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Technical Paper

Design & Validation of Low-Cost Sound Intensity Probe

2019-06-05
2019-01-1462
Sound intensity measurement techniques, that used a two-microphone setup, were first developed in the late 1970s. Back then, the focus was on improving precision during testing or post-processing because the equipment available was inherently inaccurate. However, with the advent of modern, sophisticated equipment, the focus has shifted to the apparatus. Availability of phase-matched microphones has made post-test correction obsolete as the microphones eliminate a majority of the errors before the data is even collected. This accuracy, however, comes at a price, as phase-matched microphones are highly priced. This paper discusses employing the method of improving post-processing precision, using inexpensive, current equipment. The phase error of the system is corrected using a simple calibration technique and a handheld phase calibrator that is similar to the one used for amplitude calibration of microphones.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Near-Field Acoustical Holography Methods Applied to Noise Source Identification

2019-06-05
2019-01-1533
Near-field Acoustical Holography (NAH) is an inverse process, in which sound pressure measurements made in the near-field of an unknow sound source can be used to reconstruct the sound field so that source locations to be clearly identified. NAH was originally based on performing spatial transforms of arrays of measured pressures and then processing the data in the wavenumber domain, a procedure that entailed the use of very large microphone arrays to avoid spatial truncation effects. Over the last twenty years, a number of different NAH methods have been proposed that can reduce or avoid spatial truncation issues: for example, Statistically Optimized Near-field Acoustical Holography (SONAH), various Equivalent Source Methods (ESM), etc.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Damage Modeling Approach Based on Evolutionary Power Spectrum Density

2019-04-02
2019-01-0524
Fatigue damage prediction approaches in both time and frequency domains have been developed to simulate the operational life of mechanical structures under random loads. Fatigue assessment of mechanical structures and components subjected to random loads is increasingly being addressed by frequency domain approaches because of time and cost savings. Current frequency-based fatigue prediction methods focus on stationary random loadings (stationary Power Spectral Density), but many machine components, such as jet engines, rotating machines, and tracked vehicles are subjected to non-stationary PSD conditions under real service loadings. This paper describes a new fatigue damage modeling approach capable of predicting fatigue damage for structures subjected to non-stationary PSD loading conditions where PSD frequency content is time varying.
Technical Paper

PHEV Real World Driving Cycle and Energy and Fuel Consumption Reduction Potential for Connected and Automated Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0307
This paper presents real world driving energy and fuel consumption results for the second-generation Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). A drive cycle, local to Michigan Technological University, was designed to mimic urban and highway driving test cycles in terms of distance, transients and average velocity, but with significant elevation changes to establish an energy intensive real world driving cycle for assessing potential energy savings for connected and automated vehicle control. The investigation began by establishing baseline and repeatability of energy consumption at various battery states of charges. It was determined that drive cycle energy consumption under a randomized set of boundary conditions varied within 3.4% of mean energy consumption regardless of initial battery state of charge.
Technical Paper

Impinged Diesel Spray Combustion Evaluation for Indirect Air-Fuel Mixing Processes and Its Comparison with Non-Vaporing Impinging Spray Under Diesel Engine Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0267
Under low-temperature combustion for the high fuel efficiency and low emissions achievement, the fuel impingement often occurs in diesel engines with direct injection especially for a short distance between the injector and piston head/cylinder wall. Spray impingement plays an important role in the mixing-controlled combustion phase since it affects the air-fuel mixing rate through the disrupted event by the impingement. However, the degree of air entrainment into the spray is hard to be directly evaluated. Since the high spray expansion rate could allow more opportunity for fuel to mix with air, in this study, the expansion rate of impinged flame is quantified and compared with the spray expansion rate under non-vaporizing conditions. The experiments were conducted in a constant volume combustion chamber with an ambient density of 22.8 kg/m3 and the injection pressure of 150 MPa.
Technical Paper

Computationally Efficient Reduced-order Powertrain Model of a Multi-mode Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle for Connected and Automated Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-1210
This paper presents the development of a reduced-order powertrain model for energy and SOC estimation of a multi-mode plug-in hybrid electric vehicle with velocity and elevation inputs. Such a model is intended to overcome the computational inefficiencies of higher fidelity powertrain and vehicle models in short and long horizon optimization efforts such as Coordinated Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC), Eco Approach and Departure (Eco AND), Eco Routing, and PHEV mode blending. The reduced-order powertrain model enables Connected and Automated Vehicles (CAVs) to utilize the onboard sensor and connected data to quickly react and plan their maneuvers to highly dynamic road conditions with minimal computational resources. Although overall estimation accuracy is less than neural network and high-fidelity models, emphasis on runtime minimization with reasonable estimation accuracy enables energy optimization of CAV without a need for computationally expensive server-based models.
Technical Paper

Numerical Parametric Study of a Six-Stroke Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Engine Combustion

2019-04-02
2019-01-0207
Numerical investigation of engine performance and emissions of a six-stroke gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine combustion at low load conditions is presented. In order to identify the effects of additional two strokes of the six-stroke engine cycle on the thermal and chemical conditions of charge mixtures, an in-house multi-dimensional CFD code coupled with high fidelity physical sub-models along with the Chemkin library was employed. The combustion and emissions were calculated using a reduced chemical kinetics mechanism for a 14-component gasoline surrogate fuel. Two power strokes per cycle were achieved using multiple injections during compression strokes. Parametric variations of injection strategy viz., individual injection timing for both the power strokes and the split ratio that enable the control of combustion phasing of both the power strokes were explored.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Effects of Heat Transfer and Thermophysical Properties on Dynamics of Droplet-Wall Interaction

2019-04-02
2019-01-0296
Fuel spray-wall interaction frequently occurs on intake manifold wall in the port fuel injection engine and on the piston in the direct injection engine, especially during the cold start. The heat transfer between the spray and wall is involved in this interaction process and influences the dynamics of the impinged spray which can further affect the engine performance. The physics of impact dynamics of a single droplet serves as a fundamental for better comprehension of spray impingement. In our previous studies, we have focused on diesel droplets, at ambient temperature, impinging on both heated and non-heated wall and found impinged droplet morphology differences. To understand the effect of heat transfer and thermophysical properties on dynamics of droplet-wall interaction better, droplet temperature variation was introduced in this study. Therefore, different conditions were framed to explore the impact of thermophysical properties of the droplet.
Technical Paper

Route Optimized Energy Management of a Connected and Automated Multi-mode Hybrid Electric Vehicle using Dynamic Programming

2019-04-02
2019-01-1209
This paper presents a methodology to optimize the blending of Charge Depleting (CD) and Charge Sustaining (CS) modes in a multi-mode plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) that reduces overall energy consumption when the selected route cannot be drive purely electric. The PHEV used in this investigation is the second generation Chevrolet Volt and as many as four instrumented vehicles were utilized simultaneously on road to acquire validation data. The optimization method utilized is dynamic programming (DP) and is paired with a reduced fidelity propulsion system and vehicle dynamics model to enable compatibility with embedded controllers and be computationally efficient of the optimal blended operating scheme over an entire drive route.
Technical Paper

Methods of Pegging Cylinder Pressure to Maximize Data Quality

2019-04-02
2019-01-0721
Engine cylinder pressure is traditionally measured with a piezo-electric pressure transducer, and as such, must be referenced or pegged to a known value. Frequently, the cylinder pressure is pegged to the pressure in the intake manifold plenum whereby the manifold absolute pressure (MAP) at the end of the intake stroke is measured and the cylinder pressure trace for the entire cycle is adjusted such that the cylinder pressure is set equal to the manifold pressure at the end of the intake stroke. However, any error in pegging induces an error in the cylinder pressure trace, which has an adverse effect on the entire combustion analysis. This research is focused on assessing the pegging error for several pegging methods across a wide range of engine operating conditions, and ultimately determining best practices to minimize error in pegging and the calculated combustion metrics. The study was conducted through 1D simulations using the commercially available GT-Power.
Technical Paper

Spark Mechanism in High Speed Flow

2019-04-02
2019-01-0729
An experimental study was performed to investigate spark ignition and subsequent spark stretch evolution in an inert environment at high- flow velocities up to 32 m/s across the spark plug gap in a constant-volume optical combustion-vessel at pressures representative of those in an engine. The vessel is capable of generating various in-cylinder thermodynamic conditions representative of light-duty spark ignition engines. The characteristic behavior of the spark was investigated using both a high-speed optical diagnostics and electrical measurement. Charge gas pressures were varied from 15 to 45 bar. Results show that the spark, flowing downstream the spark plug, is subject to short circuits of the spark channel and/or restrikes. The frequency of the restrike increased with increased flow velocity and charge gas pressure and decreased discharge current level.
Technical Paper

Investigation and Optimization of Cam Actuation of an Over-Expanded Atkinson Cycle Spark-Ignited Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0250
An over-expanded spark ignited engine was investigated in this work via engine simulation with a design constrained, mechanically actuated Atkinson cycle mechanism. A conventional 4-stroke spark-ignited turbo-charged engine with a compression ratio of 9.2 and peak brake mean effective pressure of 22 bar was selected for the baseline engine. With geometry and design constraints including bore, stroke, compression ratio, clearance volume at top dead center (TDC) firing, and packaging, one over-expanded engine mechanism with over expansion ratio (OER) of 1.5 was designed. Starting with a validated 1D engine simulation model which included calibration of the in-cylinder heat transfer model and SI turbulent combustion model, investigations of the Atkinson engine including cam optimization was studied. The engine simulation study included the effects of offset of piston TDC locations as well as different durations of the 4-strokes due to the mechanism design.
Technical Paper

Influence of Elevated Injector Temperature on the Spray Characteristics of GDI Sprays

2019-04-02
2019-01-0268
When fuel at elevated temperatures is injected into an ambient environment at a pressure lower than the saturation pressure of the fuel, the fuel vaporizes in the nozzle and/or immediately upon exiting the nozzle; that is, it undergoes flash boiling. It is characterized by a two-phase flow regime co-located with primary breakup, which significantly affects the spray characteristics. Under flash boiling conditions, the near nozzle spray angle increases, which can lead to shorter penetration because of increased entrainment. In a multi-hole injector this can cause other impacts downstream resulting from the increased plume to plume interactions. To study the effect of injector temperature and injection pressure with real fuels, an experimental investigation of the spray characteristics of a summer grade gasoline fuel with 10% ethanol (E10) was conducted in an optically accessible constant volume spray vessel.
Technical Paper

Control-Oriented Modeling of a Vehicle Drivetrain for Shuffle and Clunk Mitigation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0345
Flexibility and backlash of vehicle drivelines typically cause unwanted oscillations and noise, known as shuffle and clunk, during tip-in and tip-out events. Computationally efficient and accurate driveline models are necessary for the design and evaluation of torque shaping strategies to mitigate this shuffle and clunk. To accomplish these goals, this paper develops a full-order physics-based model and uses this model to develop a reduced-order model (ROM), which captures the main dynamics that influence the shuffle and clunk phenomena. The full-order model (FOM) comprises several components, including the engine as a torque generator, backlash elements as discontinuities, and propeller and axle shafts as compliant elements. This model is experimentally validated using the data collected from a Ford vehicle. The validation results indicate less than 1% error between the model and measured shuffle oscillation frequencies.
Technical Paper

Control Strategy and Energy Recovery Potential for P2 Parallel Hybrid Step Gear Automatic Transmissions

2019-04-02
2019-01-1302
The purpose of this investigation is to present a control strategy and energy recovery potential for P2 parallel hybrid step gear automatic transmissions. The automatic transmission types considered for the investigation are rear wheel drive 8 speed dual clutch transmission and 8 speed planetary automatic equipped each equipped with an electric motor between the engine and transmission. The governing equations of clutch-to-clutch upshift controls are presented and are identical for each transmission type. Various strategies are explored for executing the upshift under a range of input torques, shift times and engine torque management approaches. The differences in energy recovery potential based upon control strategy is explored piecewise as well as through a DFSS study. On a comprehensive drive cycle consisting of FTP 75, US06 and HWFET test cycles, it is shown that upshift regen torque management can be equivalent to approximately 0.8% of the total fuel energy used.
Technical Paper

Design of a Hybrid Honeycomb Unit Cell with Enhanced In-Plane Mechanical Properties

2019-04-02
2019-01-0710
Sandwich structures with honeycomb core are widely used in the lightweight design and impact energy absorption applications in automotive, sporting, and aerospace industries. Recently, the auxetic honeycombs with negative Poisson's ratio attract substantial attention for different engineering products. In this study, we implement Additive Manufacturing technology, experimental testing, and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to design and investigate the mechanical behavior of a novel unit cell for sandwich structure core. The new core model contains the conventional and auxetic honeycomb cells beside each other to create a Hybrid Honeycomb (HHC) for the sandwich structure. The different designs of unit cells with the same volume fraction of 15% are 3D-printed using Fused Deposition Modeling technique, and the comparative study on the mechanical behavior of conventional honeycomb, auxetic honeycomb, and HHC structures is conducted.
Technical Paper

Improving the Michigan Tech Formula SAE Design Process

2019-04-02
2019-01-0807
Michigan Tech Formula SAE is a student-led team that designs and builds an open-wheel race car to compete with similar teams from other universities in early May each year. The team has adopted a vehicle development process where the design, build, and test/compete phases happen in consecutive years. This process is motivated by the need to perform validation testing in the fall prior to competition due to Houghton winters lingering well into April. In order to compete every year, all three phases are always in-process to ensure the consecutive completion vehicles. As a student organization, Formula SAE membership has a two to three year turnover rate. This limited organizational memory results in redesign rather than re-use of parts. Simple parts are easier to re-model than manually search a directory structure for an existing design. This redundant work is wasted effort and is often results in repeating poor design features that had been improved by previous team members.
Technical Paper

Multi-Objective Optimization of Gerotor Port Design by Genetic Algorithm with Considerations on Kinematic vs. Actual Flow Ripple

2019-04-02
2019-01-0827
The kinematic flow ripple for gerotor pumps is often used as a metric for comparison among different gearsets. However, compressibility, internal leakages, and throttling effects have an impact on the performance of the pump and cause the real flow ripple to deviate from the kinematic flow ripple. To counter this phenomenon, the ports can be designed to account for fluid effects to reduce the outlet flow ripple, internal pressure peaks, and localized cavitation due to throttling while simultaneously improving the volumetric efficiency. The design of the ports is typically heuristic, but a more advanced approach can be to use a numerical fluid model for virtual prototyping. In this work, a multi-objective optimization by genetic algorithm using an experimentally validated, lumped parameter, fluid-dynamic model is used to design the port geometry.
Technical Paper

Process for Study of Micro-pilot Diesel-NG Dual Fuel Combustion in a Constant Volume Combustion Vessel Utilizing the Premixed Pre-burn Procedure

2019-04-02
2019-01-1160
A constant volume spray and combustion vessel utilizing the pre-burn mixture procedure to generate pressure, temperature, and composition characteristic of near top dead center (TDC) conditions in compression ignition (CI) engines was modified with post pre-burn gas induction to incorporate premixed methane gas prior to diesel injection to simulate processes in dual fuel engines. Two variants of the methane induction system were developed and studied. The first used a high-flow modified direct injection injector and the second utilized auxiliary ports in the vessel that are used for normal intake and exhaust events. Flow, mixing, and limitations of the induction systems were studied. As a result of this study, the high-flow modified direct injection injector was selected because of its controlled actuation and rapid closure. Further studies of the induction system post pre-burn were conducted to determine the temperature limit of the methane auto-ignition.
Technical Paper

Structural Optimization of Thin-Walled Tubular Structures for Progressive Collapse Using Hybrid Cellular Automaton with a Prescribed Response Field

2019-04-02
2019-01-0837
The design optimization of thin-walled tubular structures is of relevance in the automotive industry due to their low cost, ease of manufacturing and installation, and high-energy absorption efficiency. This study presents a methodology to design thin-walled tubular structures for crashworthiness applications. During an impact, thin-walled tubular structures may exhibit progressive collapse/buckling, global collapse/buckling, or mixed collapse/buckling. From a crashworthiness standpoint, the most desirable collapse mode is progressive collapse due to its high-energy absorption efficiency, stable deformation, and low peak crush force (PCF). In the automotive industry, thin-walled components have complex structural geometries. These complexities and the several loading conditions present in a crash reduce the possibility of progressive collapse. The Hybrid Cellular Automata (HCA) method has shown to be an efficient continuum-based approach in crashworthiness design.
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