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Technical Paper

Design & Validation of Low-Cost Sound Intensity Probe

2019-06-05
2019-01-1462
Sound intensity measurement techniques, that used a two-microphone setup, were first developed in the late 1970s. Back then, the focus was on improving precision during testing or post-processing because the equipment available was inherently inaccurate. However, with the advent of modern, sophisticated equipment, the focus has shifted to the apparatus. Availability of phase-matched microphones has made post-test correction obsolete as the microphones eliminate a majority of the errors before the data is even collected. This accuracy, however, comes at a price, as phase-matched microphones are highly priced. This paper discusses employing the method of improving post-processing precision, using inexpensive, current equipment. The phase error of the system is corrected using a simple calibration technique and a handheld phase calibrator that is similar to the one used for amplitude calibration of microphones.
Technical Paper

Turbocharger Centrifugal Compressor Casing Treatment for Improved BPF Noise Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

2019-06-05
2019-01-1484
The conventional ported shroud recirculation casing treatment elevates narrowband noise at blade pass frequency. A new ported shroud recirculating casing treatment implemented, in Ford’s 3.5L turbo gas engine, as NVH (Noise Vibration and Harshness) counter measure to reduce whoosh (broadband flow noise) noise without elevating narrowband noise at blade pass frequency. The new ported shroud recirculating casing treatment, with holes between the main and secondary recirculating passage, and a slight cross-sectional area reduction just upstream of the impeller, designed to reduce whoosh noise without elevating sub-synchronous (first order) and synchronous (sixth order) tonal noise at blade pass frequency. The new ported shroud casing treatment design decreased narrowband tonal noise sound pressure level by 3-6 dB in the low to mid flow region compared to the baseline design. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools was used to develop this casing treatment design.
Technical Paper

Surge Prediction in a Single Sequential Turbocharger (SST) Compressor Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

2019-06-05
2019-01-1490
The Single Sequential Turbocharger (SST) used in Ford’s 6.7L Scorpion Diesel is analyzed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to draw conclusions about the compressor stability at low mass flows. The SST compressor concept consists of a double-sided wheel which flows in parallel fed by two separate inlets (front and rear), followed by a single vane-less diffuser, and a volute. CFD simulations for the full stage are performed at low mass flow rates. The compressor wheel has ten full blades on each side and both sides have ported shroud casing-treatment (CT) in the inlet region. An objective of the analysis is to determine the compressor side (front or rear on the double-sided wheel) that suffers flow break down first as the mass flow is reduced, and its impact on the overall stability of the SST compressor. Another objective is to better understand the interactions between the compressor inlet flow and the flow through the casing-treatment.
Technical Paper

Testing Methods and Signal Processing Strategies for Automatic Transmission Transient Multiplexed Pressure Data

2019-06-05
2019-01-1500
This paper covers the development of test cell hardware, testing procedures, and signal processing to capture and transform transient multiplex pressure data from multiple data acquisition for a highly instrumented 6 speed automatic transmission with a torque converter. A total of 37 pressure transducers were installed in the transmission, with 8 being on several clutches, valve bodies, and other various locations. The remaining 29 transducers were instrumented in the torque converter and transmitted signals via three telemetry transmitters. Each transmitter had the capability of handling 7 or 15 channels. The transmitters multiplexed through the channels in intervals of approximately 1 second. Due to the complexity of the instrumentation, a dyno controller, transmission controller, data acquisition system, and three telemetry receivers were used and synchronized.
Technical Paper

Augmenting Vehicle Production Audit with Objective Data and Sound Quality Metrics to Improve Customer Satisfaction

2019-06-05
2019-01-1531
Vehicle manufacturers are facing increasing challenges in auditing the build quality of their vehicles while considering increasing consumer demands. This effect is compounded with the rise in electric and hybrid vehicles. The ability to audit vehicles at the end of line for a variety of noise types is becoming increasingly important; these include engine noise, road noise, wind noise, BSR and electric vehicle specific noises. An automated measurement system was developed with specific algorithms and sound quality metrics to not only audit vehicle production but to add objective data, pass-fail criteria and trend analysis.
Technical Paper

MACHINE LEARNING ALGORITHM FOR THE PREDICTION OF IDLE COMBUSTION UNIFORMITY

2019-06-05
2019-01-1551
Idle combustion stability is a key contributor to Engine Idle Shake and can impact the overall perception of vehicle quality. The sub-firing harmonics of the combustion torque are used as a metric to assess idle shake and are, typically, measured at different levels of engine break mean effective pressure (BMEP). Due to the nature of the combustion phenomena at idle, it is clear that predicting the distributions of cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder combustion pressure, required to assess the combustion uniformity, cannot be achieved with the state of the art simulation technology. Inspired by the advancement in the field of machine learning and artificial intelligence and by the availability of a large amount of measured combustion pressure data, this paper explores the performance of various machine learning algorithms in predicting the idle combustion uniformity.
Technical Paper

Optimal Pressure Relief Groove Geometry for Improved NVH Performance of Variable Displacement Oil Pumps

2019-06-05
2019-01-1548
Variable Displacement Oil Pump (VDOP) is becoming the design of choice for engine friction reduction and fuel economy improvement. Unfortunately, this pump creates excessive pressure ripples, at the outlet port during oil pump shaft rotation, causing oscillating forces within the lubrication system and leading to the generation of objectionable tonal noises and vibrations. In order to minimize the level of noise, different vanes spacing and porting geometries are used. This paper presents an optimization method to identify the best geometry of the oil pressure relief groove. The method integrates adaptive meshing, 3D CFD simulation, Matlab routine and Genetic Algorithm based optimization. The genetic algorithm is used to create the required design space in order to perform a multi-objective optimization using a large number of parameterized groove geometries. Results of this optimization method are discussed and a design guideline for the oil pressure relief groove is disclosed.
Technical Paper

Target Development for Transmission and E-Motor NVH

2019-06-05
2019-01-1554
It is a common practice to conduct NVH fingerprinting and benchmarking assessments at the powertrain level, to understand source level noise and vibration. To assess the NVH influence of engine, e-motor, and transmission, sub-system testing is often con-ducted in addition to full powertrain testing. These powertrain or sub-system investiga-tions provide valuable information regarding the status of “source” level excitations rela-tive to targets and / or competitive powertrains. In the case of transmissions and e-machines, it is particularly important to understand source level tonal content and how this will be perceived at the vehicle level. However, variation in component design re-sults in differences in order content, which complicates the process of objectively com-paring multiple products. Multiple methods are presented here for characterizing tonal content of transmission and e-machines, based on assessments conducted in a component hemi-anechoic dy-namometer test cell.
Technical Paper

PHEV Real World Driving Cycle and Energy and Fuel Consumption Reduction Potential for Connected and Automated Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0307
This paper presents real world driving energy and fuel consumption results for the second-generation Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). A drive cycle, local to Michigan Technological University, was designed to mimic urban and highway driving test cycles in terms of distance, transients and average velocity, but with significant elevation changes to establish an energy intensive real world driving cycle for assessing potential energy savings for connected and automated vehicle control. The investigation began by establishing baseline and repeatability of energy consumption at various battery states of charges. It was determined that drive cycle energy consumption under a randomized set of boundary conditions varied within 3.4% of mean energy consumption regardless of initial battery state of charge.
Technical Paper

Smart DPF regenerations – A case study of Connected Powertrain functions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0316
The availability of connectivity and autonomy enabled resources to the automotive sector, has primarily been considered for driver assist technologies (DAT) and for extending the levels of vehicle autonomy. It is clear, however, that the additional information available from connectivity and autonomy, may also be useful in further improving powertrain functions. Additionally, critical subsystems that must operate with limited or uncertain knowledge of their environment stand to benefit from such new information sources. In this paper we discuss one such system, the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF). Standard DPF regenerations are scheduled on some soot load inference based on indirect indicators of system state, such as exhaust gas flow rate and pressure drop across the DPF. Approaches such as this are necessary since a reliable method of a direct soot load measurement in the DPF is currently not available.
Technical Paper

Impinged Diesel Spray Combustion Evaluation for Indirect Air-Fuel Mixing Processes and Its Comparison with Non-Vaporing Impinging Spray Under Diesel Engine Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0267
Under low-temperature combustion for the high fuel efficiency and low emissions achievement, the fuel impingement often occurs in diesel engines with direct injection especially for a short distance between the injector and piston head/cylinder wall. Spray impingement plays an important role in the mixing-controlled combustion phase since it affects the air-fuel mixing rate through the disrupted event by the impingement. However, the degree of air entrainment into the spray is hard to be directly evaluated. Since the high spray expansion rate could allow more opportunity for fuel to mix with air, in this study, the expansion rate of impinged flame is quantified and compared with the spray expansion rate under non-vaporizing conditions. The experiments were conducted in a constant volume combustion chamber with an ambient density of 22.8 kg/m3 and the injection pressure of 150 MPa.
Technical Paper

Computationally Efficient Reduced-order Powertrain Model of a Multi-mode Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle for Connected and Automated Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-1210
This paper presents the development of a reduced-order powertrain model for energy and SOC estimation of a multi-mode plug-in hybrid electric vehicle with velocity and elevation inputs. Such a model is intended to overcome the computational inefficiencies of higher fidelity powertrain and vehicle models in short and long horizon optimization efforts such as Coordinated Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC), Eco Approach and Departure (Eco AND), Eco Routing, and PHEV mode blending. The reduced-order powertrain model enables Connected and Automated Vehicles (CAVs) to utilize the onboard sensor and connected data to quickly react and plan their maneuvers to highly dynamic road conditions with minimal computational resources. Although overall estimation accuracy is less than neural network and high-fidelity models, emphasis on runtime minimization with reasonable estimation accuracy enables energy optimization of CAV without a need for computationally expensive server-based models.
Technical Paper

CFD Simulation of Oil Jets for Piston Cooling Applications Comparing the Level Set and the Volume of Fluid Method

2019-04-02
2019-01-0155
A new CFD simulation model and methodology for oil jet piston cooling has been developed using the modern level set approach. In contrast to the widely used volume of fluid (VOF) method, the level set approach explicitly tracks the interface surface between oil and air, using an additional field equation. The method has been extensively tested on two- and three-dimensional examples using results from literature for comparison. Furthermore, several applications of oil jet piston cooling on Ford engines have been investigated and demonstrated. For example, three-dimensional simulations of piston cooling nozzle jets on a diesel engine have been calculated and compared to test-rig measurements. Laminar jets, as well as jets with droplets and fully atomized jets, have been simulated using realistic material properties, surface tension, and gravity.
Technical Paper

Numerical Parametric Study of a Six-Stroke Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Engine Combustion

2019-04-02
2019-01-0207
Numerical investigation of engine performance and emissions of a six-stroke gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine combustion at low load conditions is presented. In order to identify the effects of additional two strokes of the six-stroke engine cycle on the thermal and chemical conditions of charge mixtures, an in-house multi-dimensional CFD code coupled with high fidelity physical sub-models along with the Chemkin library was employed. The combustion and emissions were calculated using a reduced chemical kinetics mechanism for a 14-component gasoline surrogate fuel. Two power strokes per cycle were achieved using multiple injections during compression strokes. Parametric variations of injection strategy viz., individual injection timing for both the power strokes and the split ratio that enable the control of combustion phasing of both the power strokes were explored.
Technical Paper

Development of Empirical Asperity Contact Model for Wet Friction Material

2019-04-02
2019-01-0346
A wet clutch couples or decouples gear elements to alter torque paths in an automatic transmission system. During the gear shifting event, the clutch torque is directly transmitted to the output shaft. Hence, clutch torque heavily influences the dynamics of the transmission. In order to evaluate the behavior of the transmission early and efficiently, the development process increasingly relies on high-fidelity transmission system simulations with added complexity. However, a wet clutch continues to be modeled using Coulomb’s friction in a typical shift simulation. Its linear framework does not physically represent non-linear hydrodynamic effects due to the presence of oil layer during clutch engagement. To make up the lack of physics, Coulomb’s clutch model often requires extensive tuning to match actual shift behaviors.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Effects of Heat Transfer and Thermophysical Properties on Dynamics of Droplet-Wall Interaction

2019-04-02
2019-01-0296
Fuel spray-wall interaction frequently occurs on intake manifold wall in the port fuel injection engine and on the piston in the direct injection engine, especially during the cold start. The heat transfer between the spray and wall is involved in this interaction process and influences the dynamics of the impinged spray which can further affect the engine performance. The physics of impact dynamics of a single droplet serves as a fundamental for better comprehension of spray impingement. In our previous studies, we have focused on diesel droplets, at ambient temperature, impinging on both heated and non-heated wall and found impinged droplet morphology differences. To understand the effect of heat transfer and thermophysical properties on dynamics of droplet-wall interaction better, droplet temperature variation was introduced in this study. Therefore, different conditions were framed to explore the impact of thermophysical properties of the droplet.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Fuel Droplet Impact on Heated Surfaces Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Method

2019-04-02
2019-01-0291
The impact of fuel droplets on heated surfaces is of great importance in internal combustion engines. In engine computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, the drop-wall interaction is usually considered by using models derived from experimental data and correlations rather than direct simulations. This paper presented a numerical method based on smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), which can directly simulate the impact process of fuel droplets impinging on solid surfaces. The SPH method is a Lagrangian meshfree particle method. It discretizes fluid into a number of SPH particles and governing equations of fluid into a set of particle equations. By solving the particle equations, the movement of particles can be obtained, which represents the fluid flows. The SPH method is able to simulate the large deformation and breakup of liquid drops without using additional interface tracking techniques.
Technical Paper

Impacts of WLTP Test Procedure on Fuel Consumption Estimation of Common Electrified Powertrains

2019-04-02
2019-01-0306
The new European test procedure, called the worldwide harmonized light vehicle test procedure (WLTP), deviates in some details from the current NEDC-based test which will have an impact on the determination of the official EU fuel consumption values for the new vehicles. The adaptation to the WLTP faces automakers with new challenges for meeting the stringent EU fuel consumption and CO2 emissions standards. This paper investigates the main changes that the new test implies to a mid-size sedan electrified vehicle design and quantifies their impact on the vehicles fuel economy. Three common electrified powertrain architectures including series, parallel P2, and powersplit are studied. A Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle (PMP) optimization-based energy management control strategy is developed to evaluate the energy consumption of the electrified vehicles in both charge-depleting (CD) and charge-sustaining (CS) modes.
Technical Paper

Route Optimized Energy Management of a Connected and Automated Multi-mode Hybrid Electric Vehicle using Dynamic Programming

2019-04-02
2019-01-1209
This paper presents a methodology to optimize the blending of Charge Depleting (CD) and Charge Sustaining (CS) modes in a multi-mode plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) that reduces overall energy consumption when the selected route cannot be drive purely electric. The PHEV used in this investigation is the second generation Chevrolet Volt and as many as four instrumented vehicles were utilized simultaneously on road to acquire validation data. The optimization method utilized is dynamic programming (DP) and is paired with a reduced fidelity propulsion system and vehicle dynamics model to enable compatibility with embedded controllers and be computationally efficient of the optimal blended operating scheme over an entire drive route.
Technical Paper

EMI Coupling Mechanisms and Mitigations in a DC-DC Converter

2019-04-02
2019-01-0609
The EMI coupling mechanisms of a DC-DC converter in electrified vehicles are investigated for both conducted and radiated EMI. The noise sources and propagation paths are identified and quantified. The results show that the magnetic coupling between noise sources to some sensitive locations, including HV/LV terminals and CAN connector, can cause excessive emissions. The coupling between different components of the EMI filters may also lead to the degradation of the filter performances. Strategies are proposed to reduce the coupling, improve the filter performance and mitigate the emissions. The performances are verified in experiment.
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