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Technical Paper

A Study of Friction Reduction by ‘Soft Skirt’ Piston

2011-08-30
2011-01-2120
To reduce friction is required to improve engine fuel economy. This study aimed to reduce piston skirt friction, which is a major factor in engine friction. ‘Soft skirt’ is a trendy item in recent gasoline engines, which can improve skirt sliding condition by larger deformation when the piston is pressed to the liner. The effect is confirmed by friction measurement and oil film observation, using prototype pistons. And also one major factor of the effect is clarified that not only side force but also cylinder pressure causes effective deformation of the skirt to create thick oil film at early combustion stroke.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Air Cooling System for EV/HEV Battery Pack*

2011-05-17
2011-39-7269
An efficient cooling system will ensure the reliability of the EV/HEV (Electric Vehicle/Hybrid Electric Vehicle) battery system and extend their lifetime. In order to shorten design period or increase design iterations, a high-speed and high-precision prediction method for cooling is indispensable. For models, such as Mitsubishi i-MiEV, which use fresh air to cool batteries in the battery pack, a transient approach based on loosely coupled method is developed to predict temperature change of batteries. The results by our new approach are in good agreement with the experimental data. Moreover, for the EV/HEV using circulated air to cool its batteries, a second approach is also developed, which can predict the temperature variations of both EV/HEV batteries in the battery pack and the cooling air.
Technical Paper

Interior Noise evaluation of Electric Vehicle: Noise source contribution analysis

2011-05-17
2011-39-7229
Global environment protection, Co2 emission reduction and so on, is an important problem in automotive industry. An Electric Vehicle (EV) production is one of policies. Co2 emission of EV is lower than Internal Combustion Engine (ICE), petrol and diesel engine. On the other hand, customer's needs for the comfort on driving increase year after year. So it's an important factor for new car performance. Generally speaking, it's thought that the noise and vibration performance of EV have the better of ICE performance. However the aerodynamic noise and road noise contribution for interior noise in EV rise in comparison with ICE, and moreover the sound quality change by new noise component of the motor noise. Therefore new sound evaluation method is needed for EV. So this paper demonstrates each noise component contribution in EV by new noise separation technology, and show the comparison result with EV and ICE.
Technical Paper

Study on Practicality of Electric Vehicle “i-MiEV” under Severe Weather

2011-05-17
2011-39-7241
Mitsubishi Motors Corporation succeeded in mass production of the electric vehicle “i-MiEV” which features leading-edge technologies epitomized by lithium-ion battery. The EV was released into the Japanese market in July 2009 and the European market in January 2011. In order to be used all over the world, the EV has to be practical and durable even under severe weather of extremely cold or extremely hot regions. In this paper we report some results of the tests conducted under extremely cold weather as well as extremely hot weather. From the test results the validity of the vehicle control system and the practicality of the EV are verified.
Technical Paper

Idling Stop System Coupled with Quick Start Features of Gasoline Direct Injection

2001-03-05
2001-01-0545
The gasoline direct injection engine starts significantly faster than a conventional engine. Fuel can be injected into the cylinder during the compression stroke at the same time of cranking start. When the spark plug ignites the mixture at the end of compression stroke, the engine has its first combustion, that is, the first combustion occurs within 0.2 sec after the start of cranking. This unique characteristic of quick startability has realized a idle stop system, which enables drivers to operate the vehicle in a natural manner.
Technical Paper

Intake-Port Design for Mitsubishi GDI Engine to Realize Distinctive In-Cylinder Flow and High Charge Coefficient

2000-10-16
2000-01-2801
The Mitsubishi GDI engine has adopted a pair of upright intake ports, to induce a rotating in-cylinder flow, reverse tumble, and control air fuel mixing with this flow. The port design of the GDI engine was optimized for achieving a high intensity of the reverse tumble while maintaining a high charge coefficient, by means of modeling of in-cylinder flow and experiment with a steady flow rig. First of all, the ideal design of the upright ports was discussed. It was found that for enhancing the reverse tumble, it is more effective to arrange a pair of the ports parallel, than to arrange them convergent. The parallel arrangement leads to the smoother flows passing through the intake sides of the intake valves, and then descending on the cylinder liner, that is turning toward the rotation direction of the reverse tumble, because of less impingement of the flows through a pair of the valves.
Technical Paper

New Quiescent Combustion System for Heavy–Duty Diesel Engines to Overcome Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Consumption Trade–Off

2000-06-19
2000-01-1811
In the next few years, the USA, EU, and Japan plan to introduce very stringent exhaust emissions regulations for heavy–duty diesel engines, in order to enhance the protection air quality. This builds upon the heavy–duty diesel engine exhaust emissions regulations already in effect. At the same time, improvement in fuel consumption of heavy–duty diesel engines will be very important for lowering vehicle operating costs, conserving fossil fuel resources, and reduction of CO2 (greenhouse gas) levels. This paper presents a detailed review of a quiescent combustion system for a heavy–duty diesel engine, which offers breakthrough performance in terms of the exhaust emissions – fuel consumption trade–off, compared with the more conventional swirl supported combustion system. This conclusion is supported by experimental results comparing quiescent and swirl supported versions of various combustion system configurations.
Technical Paper

Development of High Performance Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Oil to Extend Oil Drain Intervals: 5W30 Fully Synthetic Oil Containing MoDTC

2000-06-19
2000-01-1992
In this study, the oxidation stability, soot dispersancy, antiwear performance, and friction-reducing capability of friction modifiers (FMs) were evaluated, and an SAE 5W-30 fully synthetic oil with MoDTC type FMs was developed for heavy-duty diesel engines. In several engine tests, it was confirmed that the developed oil can double the oil drain interval in comparison with API CD SAE 30, even when EGR is applied, and improves the fuel efficiency.
Technical Paper

Innovative injection rate control with next-generation, common-rail fuel injection system

2000-06-12
2000-05-0061
Injection rate control is an important capability of the ideal injection system of the future. However, in a conventional Common-Rail System (CRS) the injection pressure is constant throughout the injection period, resulting in a nearly rectangular injection rate shape and offering no control of the injection rate. Thus, in order to realize injection rate control with a CRS, a "Next- generation Common-Rail System (NCRS)" was conceptualized, designed, and fabricated. The NCRS has two common rails, for low- and high-pressure fuel, and switches the fuel pressure supplied to the injector from the low- to the high- pressure rail during the injection period, resulting in control over the injection rate shape. The effects of injection rate shape on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption were investigated by applying this NCRS to a single- cylinder research engine.
Technical Paper

Computational design of commercial vehicle for reconciling aerodynamics and engine cooling performance

2000-06-12
2000-05-0344
As the global environmental protection becomes the world consensus recently, the regulations of the fuel consumption and the exhaust gas have large effects on the performance and the fundamental structure of commercial vehicles. Especially the technology concerning "fluid" and "heat" has a close relationship with those issues. Owing to above circumstances, commercial vehicles such as large trucks and buses are forced to be designed near the limit of allowance. Furthermore, a rapid design is another requirement. However, though significant number of variations, i.e., cab configuration, wheel base, rear body configuration, engine specification, etc., are prepared, it is impossible to improve the performance of all those combinations by experiments which cost a lot. Accordingly, the quantitative prediction using computer will become indispensable at the beginning term of new car development.
Technical Paper

New Mitsubishi L4 5-Liter DI Diesel Engine

1998-11-16
982800
The 4M5 series of four-cylinder, in-line, direct-injection diesel engines has been released by Mitsubishi Motors Corporation for light and medium-duty trucks and buses. Featuring an updated structure and reflecting the employment of state-of-the-art technology in the design of every component, the new engine series offers high reliability and compact dimensions. Moreover, the new series well meets contemporary demands for high performance, low noise, and clean combustion.
Technical Paper

New Mitsubishi V8 19-Liter Turbocharged and Intercooled Diesel Engine

1997-05-01
971673
Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (MMC) has developed a new V configured 8 cylinder turbocharged and intercooled diesel engine (8M22T1) for the heavy-duty truck market. The engine is one of the first in its class to feature a common rail fuel injection system. This advanced engine management system was selected to meet the challenges of ever tightening emission regulation, specifically in the areas of smoke and noise. The 8M22T1 embodies a number of design innovations which have resulted in significant improvements in performance, fuel economy, durability and reliability.
Technical Paper

EGR Technologies for a Turbocharged and Intercooled Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

1997-02-24
970340
In this study three EGR methods were applied to a 12 liter turbocharged and intercooled Dl diesel engine, and the exhaust emission and fuel consumption characteristics were compared. One method is the Low Pressure Route system, in which the EGR is taken from down stream of the turbine to the compressor entrance. The other two systems are variations of the High Pressure Route system, in which the EGR is taken from the exhaust manifold to the intake manifold. One of the two High Pressure Route EGR systems is with back pressure valve located at downstream of the turbine and the other uses a variable geometry(VG) turbocharger. It was found that the High Pressure Route EGR system using VG turbocharger was the most effective and practical. With this method the EGR area could be enlarged and NOx reduced by 22% without increase in smoke or fuel consumption while maintaining an adequate excess air ratio.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Exhaust Emission with New Water Injection System in a Diesel Engine

1996-02-01
960033
In this study a new water injection system was applied to an 11 liter naturally aspirated DI diesel engine in order to reduce exhaust emissions. In this system, the water and fuel were arranged in the injection nozzle during the time between injections as fuel, water and then fuel. The fuel and water were then injected into the cylinder in that order. The tests were conducted at several engine operating conditions from the Japanese 13 mode test cycle to clarify effects of water injection on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption. The results showed that NOx reduction was directly proportional to the relative amount of water injection, regardless of engine speed and load. By using the optimal relative amount of water injection at each engine operating condition, total NOx and particulate matter (PM) in the Japanese 13 mode test cycle were reduced by 50% and 25%, respectively, without a fuel consumption penalty.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Stiffness of Truck Door Panel Effective Arrangement of Stiffeners for Improving Stiffness

1995-11-01
952678
Since it is more difficult for truck door panels to realize curvature than passenger car door panels, internal stiffeners are mounted between the outer panel and inner panel through the use of an adhesive for ensuring stiffness. For this reason, a problem occurs as to the proper placement of the stiffeners so as to effectively improve stiffness. By FEM prediction and experimentation, the following have been clarified: (1) Arrangement of stiffeners for effectively improving stiffness (2) Stiffness share of stiffeners and outer panel against stiffness
Technical Paper

A Study of the Durability of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

1995-11-01
952650
Diesel emission control is being addressed worldwide to help preserve the global environment. In 1994, emission controls in the U.S. called for reduction of diesel particulate matter (PM) to 10 to 20% of 1986's initial limit. In the same year, we developed and marketed small and medium duty trucks which were equipped with PM reduction systems that oxidize soluble organic fraction (SOF) contained in the PM, in order to satisfy these new regulations. Prior to their marketing, a catalyst was selected from among several types of candidate catalysts. Durability tests were performed using a catalytic converter-equipped small duty truck to verify the durability of the chosen catalyst. The durability test course was set up combining urban areas and expressways in the southern part of California, U.S.A.. The cumulative total distance covered on the test course reached 200,000 km. During the durability test, the catalyst was evaluated by measurement of PM emission using a chassis dynamometer.
Technical Paper

A Study of Low-Noise Crankcase Structure for Light Commercial Vehicle

1994-11-01
942267
To reduce diesel engine noise that is induced mainly by main bearing impact forces, two types of low noise concepts of basic crankcase structures were studied. One is the “Isolated Skirt Type”, which has the feature to suppress vibrations of engine surface by separating the crankcase skirt from the main bearing caps. The other is the “Bed Plate Type”, which embodies the feature to suppress vibrations by stiffening the lower part of crankcase by adopting a bed plate design. Dynamic characteristics of both prototypes were investigated by means of experimental modal testings such as double pulse laser holography system and impulsive hydraulic excitation test rig which simulates the exciting force of combustion gas pressure in cylinder. As the result of many experimental tests, it was concluded that the “Bed Plate Type” was advantageous over the “Isolated Skirt Type” in terms of engine noise reduction.
Technical Paper

Application of Common Rail Fuel Injection System to a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

1994-11-01
942294
In the diesel engine industry, the growing trends are toward wider use of electronically controlled high pressure fuel injection equipment to provide better engine performance, while conforming to the stringent exhaust emission standards. Although there have been some recent announcements of a diesel engine that applies an electronically controlled common rail type fuel injection system, there is little literature published about any attempt to reduce both exhaust emissions and noise and to improve engine performance by varying injection pressure and injection timing independently and introducing pilot injection in combination. This paper describes the details of a study made on the parameters associated with injection timing, injection pressure and pilot injection and the procedures for their optimization, with an electronically controlled common rail type fuel injection system installed in an in-line 6-cylinder 6.9 liter turbocharged and intercooled DI diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Four Wheel Steering System for Medium-Duty Trucks

1994-11-01
942310
From the standpoint of safety, the demands are growing in recent years for better controllability and stability of automobiles and in particular in trucks. The truck, however, when compared with the passenger car, is subject to larger changes in gross vehicle mass and center of gravity depending on its load placement. In addition, since the cornering power generated by the truck tire per load is smaller than that generated by the passenger car tire, it is difficult to introduce significant improvements in controllability and stability simply by use of passive techniques like suspension characteristic tuning. Therefore, studies were performed on the applicability of the 4WS system, an active vehicle dynamic characteristic control technique, to a Truck as a means for solving these problems.
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