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Technical Paper

Multi Attribute Balancing of NVH, Vehicle Energy Management and Drivability at Early Design Stage Using 1D System Simulation Model

Improving fuel efficiency often affects NVH performance. Modifying a vehicle’s design in the latter stages of development to improve NVH performance is often costly. Therefore, to optimize the cost performance, a Multi-Attribute Balancing (MAB) approach should be employed in the early design phases. This paper proposes a solution based on a unified 1D system simulation model across different vehicle performance areas. In the scope of this paper the following attributes are studied: Fuel economy, Booming, Idle, Engine start and Drivability. The challenges to be solved by 1D simulation are the vehicle performance predictions, taking into account the computation time and accuracy. Early phase studies require a large number of scenarios to evaluate multiple possible parameter combinations employing a multi-attribute approach with a systematic tool to ease setup and evaluation according to the determined performance metrics.
Journal Article

A Study on Knocking Prediction Improvement Using Chemical Reaction Calculation

Compression ratio of newly developed gasoline engines has been increased in order to improve fuel efficiency. But in-cylinder pressure around top dead center (TDC) before spark ignition timing is higher than expectation, because the low temperature oxidization (LTO) generates some heat. The overview of introduced calculation method taking account of the LTO heat of unburned gas, how in-cylinder pressure is revised and some knowledge of knocking prediction using chemical kinetics are shown in this paper.
Technical Paper

A Study on Practical Use of Diesel Combustion Calculation and Development of Automatic Optimizing Calculation System

A KIVA code which is customized for passenger car's diesel engines is linked with an engine performance simulator and demonstrated with our optimizing calculation system. Aiming to fulfill our target calculation speed, the combustion model of the KIVA code is changed from a chemical reaction calculation method to a chemical equilibrium calculation method which is introduced a unique technique handling chemical species maps. Those maps contain equilibrium mole fraction data of chemical species according to equivalence ratio and temperature. Linking the KIVA code to the engine simulator helps to evaluate engine performance by indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP). The optimizing calculation system enables to obtain response surfaces. Observing the response surfaces, clear views of engine performance characteristics can be seen. The overview of this calculation system and some examples of the calculation are shown in this paper.
Technical Paper

Human Driving Behavior Analysis and Model Representation with Expertise Acquiring Process for Controller Rapid Prototyping

Driving car means to control a vehicle according to a target path, e.g. road and speed, with some constraints. Human driving models have been proposed and applied for simulations. However, human control in driving has not been analyzed sufficiently comparing with that of machine control system in term of control theory. Input - output property with internal information processing is not easily measured and described. Response of human driving is not as quicker as that of machine controller but human can learn vehicle response to driving operation and predict target changes. Driving behavior of an expert driver and a beginner in an emission test cycle was measured and difference in target speed tracking was looked into with performance indices. The beginner's operation was less stable than that of the expert. Transfer function of the vehicle system was derived based on linearized model to investigate human driving behavior as a tracking controller in the system.
Journal Article

Role of Predictive Engineering in the Design Evolution of a Thermoplastic Fender for a Compact SUV

Automotive fenders is one such example where specialized thermoplastic material Noryl GTX* (blend of Polyphenyleneoxide (PPO) + Polyamide (PA)) has successfully replaced metal by meeting functional requirements. The evolution of a fender design to fulfill these requirements is often obtained through a combination of unique material properties and predictive engineering backed design process that accounts for fender behavior during the various phases of its lifecycle. This paper gives an overview of the collaborative design process between Mitsubishi Motors Corporation and SABIC Innovative Plastics and the role of predictive engineering in the evolution of a thermoplastic fender design of Mitsubishi Motors Corporation's compact SUV RVR fender launched recently. While significant predictive work was done on manufacturing and use stage design aspects, the focus of this paper is the design work related to identifying support configuration during the paint bake cycle.
Technical Paper

Direct Simulation for Aerodynamic Noise from Vehicle Parts

Flows around a forward facing step and a fence are simulated on structured grid to estimate aerodynamic noise by using direct simulation. Calculated results of sound pressure level show quantitatively good agreement with experimental results. To estimate aerodynamic noise from 3D complex geometry, a simplified side mirror model is also calculated. Averaged pressure distribution on the mirror surface as well as pressure fluctuations on the mirror surface and ground are simulated properly. However, calculated result of sound pressure level at a location is about 20dB higher than experiment due to insufficient spatial resolution. To capture the propagation of sound waves, more accuracy seems to be required.
Technical Paper

Anti-Shudder Property of Automatic Transmission Fluids - A Study by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

In recent years, the slip lock-up mechanism has been adopted widely, because of its fuel efficiency and its ability to improve NVH. This necessitates that the automatic transmission fluid (ATF) used in automatic transmissions with slip lock-up clutches requires anti-shudder performance characteristics. The test methods used to evaluate the anti-shudder performance of an ATF can be classified roughly into two types. One is specified to measure whether a μ-V slope of the ATF is positive or negative, the other is the evaluation of the shudder occurrence in the practical vehicle. The former are μ-V property tests from MERCON® V, ATF+4®, and JASO M349-98, the latter is the vehicle test from DEXRON®-III. Additionally, in the evaluation of the μ-V property, there are two tests using the modified SAE No.2 friction machine and the modified low velocity friction apparatus (LVFA).
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Methods for Evaluating Automatic Transmission Fluid Effects on Friction Torque Capacity - A Study by the International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

As part of the International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee's (ILSAC) goal of developing a global automatic transmission fluid (ATF) specification, members have been evaluating test methods that are currently used by various automotive manufacturers for qualifying ATF for use in their respective transmissions. This report deals with comparing test methods used for determining torque capacity in friction systems (shifting clutches). Three test methods were compared, the Plate Friction Test from the General Motors DEXRON®-III Specification, the Friction Durability Test from the Ford MERCON® Specification, and the Japanese Automotive Manufacturers Association Friction Test - JASO Method 348-95. Eight different fluids were evaluated. Friction parameters used in the comparison were breakaway friction, dynamic friction torque at midpoint and the end of engagement, and the ratio of end torque to midpoint torque.
Technical Paper

The Stiffness of Automobile Outer Panels

The objective of this paper is to present one of the application of the finite element method (FEM) in early stages of vehicle development to calculate larger deflections of body sheet panel. The stiffness of sheet metal shells is defined in conjunction with the local elastic buckling instability under concentrated loads. Considerable amount of weight reduction of outer panels could be obtained by optimizing metal gauges, radii, peripheral conditions and reinforcing manner of the panel. Among several outer panels of an automobile, a roof panel is picked up as an example and its stiffness is calculated by FEM analysis. The results shows satisfactory coincidence with the experimental ones. Regarding the calculation procedure, Central Processor Unit (CPU) time of finite elements was found to be reduced by varying and optimizing supporting conditions of the panel. Furthermore, the stiffness analysis program during the initial design stages of vehicle development is described.