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Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Compression Ignition Process of High Reactivity Gasoline Fuels and E10 Certification Gasoline using a High-Pressure Direct Injection Gasoline Injector

2020-04-14
2020-01-0323
Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) technology shows the potential to obtain high thermal efficiencies while maintaining low soot and NOx emissions in light-duty engine applications. Recent experimental studies and numerical simulations have indicated that high reactivity gasoline-like fuels can further enable the benefits of GCI combustion. However, there is limited empirical data in the literature studying the gasoline compression ignition process at relevant in-cylinder conditions, which are required for further optimizing combustion system designs. This study investigates the temporal and spatial evolution of the compression ignition process of various high reactivity gasoline fuels with research octane numbers (RON) of 71, 74 and 82, as well as a conventional RON 97 E10 gasoline fuel. A ten-hole prototype gasoline injector specifically designed for GCI applications capable of injection pressures up to 450 bar was used.
Technical Paper

An Analytical Energy-budget Model for Diesel Droplet Impingement on an Inclined Solid Wall

2020-04-14
2020-01-1158
The study of spray-wall interaction is of great importance to understand the dynamics that occur during fuel impingement onto the chamber wall or piston surfaces in internal combustion engines. It is found that the maximum spreading length of an impinged droplet can provide a quantitative estimation of heat transfer and energy transformation for spray-wall interaction. Furthermore, it influences the air-fuel mixing and hydrocarbon and particle emissions at combusting conditions. In this paper, an analytical model of a single diesel droplet impinging on the wall with different inclined angles (α) is developed in terms of βm (dimensionless maximum spreading length, the ratio of maximum spreading length to initial droplet diameter) to understand the detailed impinging dynamic process.
Technical Paper

Probing Spark Discharge Behavior in High-speed Cross-flows through Modeling and Experimentation

2020-04-14
2020-01-1120
This paper presents a combined numerical and experimental investigation of the characteristics of spark discharge in a spark-ignition engine. The main objective of this work is to gain insights into the spark discharge process and early flame kernel development. Experiments were conducted in an inert medium within an optically accessible constant-volume combustion vessel. The cross-flow motion in the vessel was generated using a previously developed shrouded fan. Numerical modeling was based on an existing discharge model in the literature developed by Kim and Anderson. However, this model is applicable to a limited range of gas pressures and flow fields. Therefore, the original model was evaluated and improved to predict the behavior of spark discharge at pressurized conditions up to 45 bar and high-speed cross-flows up to 32 m/s. To accomplish this goal, a parametric study on the spark channel resistance was conducted.
Technical Paper

Real Fuel Modeling for Gasoline Compression Ignition Engine

2020-04-14
2020-01-0784
Increasing regulatory demand for efficiency has led to development of novel combustion modes such as HCCI, GCI and RCCI for gasoline light duty engines. In order to realize HCCI as a compression ignition combustion mode system, in-cylinder compression temperatures must be elevated to reach the autoignition point of the premixed fuel/air mixture. This should be co-optimized with appropriate fuel formulations that can autoignite at such temperatures. CFD combustion modeling is used to model the auto ignition of gasoline fuel under compression ignition conditions. Using the fully detailed fuel mechanism consisting of thousands of components in the CFD simulations is computationally expensive. To overcome this challenge, the real fuel is represented by few major components of create a surrogate fuel mechanism. In this study, 9 variations of gasoline fuel sets were chosen as candidates to run in HCCI combustion mode.
Technical Paper

Numerical Parametric Study of a Six-Stroke Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Engine Combustion- Part II

2020-04-14
2020-01-0780
In order to extend the operability limit of the gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine, as an avenue for low temperature combustion (LTC) regime, the effects of parametric variations of engine operating conditions on the performance of six-stroke GCI (6S-GCI) engine cycle are numerically investigated, using an in-house 3D CFD code coupled with high-fidelity physical sub-models along with the Chemkin library. The combustion and emissions were calculated using a skeletal chemical kinetics mechanism for a 14-component gasoline surrogate fuel. Authors’ previous study highlighted the effects of the variation of injection timing and split ratio on the overall performance of 6S-GCI engine and the unique mixing-controlled burning mode of the charge mixtures during the two additional strokes. As a continuing effort, the present study details the parametric studies of initial gas temperature, boost pressure, fuel injection pressure, compression ratio, and EGR ratio.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Diesel-CNG RCCI Combustion at Multiple Engine Operating Conditions

2020-04-14
2020-01-0801
Past experimental studies conducted by the current authors on a 13 liter 16.7:1 compression ratio heavy-duty diesel engine have shown that diesel-Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion targeting low NOx emissions becomes progressively difficult to control as the engine load is increased. This is mainly due to difficulty in controlling reactivity levels at higher loads. For the current study, CFD investigations were conducted in CONVERGE using the SAGE combustion solver with the application of the Rahimi mechanism. Studies were conducted at a load of 5 bar BMEP to validate the simulation results against RCCI experimental data. In the low load study, it was found that the Rahimi mechanism was not able to predict the RCCI combustion behavior for diesel injection timings advanced beyond 30 degCA bTDC. This poor prediction was found at multiple engine speed and load points.
Technical Paper

Trade-Off Analysis and Systematic Optimization of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Hybrid Powertrain

2020-04-14
2020-01-0847
While significant progress has been made in recent years to develop hybrid and battery electric vehicles for passenger car and light-duty applications to meet future fuel economy targets, the application of hybrid powertrains to heavy-duty truck applications has been very limited. The relatively lower energy and power density of batteries in comparison to diesel fuel and the operating profiles of most heavy-duty trucks, combine to make the application of hybrid powertrain for these applications more challenging. The high torque and power requirements of heavy-duty trucks over a long operating range, the majority of which is at constant cruise point, along with a high payback period, complexity, cost, weight and range anxiety, make the hybrid and battery electric solution less attractive than a conventional powertrain.
Technical Paper

Mobile Robot Localization Evaluations with Visual Odometry in Varying Environments Using Festo-Robotino

2020-04-14
2020-01-1022
Autonomous ground vehicles can use a variety of techniques to navigate the environment and deduce their motion and location from sensory inputs. Visual Odometry can provide a means for an autonomous vehicle to gain orientation and position information from camera images recording frames as the vehicle moves. This is especially useful when global positioning system (GPS) information is unavailable, or wheel encoder measurements are unreliable. Feature-based visual odometry algorithms extract corner points from image frames, thus detecting patterns of feature point movement over time. From this information, it is possible to estimate the camera, i.e., the vehicle’s motion. Visual odometry has its own set of challenges, such as detecting an insufficient number of points, poor camera setup, and fast passing objects interrupting the scene. This paper investigates the effects of various disturbances on visual odometry.
Technical Paper

Alleviating the Magnetic Effects on Magnetometers Using Vehicle Kinematics for Yaw Estimation for Autonomous Ground Vehicles

2020-04-14
2020-01-1025
Autonomous vehicle operation is dependent upon accurate position estimation and thus a major concern of implementing the autonomous navigation is obtaining robust and accurate data from sensors. This is especially true, in case of Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) sensor data. The IMU consists of a 3-axis gyro, 3-axis accelerometer, and 3-axis magnetometer. The IMU provides vehicle orientation in 3D space in terms of yaw, roll and pitch. Out of which, yaw is a major parameter to control the ground vehicle’s lateral position during navigation. The accelerometer is responsible for attitude (roll-pitch) estimates and magnetometer is responsible for yaw estimates. However, the magnetometer is prone to environmental magnetic disturbances which induce errors in the measurement.
Technical Paper

Effect of Battery Temperature on Fuel Economy and Battery Aging When Using the Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2020-04-14
2020-01-1188
Battery temperature variations have a strong effect on both battery aging and battery performance. Significant temperature variations will lead to different battery behaviors. This influences the performance of the Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) energy management strategies. This paper investigates how variations in battery temperature will affect Lithium-ion battery aging and fuel economy of a HEV. The investigated energy management strategy used in this paper is the Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS) which is a well-known energy management strategy for HEVs. The studied vehicle is a Honda Civic Hybrid and the studied battery, a BLS LiFePO4 3.2Volts 100Ah Electric Vehicle battery cell. Vehicle simulations were done with a validated vehicle model using multiple combinations of highway and city drive cycles. The battery temperature variation is studied with regards to outside air temperature.
Technical Paper

A Connected Controls and Optimization System for Vehicle Dynamics and Powertrain Operation on a Light-Duty Plug-In Multi-Mode Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2020-04-14
2020-01-0591
This paper presents an overview of the connected controls and optimization system for vehicle dynamics and powertrain operation on a light-duty plug-in multi-mode hybrid electric vehicle developed as part of the DOE ARPA-E NEXTCAR program by Michigan Technological University in partnership with General Motors Co. The objective is to enable a 20% reduction in overall energy consumption and a 6% increase in electric vehicle range of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle through the utilization of connected and automated vehicle technologies. Technologies developed to achieve this goal were developed in two categories, the vehicle control level and the powertrain control level. Tools at the vehicle control level include Eco Routing, Speed Harmonization, Eco Approach and Departure and in-situ vehicle parameter characterization.
Technical Paper

Determination of Octane Index and K in a 2.0L, 4-Cylinder Turbocharged SI Engine Using the Primary Reference Fuel (PRF) Method

2020-04-14
2020-01-0552
Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON) have traditionally been used to describe fuel anti-knock quality. The test conditions for MON are harsher than those for RON, causing the RON for a particular fuel to be higher than the MON. Previous researchers have proposed the anti-knock performance of a fuel can be described at other operating conditions using the Octane Index (OI), defined as OI=RON-K (RON-MON), where ‘K’ is a weighing factor between RON and MON, and is a function of engine operating condition. The K-factor indicates that at a particular operating condition, knock tolerance is better described by RON as K approaches a value of 0, and MON as K approaches a value of 1. Previous studies claim that K-factor is dependent only on the engine combustion system and the speed-load point, and that it is independent of fuel chemistry. In most of these studies, K was determined experimentally using linear regression.
Technical Paper

Utilization of Vehicle Connectivity for Improved Energy Consumption of a Speed Harmonized Cohort of Vehicles

2020-04-14
2020-01-0587
Improving vehicle response through advanced knowledge of traffic behavior can lead to large improvements in energy consumption for the single isolated vehicle. This energy savings across multiple vehicles can even be larger if they travel together as a cohort in harmonization. Additionally, if the vehicles have enough information about their immediate path of travel, and other vehicles’ in that path (and their respective critical forward-looking information), they can safely drive close enough to each other to share aerodynamic load. These energy savings can be upwards of multiple percentage points, and are dependent on several criteria. This analysis looks at criteria that contributes to energy savings for a cohort of vehicles in synchronous motion, as well as describes a study that allows for better understanding of the potential benefits of different types of cohorted vehicles in different platoon arrangements.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Diesel Engine and After-treatment Systems for a Series Hybrid Forklift Application

2020-04-14
2020-01-0658
This paper investigates an optimal design of a diesel engine and after-treatment systems for a series hybrid electric forklift application. A holistic modeling approach is developed in GT-Suite® to establish a model-based hardware definition for a diesel engine and an after-treatment system to accurately predict engine performance and emissions. The used engine model is validated with the experimental data. The engine design parameters including compression ratio, boost level, air-fuel ratio (AFR), injection timing, and injection pressure are optimized at a single operating point for the series hybrid electric vehicle, together with the performance of the after-treatment components. The engine and after-treatment models are then coupled with a series hybrid electric powertrain to evaluate the performance of the forklift in the standard VDI 2198 drive cycle.
Technical Paper

Development of a Procedure to Correlate, Validate and Confirm Radar Characteristics of Surrogate Targets for ADAS Testing

2020-04-14
2020-01-0716
Surrogate targets are used throughout the automotive industry to safely and repeatably test Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and will likely find similar applications in tests of Automated Driving Systems. For those test results to be applicable to real-world scenarios, the surrogate targets must be representative of the real-world objects that they emulate. Early target development efforts were generally divided into those that relied on sophisticated radar measurement facilities and those that relied on ad-hoc measurements using automotive grade equipment. This situation made communication and interpretation of results between research groups, target developers and target users difficult. SAE J3122, “Test Target Correlation - Radar Characteristics”, was developed by the SAE Active Safety Systems Standards Committee to address this and other challenges associated with target development and use. J3122 addresses four topics.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Type and Tip Deposits on End of Injection Spray Characteristics of Gasoline Direct Injection Fuel Injectors

2019-10-22
2019-01-2600
There has been a great effort expended in identifying causes of Hydro-Carbon (HC) and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions resulting from poor spray preparation, leading to characterization of fueling behavior near nozzle. It has been observed that large droplet size is a primary contributor to HC and PM emission. Imaging technologies have been developed to understand the break-up and consistency of fuel spray. However, there appears to be a lack of studies of the spray characteristics at the End of Injection (EOI), near nozzle, in particular, the effect that tip deposits have on the EOI characteristics. Injector tip deposits are of interest due to their effect on not only fuel spray characteristics, but also their unintended effect on engine out emissions. Using a novel imaging technique to extract near nozzle fuel characteristics at EOI, the impact of tip deposits on Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) fuel injectors at the EOI is being examined in this work.
Journal Article

Multi-Physics and CFD Analysis of an Enclosed Coaxial Carbon Nanotube Speaker for Automotive Exhaust Noise Cancellation

2019-06-05
2019-01-1569
Automotive exhaust noise is one of the major sources of noise pollution and it is controlled by passive control system (mufflers) and active control system (loudspeakers and active control algorithm). Mufflers are heavy, bulky and large in size while loudspeakers have a working temperature limitation. Carbon nanotube (CNT) speakers generate sound due to the thermoacoustic effect. CNT speakers are also lightweight, flexible, have acoustic and light transparency as well as high operating temperature. These properties make them ideal to overcome the limitations of the current exhaust noise control systems. An enclosed, coaxial CNT speaker is designed for exhaust noise cancellation application. The development of a 3D multi-physics (coupling of electrical, thermal and acoustical domains) model, for the coaxial speaker is discussed in this paper. The model is used to simulate the sound pressure level, input power versus ambient temperature and efficiency.
Technical Paper

Design and Validation of Low-Cost Intensity Probe

2019-06-05
2019-01-1462
Sound intensity measurement techniques that used a two-microphone configuration, were first developed in the late 1970s. Originally, the focus was on improving precision during testing or post-processing. However, with the advent of modern, sophisticated equipment, the focus has shifted to the apparatus. Availability of phase-matched microphones has made post-test correction obsolete as the microphones eliminate a majority of the errors before the data is even collected. This accuracy, however, comes at a cost, as phase-matched microphones are highly priced. This paper discusses employing the method of improving post-processing precision, using inexpensive, current equipment. The phase error of the system is corrected using a simple calibration technique and a handheld phase calibrator that is similar to the one used for amplitude calibration of microphones.
Technical Paper

Testing Methods and Signal Processing Strategies for Automatic Transmission Transient Multiplexed Pressure Data

2019-06-05
2019-01-1500
Transmissions have multiple transient events that occur from gear shifting to torque converter clutch application. These transients can be difficult to capture and observe. A six speed front wheeled drive transmission was instrumented with pressure transducers to measure clutches and the torque converter. Due to size restrictions internal to the torque converter the data had to be multiplexed across three different transmitters. A method to capture a transient event through the use of multiplexed data was developed to create a data set with the transient event occurring on each channel. Once testing is completed, the data has to be split into individual channels and synced with the operational data. The data then can be used in both time and frequency domain analysis. It is important to understand that the data is not continuous and must be taken into consideration when post processing it for further results.
Technical Paper

The Utilization of Onboard Sensor Measurements for Estimating Driveline Damping

2019-06-05
2019-01-1529
The proliferation of small silicon micro-chips has led to a large assortment of low-cost transducers for data acquisition. Production vehicles on average exploit more than 60 on board sensors, and that number is projected to increase beyond 200 per vehicle by 2020. Such a large increase in sensors is leading the fourth industrial revolution of connectivity and autonomy. One major downfall to installing many sensors is compromises in their accuracy and processing power due to cost limitations for high volume production. The same common errors in data acquisition such as sampling, quantization, and multiplexing on the CAN bus must be accounted for when utilizing an entire array of vehicle sensors. A huge advantage of onboard sensors is the ability to calculate vehicle parameters during a daily drive cycle to update ECU calibration factors in real time. One such parameter is driveline damping, which changes with gear state and drive mode. A damping value is desired for every gear state.
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