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Technical Paper

Multi Attribute Balancing of NVH, Vehicle Energy Management and Drivability at Early Design Stage Using 1D System Simulation Model

2019-01-09
2019-26-0178
Improving fuel efficiency often affects NVH performance. Modifying a vehicle’s design in the latter stages of development to improve NVH performance is often costly. Therefore, to optimize the cost performance, a Multi-Attribute Balancing (MAB) approach should be employed in the early design phases. This paper proposes a solution based on a unified 1D system simulation model across different vehicle performance areas. In the scope of this paper the following attributes are studied: Fuel economy, Booming, Idle, Engine start and Drivability. The challenges to be solved by 1D simulation are the vehicle performance predictions, taking into account the computation time and accuracy. Early phase studies require a large number of scenarios to evaluate multiple possible parameter combinations employing a multi-attribute approach with a systematic tool to ease setup and evaluation according to the determined performance metrics.
Journal Article

A Study on Knocking Prediction Improvement Using Chemical Reaction Calculation

2015-09-01
2015-01-1905
Compression ratio of newly developed gasoline engines has been increased in order to improve fuel efficiency. But in-cylinder pressure around top dead center (TDC) before spark ignition timing is higher than expectation, because the low temperature oxidization (LTO) generates some heat. The overview of introduced calculation method taking account of the LTO heat of unburned gas, how in-cylinder pressure is revised and some knowledge of knocking prediction using chemical kinetics are shown in this paper.
Technical Paper

A Study on Practical Use of Diesel Combustion Calculation and Development of Automatic Optimizing Calculation System

2015-09-01
2015-01-1845
A KIVA code which is customized for passenger car's diesel engines is linked with an engine performance simulator and demonstrated with our optimizing calculation system. Aiming to fulfill our target calculation speed, the combustion model of the KIVA code is changed from a chemical reaction calculation method to a chemical equilibrium calculation method which is introduced a unique technique handling chemical species maps. Those maps contain equilibrium mole fraction data of chemical species according to equivalence ratio and temperature. Linking the KIVA code to the engine simulator helps to evaluate engine performance by indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP). The optimizing calculation system enables to obtain response surfaces. Observing the response surfaces, clear views of engine performance characteristics can be seen. The overview of this calculation system and some examples of the calculation are shown in this paper.
Technical Paper

Human Driving Behavior Analysis and Model Representation with Expertise Acquiring Process for Controller Rapid Prototyping

2011-04-12
2011-01-0051
Driving car means to control a vehicle according to a target path, e.g. road and speed, with some constraints. Human driving models have been proposed and applied for simulations. However, human control in driving has not been analyzed sufficiently comparing with that of machine control system in term of control theory. Input - output property with internal information processing is not easily measured and described. Response of human driving is not as quicker as that of machine controller but human can learn vehicle response to driving operation and predict target changes. Driving behavior of an expert driver and a beginner in an emission test cycle was measured and difference in target speed tracking was looked into with performance indices. The beginner's operation was less stable than that of the expert. Transfer function of the vehicle system was derived based on linearized model to investigate human driving behavior as a tracking controller in the system.
Journal Article

Role of Predictive Engineering in the Design Evolution of a Thermoplastic Fender for a Compact SUV

2011-04-12
2011-01-0768
Automotive fenders is one such example where specialized thermoplastic material Noryl GTX* (blend of Polyphenyleneoxide (PPO) + Polyamide (PA)) has successfully replaced metal by meeting functional requirements. The evolution of a fender design to fulfill these requirements is often obtained through a combination of unique material properties and predictive engineering backed design process that accounts for fender behavior during the various phases of its lifecycle. This paper gives an overview of the collaborative design process between Mitsubishi Motors Corporation and SABIC Innovative Plastics and the role of predictive engineering in the evolution of a thermoplastic fender design of Mitsubishi Motors Corporation's compact SUV RVR fender launched recently. While significant predictive work was done on manufacturing and use stage design aspects, the focus of this paper is the design work related to identifying support configuration during the paint bake cycle.
Technical Paper

Grammatical Evolution Based Tool for Predicting Multivariable Response Surface for Laser Lap Welding

2008-04-14
2008-01-1372
The problem of predicting the quality of weld is critical to manufacturing. A great deal of data is collected under multiple conditions to predict the quality. The data generated at Daimler Chrysler has been used to develop a model based on grammatical evolution. Grammatical Evolution Technique is based on Genetic Algorithms and generates rules from the data which fit the data. This paper describes the development of a software tool that enables the user to choose input variables such as the metal types of top and bottom layers and their thickness, intensity and speed of laser beam, to generate a three dimensional map showing weld quality. A 3D weld quality surface can be generated in response to any of the two input variables picked from the set of defining input parameters. This tool will enable the user to pick the right set of input conditions to get an optimal weld quality. The tool is developed in Matlab with Graphical User Interface for the ease of operation.
Technical Paper

Direct Simulation for Aerodynamic Noise from Vehicle Parts

2007-08-05
2007-01-3461
Flows around a forward facing step and a fence are simulated on structured grid to estimate aerodynamic noise by using direct simulation. Calculated results of sound pressure level show quantitatively good agreement with experimental results. To estimate aerodynamic noise from 3D complex geometry, a simplified side mirror model is also calculated. Averaged pressure distribution on the mirror surface as well as pressure fluctuations on the mirror surface and ground are simulated properly. However, calculated result of sound pressure level at a location is about 20dB higher than experiment due to insufficient spatial resolution. To capture the propagation of sound waves, more accuracy seems to be required.
Technical Paper

Application of the Modal Compliance Technique to a Vehicle Body in White

2007-05-15
2007-01-2355
This paper describes the application of the modal compliance method to a complex structure such as a vehicle body in white, and the extension of the method from normal modes to the complex modes of a complete vehicle. In addition to the usual bending and torsion calculations, the paper also describes the application of the method to less usual tests such as second torsion, match-boxing and breathing. We also show how the method can be used to investigate the distribution of compliance throughout the structure.
Technical Paper

Experimental Modal Methodologies for Quantification of Body/Chassis Response to Brake Torque Variation

2007-05-15
2007-01-2343
Brake torque variation is a source of objectionable NVH body/chassis response. Such input commonly results from brake disk thickness variation. The NVH dynamic characteristics of a vehicle can be assessed and quantified through experimental modal testing for determination of mode resonance frequency, damping property, and shape. Standard full vehicle modal testing typically utilizes a random input excitation into the vehicle frame or underbody structure. An alternative methodology was sought to quantify and predict body/chassis sensitivity to brake torque variation. This paper presents a review of experimental modal test methodologies investigated for the reproduction of vehicle response to brake torque variation in a static laboratory environment. Brake caliper adapter random and sine sweep excitation input as well as body sine sweep excitation in tandem with an intentionally locked brake will be detailed.
Technical Paper

Simulation Process to Investigate Suspension Sensitivity to Brake Judder

2007-04-16
2007-01-0590
Brake judder, which is a low frequency excitation of the suspension and thus, the body structure during low-G braking, is mainly felt at the steering wheel and throughout the vehicle structure. Brake judder is a problem that costs manufacturers millions of dollars in warranty cost and undesirable trade offs. The magnitude of judder response depends not only on the brake torque variation, but also on the suspension design character-istics. This paper discusses the judder simulation process using ADAMS software to investigate the suspension design sensitivity to the first order brake judder performance. The paper recommends “tuning knobs” to suspension designers and vehicle development engineers to resolve issues in the design and development stages. Various suspension design varia-bles including geometry and compliances as well as brake related characteristics were investigated.
Technical Paper

Reliability Analysis of Dynamometer Loading Parameters during Vehicle Cell Testing

2007-04-16
2007-01-0600
In automotive testing, a chassis dynamometer is typically used, during cell testing, to evaluate vehicle performance by simulating actual driving conditions. The use of indoor cell testing has the advantage of running controlled tests where the cell temperature and humidity and solar loads can be well controlled. Driving conditions such as vehicle speed, wind speed and grade can be also controlled. Thus, repeated tests can be conducted with minimum test variations. The tractive effort required at the wheels of a vehicle for a given set of operating parameters is determined by taking into account a set of variables which affect vehicle performance. The forces considered in determination of the tractive effort include the constant friction force, variable friction force due to mechanical and tire friction, forces due to inertia and forces due to aerodynamic and wind effects. In addition, forces due to gravity are considered when road grades are simulated.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis of Powertrain Cooling System Performance

2007-04-16
2007-01-0598
This paper identifies the difference in powertrain cooling system content levels using a nominal and a +3 Standard deviation maximum temperature design approach. Variation simulation analysis tools are used along with a 1-D cooling system performance model to predict resulting temperature distribution for different combinations of input variable populations. The analysis will show differential in powertrain cooling system content, mass, and impact to fuel economy for a nominal vs. +3 sigma design approach.
Technical Paper

Shock Absorber Force and Velocity Sensitivity to Its Damping Characteristics

2007-04-16
2007-01-1349
In this study, a full vehicle with durability tire model established with ADAMS is applied to simulate the dynamic behavior of the vehicle under severe rough road proving ground events, where the shock force-velocity characteristics are modeled as nonlinear curves and multi-stage representations, respectively. The shock forces and velocities at each corner are resolved and through full factorial DOE, the shock forces and velocities response surface models are established to analyze the sensitivities of shock force and velocity to the shock damping characteristics.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Head Impact Waveform to Minimize HIC

2007-04-16
2007-01-0759
To mitigate head impact injuries of vehicle occupants in impact accidents, the FMVSS 201 requires padding of vehicle interior so that under the free-moving-head-form impact, the head injury criterion (HIC) is below the limit. More recently, pedestrian head impact on the vehicle bonnet has been a subject being studied and regulated as requirements to the automobile manufacturers. Over the years, the square wave has been considered as the best waveform for head impacts, although it is impractical to achieve. This paper revisits the head impact topic and challenges the optimality of aiming at the square waveform. It studies several different simple waveforms, with the objective to achieve minimal HIC or minimal crush space required in head-form impacts. With that it is found that many other waveforms can be more efficient and more practical than the square wave, especially for the pedestrian impact.
Technical Paper

Advancing the State of Strong Hybrid Technology

2006-10-16
2006-21-0058
As the hybrid automotive market becomes quickly saturated with highly competitive products and vehicles, auto manufacturers struggle with business models and the combination of current manufacturing with next generation development. The hybrid development cooperation amongst General Motors, DaimlerChrysler, and BMW offers a new business model that promotes the advancement of the state of strong hybrid technology while maintaining the strong global leadership and competition.
Technical Paper

A Grammatical Evolution Approach to System Identification of Laser Lap Welding

2006-04-03
2006-01-1614
Laser lap welding quality is a non-linear response based on a host of categorical and numeric material and process variables. This paper describes a Grammatical Evolution approach to the structure identification of the laser lap welding process and compares its performance with linear regression and a neuro-fuzzy inference system.
Technical Paper

Reliability and Robust Design of Automotive Thermal Systems - A Federated Approach

2006-04-03
2006-01-1576
Today automotive thermal systems development is a joint effort between an OEM and its suppliers. This paper presents a pilot program showing how OEMs and suppliers can jointly develop a reliable and robust thermal system using CAE tools over the internet. Federated Intelligent Product Environment (FIPER) has been used to establish B2B communication between OEMs and suppliers. Suppliers remotely run thermal systems computer models at the OEM site using the FIPER B2B feature.
Technical Paper

Beam Element Leaf Spring Suspension Model Development and Assessment Using Road Load Data

2006-04-03
2006-01-0994
Knowledge of the loads experienced by a leaf spring suspension is required for the optimal design of the suspension components and frame. The most common method of representing leaf springs is the SAE 3 link model, which does not give good results in the lateral direction. In this paper, a beam element leaf spring model is developed. This model is validated using data obtained from laboratory tests done on leaf spring assemblies. The model is then subjected to actual road load data measured on the Proving Ground. Lastly, results from the beam element model are presented and compared with results obtained from proving ground tests. Overall, the beam element model gives good results in all directions except in situations where it is subjected to high fore/aft acceleration and high reverse braking events.
Technical Paper

Suspension Tuning Parameters Affecting Impact Harshness Performance Evaluation

2006-04-03
2006-01-0991
In this paper, a comprehensive evaluation index for impact harshness (IH) is proposed. A mid-sized uni-body SUV is selected for this study, with the acceleration responses at the various vehicle body locations as objective functions. A sensitivity study is conducted using an ADAMS full vehicle model with flexible body structure representation over an IH event to analyze the influence of various suspension tuning parameters, including suspension springs, shock damping, steer gear ratio, unsprung mass, track-width, and bushing stiffness.
Technical Paper

Truck Frame Motion Prediction and Correlation

2006-04-03
2006-01-1257
Accurate motion prediction can be used to evaluate vibrations at seat track and steering wheel. This paper presents the prediction and correlation of truck frame motion from wheel force transducer (WFT) measurements. It is assumed that the method can be used to predict vibrations at seat track and steering wheel for unibody vehicles. Two durability events were used for calculation. WFT measurements were used as inputs applied on frame from suspension. Frame loads were then used as inputs to calculate frame motions using a FEA approach. The predicted frame motions are represented by four exhaust hangers and they are compared with measured motions of the same locations. The correlations include displacement, velocity, and acceleration. It is shown that good correlations are obtained in velocity and displacement. Acceleration shows bigger differences than velocity and displacement.
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