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Technical Paper

The Mechanism of Hissing Noise in the Automotive Cabin and Countermeasures for its Reduction

The automotive refrigerant system can occasionally exhibit an excessive noise out of air-conditioner (A/C) vents during vehicle’s developments. If the vehicle has been parked for long hours in summer and the A/C system is turned on, sometimes hissing noise is induced by the refrigerant flow. In order to understand the mechanism, a lot of bench and vehicle tests were conducted. However, there is still not enough to understand the physical behavior in detail. Therefore, for the first step, the visualization method to capture the behavior of multi-phased refrigerant flow jet inside the pipe was proposed with a high-speed camera, some light devices and acrylic test piece. In addition, image analysis to quantify the flow regime from a series of observed snapshots. Using proposed method, the correlation study between flow and noise was performed at A/C bench test. As a result, different flow features such as the velocity can be observed in the occurrence of the noise or not.
Technical Paper

Multi Attribute Balancing of NVH, Vehicle Energy Management and Drivability at Early Design Stage Using 1D System Simulation Model

Improving fuel efficiency often affects NVH performance. Modifying a vehicle’s design in the latter stages of development to improve NVH performance is often costly. Therefore, to optimize the cost performance, a Multi-Attribute Balancing (MAB) approach should be employed in the early design phases. This paper proposes a solution based on a unified 1D system simulation model across different vehicle performance areas. In the scope of this paper the following attributes are studied: Fuel economy, Booming, Idle, Engine start and Drivability. The challenges to be solved by 1D simulation are the vehicle performance predictions, taking into account the computation time and accuracy. Early phase studies require a large number of scenarios to evaluate multiple possible parameter combinations employing a multi-attribute approach with a systematic tool to ease setup and evaluation according to the determined performance metrics.
Technical Paper

1D Modeling of Thermal Expansion Valve for the Assessment of Refrigerant-Induced Noise

Without engine noise, the cabin of an electric vehicle is quiet, but on the other hand, it becomes easy to perceive refrigerant-induced noise in the automotive air-conditioning (A/C) system. When determining the A/C system at the design stage, it is crucial to verify whether refrigerant-induced noise occurs in the system or not before the real A/C systems are made. If refrigerant-induced noise almost never occurs during the design stage, it is difficult to evaluate by vehicle testing at the development stage. This paper presents a 1D modeling methodology for the assessment of refrigerant-induced noise such as self-excitation noise generated by pressure pulsation through the thermal expansion valve (TXV). The GT-SUITE commercial code was used to develop a refrigerant cycle model consisting of a compressor, condenser, evaporator, TXV and the connecting pipe network.
Journal Article

A Study on Knocking Prediction Improvement Using Chemical Reaction Calculation

Compression ratio of newly developed gasoline engines has been increased in order to improve fuel efficiency. But in-cylinder pressure around top dead center (TDC) before spark ignition timing is higher than expectation, because the low temperature oxidization (LTO) generates some heat. The overview of introduced calculation method taking account of the LTO heat of unburned gas, how in-cylinder pressure is revised and some knowledge of knocking prediction using chemical kinetics are shown in this paper.
Technical Paper

A Study on Practical Use of Diesel Combustion Calculation and Development of Automatic Optimizing Calculation System

A KIVA code which is customized for passenger car's diesel engines is linked with an engine performance simulator and demonstrated with our optimizing calculation system. Aiming to fulfill our target calculation speed, the combustion model of the KIVA code is changed from a chemical reaction calculation method to a chemical equilibrium calculation method which is introduced a unique technique handling chemical species maps. Those maps contain equilibrium mole fraction data of chemical species according to equivalence ratio and temperature. Linking the KIVA code to the engine simulator helps to evaluate engine performance by indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP). The optimizing calculation system enables to obtain response surfaces. Observing the response surfaces, clear views of engine performance characteristics can be seen. The overview of this calculation system and some examples of the calculation are shown in this paper.
Technical Paper

Time-domain Transfer Path Analysis for Transient Phenomena Applied to Tip-in/Tip-out (Shock & Jerk)

Tip-in/Tip-out of the accelerator pedal generates transient torque oscillations in the driveline. These oscillations may be amplified by P/T, suspension and body modes and will eventually be sensible at the receiver side in the vehicle, for example at the seat or at the steering-wheel. The forces that are active during this transient excitation are influenced by non-linear effects in both the suspension and the power train mounts. In order to understand the contribution of each of these forces to the total interior target response (e.g. seat rail vibration) a detailed investigation is performed. Traditional force identification methods are not suitable for low-frequent, transient phenomena like tip-in/tip-out. Mount stiffness method can not be used because of non-linear effects in the P/T and suspension mounts. Application of matrix inversion method based on trimmed body vibration transfer functions is not possible due to numerical condition problems.
Technical Paper

Human Driving Behavior Analysis and Model Representation with Expertise Acquiring Process for Controller Rapid Prototyping

Driving car means to control a vehicle according to a target path, e.g. road and speed, with some constraints. Human driving models have been proposed and applied for simulations. However, human control in driving has not been analyzed sufficiently comparing with that of machine control system in term of control theory. Input - output property with internal information processing is not easily measured and described. Response of human driving is not as quicker as that of machine controller but human can learn vehicle response to driving operation and predict target changes. Driving behavior of an expert driver and a beginner in an emission test cycle was measured and difference in target speed tracking was looked into with performance indices. The beginner's operation was less stable than that of the expert. Transfer function of the vehicle system was derived based on linearized model to investigate human driving behavior as a tracking controller in the system.
Journal Article

Role of Predictive Engineering in the Design Evolution of a Thermoplastic Fender for a Compact SUV

Automotive fenders is one such example where specialized thermoplastic material Noryl GTX* (blend of Polyphenyleneoxide (PPO) + Polyamide (PA)) has successfully replaced metal by meeting functional requirements. The evolution of a fender design to fulfill these requirements is often obtained through a combination of unique material properties and predictive engineering backed design process that accounts for fender behavior during the various phases of its lifecycle. This paper gives an overview of the collaborative design process between Mitsubishi Motors Corporation and SABIC Innovative Plastics and the role of predictive engineering in the evolution of a thermoplastic fender design of Mitsubishi Motors Corporation's compact SUV RVR fender launched recently. While significant predictive work was done on manufacturing and use stage design aspects, the focus of this paper is the design work related to identifying support configuration during the paint bake cycle.
Technical Paper

Direct Simulation for Aerodynamic Noise from Vehicle Parts

Flows around a forward facing step and a fence are simulated on structured grid to estimate aerodynamic noise by using direct simulation. Calculated results of sound pressure level show quantitatively good agreement with experimental results. To estimate aerodynamic noise from 3D complex geometry, a simplified side mirror model is also calculated. Averaged pressure distribution on the mirror surface as well as pressure fluctuations on the mirror surface and ground are simulated properly. However, calculated result of sound pressure level at a location is about 20dB higher than experiment due to insufficient spatial resolution. To capture the propagation of sound waves, more accuracy seems to be required.
Technical Paper

Theoretical Analysis and Proposition to Reduce Self-Excited Vibration of Automotive Shock Absorber

Knock noise induced by automotive shock absorbers has serious influence on driving comfort and vehicle quality. Some research focusing on knock noise had been introduced in the past. However there is the unidentified phenomenon that has been unnoticed. This paper describes the new theory to clarify one of the unidentified phenomenon and proposes the equation for stability assessment which is useful on designing stage of development. First of all, the characteristics of the unidentified rod vibration of shock absorbers are investigated experimentally. Second, the new theory is established on the basis of the non-linear physical model with friction forces between piston and cylinder. This theory shows that the unstable vibration, so called the Self Excited Vibration, can be induced by not only friction property but also structure of rod and piston. Third, the equation for stability assessment, which is useful on designing stage of development, is proposed on the basis of new theory.
Technical Paper

Predictive Calculation of Idling Rattle in Manual Transmissions -Based on Experimental Measurements of Gear Vibration Occurring in Backlashes-

It is generally known that the idling rattle in manual transmissions is caused by gear tooth portions that make repeated impact-generating vibrations in the backlashes. These vibrations result from rotational fluctuations of the flywheel induced by combustion in the engine. In the study reported here, the authors constructed an experimental setup using rotary encoders and a transient torsional angle converter that allowed the long-awaited direct measurement of impact-generating vibrations in the backlashes. Using this experimental result, the following ideas that the authors must pay attention for the numerical simulation are obtained. That is, transmission drag torque is to be input and treated as the offset value in the torque value of the torsional characteristics in the clutch disc, and coefficients of attenuation have great influence upon the calculation result.
Technical Paper

Audible Noise Simulation – an Attempt to Predict Idling Rattle in Manual Transmissions

In the previous paper(1), the authors reported the calculation method they developed for predicting the idling rattle in manual transmissions. This method provides data that represent noise levels to which human ear is not sensitive by numerical values. In the study described in this paper, the authors attempted to produce audible noise through a speaker by the following process: create time-series data of fluctuation in the angular acceleration obtained by the calculation (which is considered to correspond to rattle noise); create next-stage data by applying convolution of a transmission case's vibration transfer characteristics filter obtained by the experiment to the above-mentioned time-series data; convert the filtered data into a wave file; and then input the file to a personal computer to obtain audible sound as output. The audible noise thus produced provides a means of evaluating the level and nature of noise in the way humans naturally experience it.
Technical Paper

An Improvement of the Prediction Method of the Idling Rattle in Manual Transmission - In the Case of the Manual Transmission with Backlash Eliminator -

To reduce the idling rattle of manual transmissions, the computer simulation has been utilized. However, the conventional simulation model could not express properly the relationship between the transmission oil temperature and the rattle noise level, especially in case of transmission with backlash eliminator in constant mesh gears. In this study, the authors carried out detail experiments investigating the motion of each part in the transmission. Based on the experimental results, an additional mass representing all constant mesh speed gears supported on plain or rolling element bearings was introduced to the simulation model. Using the improved model, it was confirmed that the calculated RMS value of the fluctuation in countershaft angular acceleration corresponds to the experimental rattle noise level.
Technical Paper

Anti-Shudder Property of Automatic Transmission Fluids - A Study by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

In recent years, the slip lock-up mechanism has been adopted widely, because of its fuel efficiency and its ability to improve NVH. This necessitates that the automatic transmission fluid (ATF) used in automatic transmissions with slip lock-up clutches requires anti-shudder performance characteristics. The test methods used to evaluate the anti-shudder performance of an ATF can be classified roughly into two types. One is specified to measure whether a μ-V slope of the ATF is positive or negative, the other is the evaluation of the shudder occurrence in the practical vehicle. The former are μ-V property tests from MERCON® V, ATF+4®, and JASO M349-98, the latter is the vehicle test from DEXRON®-III. Additionally, in the evaluation of the μ-V property, there are two tests using the modified SAE No.2 friction machine and the modified low velocity friction apparatus (LVFA).
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Methods for Evaluating Automatic Transmission Fluid Effects on Friction Torque Capacity - A Study by the International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

As part of the International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee's (ILSAC) goal of developing a global automatic transmission fluid (ATF) specification, members have been evaluating test methods that are currently used by various automotive manufacturers for qualifying ATF for use in their respective transmissions. This report deals with comparing test methods used for determining torque capacity in friction systems (shifting clutches). Three test methods were compared, the Plate Friction Test from the General Motors DEXRON®-III Specification, the Friction Durability Test from the Ford MERCON® Specification, and the Japanese Automotive Manufacturers Association Friction Test - JASO Method 348-95. Eight different fluids were evaluated. Friction parameters used in the comparison were breakaway friction, dynamic friction torque at midpoint and the end of engagement, and the ratio of end torque to midpoint torque.