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Technical Paper

Prediction of Air Cooling System for EV/HEV Battery Pack*

2011-05-17
2011-39-7269
An efficient cooling system will ensure the reliability of the EV/HEV (Electric Vehicle/Hybrid Electric Vehicle) battery system and extend their lifetime. In order to shorten design period or increase design iterations, a high-speed and high-precision prediction method for cooling is indispensable. For models, such as Mitsubishi i-MiEV, which use fresh air to cool batteries in the battery pack, a transient approach based on loosely coupled method is developed to predict temperature change of batteries. The results by our new approach are in good agreement with the experimental data. Moreover, for the EV/HEV using circulated air to cool its batteries, a second approach is also developed, which can predict the temperature variations of both EV/HEV batteries in the battery pack and the cooling air.
Technical Paper

Study on Practicality of Electric Vehicle “i-MiEV” under Severe Weather

2011-05-17
2011-39-7241
Mitsubishi Motors Corporation succeeded in mass production of the electric vehicle “i-MiEV” which features leading-edge technologies epitomized by lithium-ion battery. The EV was released into the Japanese market in July 2009 and the European market in January 2011. In order to be used all over the world, the EV has to be practical and durable even under severe weather of extremely cold or extremely hot regions. In this paper we report some results of the tests conducted under extremely cold weather as well as extremely hot weather. From the test results the validity of the vehicle control system and the practicality of the EV are verified.
Technical Paper

Interior Noise evaluation of Electric Vehicle: Noise source contribution analysis

2011-05-17
2011-39-7229
Global environment protection, Co2 emission reduction and so on, is an important problem in automotive industry. An Electric Vehicle (EV) production is one of policies. Co2 emission of EV is lower than Internal Combustion Engine (ICE), petrol and diesel engine. On the other hand, customer's needs for the comfort on driving increase year after year. So it's an important factor for new car performance. Generally speaking, it's thought that the noise and vibration performance of EV have the better of ICE performance. However the aerodynamic noise and road noise contribution for interior noise in EV rise in comparison with ICE, and moreover the sound quality change by new noise component of the motor noise. Therefore new sound evaluation method is needed for EV. So this paper demonstrates each noise component contribution in EV by new noise separation technology, and show the comparison result with EV and ICE.
Technical Paper

Computational design of commercial vehicle for reconciling aerodynamics and engine cooling performance

2000-06-12
2000-05-0344
As the global environmental protection becomes the world consensus recently, the regulations of the fuel consumption and the exhaust gas have large effects on the performance and the fundamental structure of commercial vehicles. Especially the technology concerning "fluid" and "heat" has a close relationship with those issues. Owing to above circumstances, commercial vehicles such as large trucks and buses are forced to be designed near the limit of allowance. Furthermore, a rapid design is another requirement. However, though significant number of variations, i.e., cab configuration, wheel base, rear body configuration, engine specification, etc., are prepared, it is impossible to improve the performance of all those combinations by experiments which cost a lot. Accordingly, the quantitative prediction using computer will become indispensable at the beginning term of new car development.
Technical Paper

Development of thermoplastic elastomeric vacuum hose for engine control

2000-06-12
2000-05-0150
Vulcanized rubber hoses are difficult to recycle and have a complicated manufacturing process. Recently, we have developed the vacuum hose for engine control out of thermoplastic elastomers. As a result of this development, scrap material from the manufacturing process can be recycled and, in addition, about a 30 percent weight reduction and a 20 percent cost reduction are achievable by virtue of the lower specific gravity and by the more simplified manufacturing process. In order to assess the feasibility of using thermoplastic elastomers for vacuum hoses, we developed a heat aging simulation test method. This was achieved by first investigating the actual vehicle environmental conditions of currently used vacuum hoses by retrieving and examining these hoses from used vehicles. We then extrapolated what the condition of such hoses would be after being subjected to heat aging for 200,000 km of service in an actual vehicle, and applied this calculation to our newly developed hoses.
Technical Paper

New Mitsubishi L4 5-Liter DI Diesel Engine

1998-11-16
982800
The 4M5 series of four-cylinder, in-line, direct-injection diesel engines has been released by Mitsubishi Motors Corporation for light and medium-duty trucks and buses. Featuring an updated structure and reflecting the employment of state-of-the-art technology in the design of every component, the new engine series offers high reliability and compact dimensions. Moreover, the new series well meets contemporary demands for high performance, low noise, and clean combustion.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Durability of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

1995-11-01
952650
Diesel emission control is being addressed worldwide to help preserve the global environment. In 1994, emission controls in the U.S. called for reduction of diesel particulate matter (PM) to 10 to 20% of 1986's initial limit. In the same year, we developed and marketed small and medium duty trucks which were equipped with PM reduction systems that oxidize soluble organic fraction (SOF) contained in the PM, in order to satisfy these new regulations. Prior to their marketing, a catalyst was selected from among several types of candidate catalysts. Durability tests were performed using a catalytic converter-equipped small duty truck to verify the durability of the chosen catalyst. The durability test course was set up combining urban areas and expressways in the southern part of California, U.S.A.. The cumulative total distance covered on the test course reached 200,000 km. During the durability test, the catalyst was evaluated by measurement of PM emission using a chassis dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Stiffness of Truck Door Panel Effective Arrangement of Stiffeners for Improving Stiffness

1995-11-01
952678
Since it is more difficult for truck door panels to realize curvature than passenger car door panels, internal stiffeners are mounted between the outer panel and inner panel through the use of an adhesive for ensuring stiffness. For this reason, a problem occurs as to the proper placement of the stiffeners so as to effectively improve stiffness. By FEM prediction and experimentation, the following have been clarified: (1) Arrangement of stiffeners for effectively improving stiffness (2) Stiffness share of stiffeners and outer panel against stiffness
Technical Paper

Four Wheel Steering System for Medium-Duty Trucks

1994-11-01
942310
From the standpoint of safety, the demands are growing in recent years for better controllability and stability of automobiles and in particular in trucks. The truck, however, when compared with the passenger car, is subject to larger changes in gross vehicle mass and center of gravity depending on its load placement. In addition, since the cornering power generated by the truck tire per load is smaller than that generated by the passenger car tire, it is difficult to introduce significant improvements in controllability and stability simply by use of passive techniques like suspension characteristic tuning. Therefore, studies were performed on the applicability of the 4WS system, an active vehicle dynamic characteristic control technique, to a Truck as a means for solving these problems.
Technical Paper

The Aerodynamic Development of a Small Specialty Car

1994-03-01
940325
Aerodynamic drag reduction is one of the most important aspects of enhancing overall vehicle performance. Many car manufacturers have been working to establish drag reduction techniques. This paper describes the development process of a new small speciality car which achieved coefficient of drag(CD) of 0.25. A description of the test facilities and the systems used for developing the aerodynamic aspect of the car are also introduced briefly.
Technical Paper

New Mitsubishi 2.8L Four-Cylinder Diesel Engine

1994-03-01
940587
In the light commercial vehicles (LCV) market, primarily cross-country 4-wheel drive station wagons and derived cargo vans, diesel powered vehicles have been gaining popularity among customers because of their increased fuel economy. In the Japanese market particularly, total sales of such types of vehicles have been rapidly growing. The volume is about 3 times larger than the last five years with diesel engines having a steady share of about 90 percent. Under such circumstances the customers' requirements for diesel vehicles are becoming more severe. Their primary demands have been for increased power, low noise, low vibration and clean smoke, similar to those found in gasoline engines. On the other hand, the exhaust gaseous emission regulations of the diesel engines are getting strict and will become very severe in the near future. We, MITSUBISHI MOTORS CORPORATION, have been producing a 2.5 L 4-cylinder diesel, the 4D56 Series, for the LCVs.
Technical Paper

Effects of Shot Peening and Grinding on Gear Strength

1994-03-01
940729
In recent year, higher strength for truck and bus transmission gear has become necessary. For the transmission gears, carburized gears have generally been used. We have examined the effects of shot peening and grinding using a CBN grindstone on the pitting strength and the bending fatigue strength of a carburized gear, and further evaluated a material which reduces the structual anomalies produced during carburization. As a result, it has been found that shot peening or CBN grinding is more effective for improving both pitting strength and bending fatigue strength than improving the material composition. Therefore, it is evident that residual compressive stress caused by shot peening or CBN grinding suppresses the propagation of cracks.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Multi-Mode Variable Valve Timing Engine

1993-03-01
930878
The 4-stroke SI engine offers better performance if its valve events can be varied depending on the operating conditions. Some engines in production are therefore incorporated with variable valve timing (VVT) mechanisms. All of such mechanisms available today however are for two-mode change-over between low-and high-speed operations. To achieve even better output and fuel economy, a new multi-mode VVT mechanism has been developed, featured by a unique hydraulic device for three-mode change-over as follows: Deactivate both intake and exhaust valves Select low-speed cam with moderate lifts and short durations Select high-speed cam with high lifts and long durations This mechanism enables shutting off unnecessary cylinders during low-speed cruise, or select optimum valve events during WOT acceleration over the entire engine speed range.
Technical Paper

New Mitsubishi V8 20 Liter Diesel Engine

1992-02-01
920085
In the heavy-duty commercial vehicle market in Japan, particularly in the segment of dump trucks and tractors, naturally aspirated engines maintain a dominant market share because of their superior torque characteristics in the low speed range. In order to meet the ever increasing needs for higher speeds of transportation, better fuel economy and higher reliability, and the needs for increasingly strict exhaust emission regulations, Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (MMC) has developed the 8M20, a 20 liter V8 diesel engine. The '92 model series of “THE GREAT”, MMC's main heavy-duty trucks, has featured this new and powerful engine and has been in the market place since October, 1991. The 8M20 is a naturally aspirated engine that provides an output of 294kW/2200rpm, complying with the current Japanese exhaust emission regulations.
Technical Paper

Suppression of Mud Adhesion to the Rear Surface of a Van-Type Truck

1992-02-01
920203
Mud adhesion to the rear surfaces of trucks, vans and buses causes troublesome results such as aesthetic degradation, hindered rear view and laborious washing. To raise the product value of trucks and buses, it is important to develop effective measures for suppressing such mud adhesion. In this research the authors first clarified the mechanism of mud adhesion through flow visualization tests. Then, wind tunnel tests were performed to predict the effects of various countermeasures, and prospective ones were put under actual driving tests to verify their effects. The following measures were found effective in suppressing mud adhesion. (1) Aerodynamic improvement by attaching corner vanes to the upper and side edges of the rear surface. (2) Blocking road splash with a slanted plate under the truck and close to the base.
Technical Paper

Effects of Various Methods for Improving Vehicle Startability and Transient Response of Turbocharged Diesel Trucks

1992-02-01
920044
To improve vehicle startability and transient response of turbocharged diesel trucks, their phenomena have been investigated and analyzed in detail and various supercharging systems have been developed and installed on a truck for comparison of their characteristics. The systems considered were ceramic, variable geometry, variable entry,and air-assisted turbochargers and a combined supercharging system. The variable entry turbocharger has two turbine scrolls with different nozzle areas and two switching valves to get three different turbine flow capacities. The combined supercharging system consists of a mechanical supercharger and a turbocharger. These are linked in series. Both work in a low engine speed range, and the turbocharger only works in middle and high engine speed ranges. Among these systems, the combined supercharging system is the best for improving both vehicle startability and transient response of a truck.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Structural Attenuation of a Diesel Engine and its Applications for Reduction of Noise and Vibration

1991-11-01
912710
Structural attenuation of a running diesel engine measured by a new technique showed a constant value regardless of engine speeds. It was verified by this result that structural attenuation is a physical quantity unique to the structure of each engine and, therefore, a good indicator for evaluation of low noise engine structure. In addition, a hydraulic excitation test rig was devised to measure structural attenuation directly and to make effective use of it for noise reduction. Based on the accurate measurements by the excitation test rig, modal analysis and system simulation were conducted for implementation of countermeasures against noise.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Torsional Stiffness Share Rate of Truck Frame

1991-11-01
912676
In order to design a well-balanced truck frame, optimization of not only the stiffness of the entire body and stress of each member, but also the internal force of each member is necessary, including the effect of a rear body mounted on the frame. This paper proposes a new parameter, “torsional stiffness share rate,” that directly correlates the contribution of member torsional stiffness to frame torsional stiffness with the internal force of the members as to torsion of the truck frame. The merits of the torsional stiffness share rate are shown in comparison with the strain energy share rate and the stiffness contribution rate. The results of experimental and FEM analyses of the torsional stiffness share rate are also presented.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Analysis of Truck Cab

1991-05-01
911075
This paper presents the results of acoustic analyses of light duty truck cabs by actual vehicle testing and by numerical analysis utilizing the boundary element method (BEM). In the resonance mode analysis using BEM, by taking into account the vibration characteristics of cab panels, the presence of the modes other than the purely acoustic cavity resonance modes were confirmed. The contribution of the panel vibrations to booming noise that occurs in actual light duty trucks was analyzed. BEM analysis showed that some of the panel vibration had a negative contribution to booming noise. In other words, decreasing vibration in such a section was shown to increase sound pressure. The results of the BEM analysis match well with actual test results. It has thus been demonstrated that BEM is an effective method for analyzing truck interior noise reduction.
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