energy density, lightweighting, etc.) Vehicle system simulation models based on these targets have been generated in Autonomie, reflecting the different EPA classifications of vehicles for different advanced timeframes as part of the DOE Benefits and Scenario (BaSce) Analysis. It is also important to evaluate the progress of these component technical targets compared to existing technologies available in the market.
Technical Paper

Analytical Approach to Characterize the Effect of Engine Control Parameters and Fuel Properties on ACI Operation in a GDI Engine

2020-04-14
2020-01-1141
Advanced compression ignition (ACI) operation in gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines is a promising concept to reduce fuel consumption and emissions at part load conditions. However, combustion phasing control and the limited operating range in ACI mode are a perennial challenge. In this study the combined impact of fuel properties and engine control strategies in ACI operation are investigated. A design of experiments method was implemented using a three level orthogonal array to determine the sensitivity of engine control parameters on the engine load, combustion noise and stability under low load ACI operation for three RON 98 gasoline fuels, each exhibiting disparate chemical composition. Furthermore, the thermodynamic state of the compression histories was studied with the aid of the pressure-temperature framework.
Technical Paper

Fuel Property Effects on Spray Atomization Process in Gasoline Direct Injection

2020-04-14
2020-01-0329
This paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) Spray G under non-vaporizing condition, focusing on the impacts of fuel properties as well as realistic geometry on the atomization process. The large-eddy-simulation method, coupled with the volume-of-fluid method, is used to model the high-speed turbulent two-phase flow. A moving-needle boundary condition is applied to capture the internal flow boundary condition accurately. The injector geometry was measured with micron-level resolution using x-ray tomographic imaging at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, providing detailed machining tolerance and defects from manufacturing and a realistic rough surface. A 2.5-μm fine mesh is used to sufficiently resolve the details of liquid-gas interface and the breakup process.
Journal Article

Internal Nozzle Flow Simulations of the ECN Spray C Injector under Realistic Operating Conditions

2020-04-14
2020-01-1154
In this study, three-dimensional large eddy simulations were performed to study the internal nozzle flow of the ECN Spray C diesel injector. Realistic nozzle geometry, full needle motion, and internal flow imaging data obtained from X-ray measurements were employed to initialize and validate the CFD model. The influence of injection pressure and fuel properties were investigated, and the effect of mesh size was discussed. The results agreed well with the experimental data of mass flow rate and correctly captured the flow structures inside the orifice. Simulations showed that the pressure drop near the sharp orifice inlet triggered flow separation, resulting in the ingestion of ambient gas into the orifice via a phenomenon known as hydraulic flip. At higher injection pressure, the pressure drop was more significant as the liquid momentum increased and the stream inertia was less prone to change its direction.
Technical Paper

Improvements to a CFR Engine Three Pressure Analysis GT-Power Model for HCCI and SI Conditions

2020-01-24
2019-32-0608
While experimental data measured directly on the engine are very valuable, there is a limitation of what measurements can be made without modifying the engine or the process that is being investigated, such as cylinder temperature. In order to supplement the experimental results, a Three Pressure Analysis (TPA) GT-Power model of the Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) engine was previously developed and validated for estimating cylinder temperature and residual fraction. However, this model had only been validated for normal and knocking spark ignition (SI) combustion with RON-like intake conditions (naturally aspirated, <52 °C). This work presents improvements made to the GT-Power model and the expansion of its use for HCCI combustion. The burn rate estimation sub-model was modified to allow for low temperature heat release estimation and compression ignition operation.
Journal Article

Eco-Driving Strategies for Different Powertrain Types and Scenarios

2019-10-22
2019-01-2608
Connected automated vehicles (CAVs) are quickly becoming a reality, and their potential ability to communicate with each other and the infrastructure around them has big potential impacts on future mobility systems. Perhaps one of the most important impacts could be on network wide energy consumption. A lot of research has already been performed on the topic of eco-driving and the potential fuel and energy consumption benefits for CAVs. However, most of the efforts to date have been based on simulation studies only, and have only considered conventional vehicle powertrains. In this study, experimental data is presented for the potential eco-driving benefits of two specific intersection approach scenarios, for four different powertrain types.
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