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Technical Paper

Results and Analysis from Reduced Gravity Experiments of the Flexible Membrane Commode Apparatus

Two separate experimental rigs used in tests on NASA and Zero-G Corporation aircrafts flying low-gravity trajectories, and in the NASA 2.2 Second Drop Tower have been developed to test the functioning of the Flexible Membrane Commode (FMC) concept under reduced gravity conditions. The first rig incorporates the flexible, optically opaque membrane bag and the second rig incorporates a transparent chamber with a funnel assembly for evacuation that approximates the size of the membrane bag. Different waste dispensers have been used including a caulking gun and flexible hose assembly, and an injection syringe. Waste separation mechanisms include a pair of wire cutters, an iris mechanism, as well as discrete slug injection. The experimental work is described in a companion paper. This paper focuses on the obtained results and analysis of the data.
Technical Paper

Development of an In-Flight Refill Unit for Replenishing Research Animal Drinking Water

The Spacelab Life Sciences 2 (SLS-2) mission became NASA's longest duration Shuttle mission, lasting fourteen days, when Columbia landed on November 1, 1993. Located within the Spacelab were a total of 48 laboratory rats which were housed in two Research Animal Holding Facilities (RAHFs) developed by the Space Life Sciences Payloads Office (SLSPO) at Ames Research Center. In order to properly maintain the health and well-being of these important research animals, sufficient quantities of food and water had to be available for the duration of the mission. An Inflight Refill Unit was developed by the SLSPO to replenish the animals' drinking water inflight using the Shuttle potable water system in the middeck galley as the source of additional water. The Inflight Refill Unit consists of two major subsystems, a Fluid Pumping Unit (FPU) and a Collapsible Water Reservoir (CWR).
Technical Paper

Direct-Interface Fusible Heat Sink Performance Tests

A high fidelity, direct-interface, fusible heat sink for cooling astronauts during extravehicular activity was constructed and tested. The design includes special connectors that allow the coolant loop to be directly connected to the fusible material, in this case water. Aspects tested were start-up characteristics, cooling rate, and performance during simulated heat loads. A simplified math model was used to predict the effect of increasing the effective thermal conductivity on heat sink freezing rate. An experiment was designed to measure the effective thermal conductivity of a water/Aluminum foam system, and full gravity tests were conducted to compare the freezing rates of water and water/foam systems. This paper discusses the results of these efforts.
Technical Paper

The STOL Performance of a Two-Engine, USB Powered-Lift Aircraft with Cross-Shafted Fans

The short takeoff and landing capabilities that characterize the performance of powered-lift aircraft are dependent on engine thrust and are, therefore, severely affected by loss of an engine. This paper shows that the effects of engine loss on the short takeoff and landing performance of powered-lift aircraft can be effectively mitigated by cross-shafting the engine fans in a twin-engine configuration. Engine-out takeoff and landing performances are compared for three powered-lift aircraft configurations: one with four engines, one with two engines, and one with two engines in which the fans are cross-shafted. The results show that the engine-out takeoff and landing performance of the cross-shafted two-engine configuration is significantly better than that of the two-engine configuration without cross-shafting.
Technical Paper

Propulsion System Sizing For Powered Lift And Mechanical Flap Quiet Aircraft

Propulsion system sizing for mechanical flap and externally blown flap aircraft is demonstrated. Included in this study is the effect of various levels of noise suppression on the aircraft final design characteristics. Both aircraft are sized to operate from a 3000 ft runway and perform the same mission. For each aircraft concept, propulsion system sizing is demonstrated for two different engine cycles-one having a fan pressure ratio of 1.5 and a bypass ratio of 9 and the other having a fan pressure ratio of 1.25 and a bypass ratio of 17.8. The results presented include the required thrust to weight ratio, wing loading, resulting gross weight and direct operating costs as functions of the engine noise level for each combination of engine cycle and aircraft concept.