Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Summary of the High Ice Water Content (HIWC) RADAR Flight Campaigns

2019-06-10
2019-01-2027
NASA and the FAA conducted two flight campaigns to quantify onboard weather radar measurements with in-situ measurements of high concentrations of ice crystals found in deep convective storms. The ultimate goal of this research was to improve the understanding of high ice water content (HIWC) and develop onboard weather radar processing techniques to detect regions of HIWC ahead of an aircraft to enable tactical avoidance of the potentially hazardous conditions. Both HIWC RADAR campaigns utilized the NASA DC-8 Airborne Science Laboratory equipped with a Honeywell RDR-4000 weather radar and in-situ microphysical instruments to characterize the ice crystal clouds. The purpose of this paper is to summarize how these campaigns were conducted and highlight key results. The first campaign was conducted in August 2015 with a base of operations in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida.
Technical Paper

Coaxial Rotor Flow Phenomena in Forward Flight

2016-09-20
2016-01-2009
Coaxial rotors are finding use in advanced rotorcraft concepts. Combined with lift offset rotor technology, they offer a solution to the problems of dynamic stall and reverse flow that often limit single rotor forward flight speeds. In addition, coaxial rotorcraft systems do not need a tail rotor, a major boon during operation in confined areas. However, the operation of two counter-rotating rotors in close proximity generates many possible aerodynamic interactions between rotor blades, blades and vortices, and between vortices. With two rotors, the parameter design space is very large, and requires efficient computations as well as basic experiments to explore aerodynamics of a coaxial rotor and the effects on performance, loads, and acoustics.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Analysis of the Elytron 2S Experimental Tiltwing Aircraft

2016-09-20
2016-01-2008
The Elytron 2S is a prototype aircraft concept to allow VTOL capabilities together with fixed wing aircraft performance. It has a box wing design with a centrally mounted tilt-wing supporting two rotors. This paper explores the aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft using computational fluid dynamics in hover and low speed forward flight, as well as analyzing the unique control system in place for hover. The results are then used to build an input set for NASA Design and Analysis if Rotorcraft software allowing trim and flight stability and control estimations to be made with SIMPLI-FLYD.
Technical Paper

Development of Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap for Performance Adaptive Aeroelastic Wing

2015-09-15
2015-01-2565
This paper summarizes the recent development of an adaptive aeroelastic wing shaping control technology called variable camber continuous trailing edge flap (VCCTEF). As wing flexibility increases, aeroelastic interactions with aerodynamic forces and moments become an increasingly important consideration in aircraft design and aerodynamic performance. Furthermore, aeroelastic interactions with flight dynamics can result in issues with vehicle stability and control. The initial VCCTEF concept was developed in 2010 by NASA under a NASA Innovation Fund study entitled “Elastically Shaped Future Air Vehicle Concept,” which showed that highly flexible wing aerodynamic surfaces can be elastically shaped in-flight by active control of wing twist and bending deflection in order to optimize the spanwise lift distribution for drag reduction. A collaboration between NASA and Boeing Research & Technology was subsequently funded by NASA from 2012 to 2014 to further develop the VCCTEF concept.
Technical Paper

Integrated Health Monitoring and Fault Adaptive Control for an Unmanned Hexrotor Helicopter

2013-09-17
2013-01-2331
This paper presents a novel health monitoring and fault adaptive control architecture for an unmanned hexrotor helicopter. The technologies developed to achieve the described level of robust fault contingency management include; 1.) A Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) routine for maximizing the “built-in” fault tolerance that the closed loop flight control system affords, 2.) A two-stage Kalman filter scheme for real-time identification of faults that are masked by control system compensation, and 3.) A reconfigurable control allocation method which compensates for large degradations of the six main motor/rotor assemblies. The fault adaptive control system presented herein has strong robustness against small faults without the need for controller reconfiguration, and strong tolerance of large faults through adaptive accommodation of the fault source and severity.
Journal Article

Modeling Weather Impact on Airport Arrival Miles-in-Trail Restrictions

2013-09-17
2013-01-2301
When the demand for either a region of airspace or an airport approaches or exceeds the available capacity, miles-in-trail (MIT) restrictions are the most frequently issued traffic management initiatives (TMIs) that are used to mitigate these imbalances. Miles-in-trail operations require aircraft in a traffic stream to meet a specific inter-aircraft separation in exchange for maintaining a safe and orderly flow within the stream. This stream of aircraft can be departing an airport, over a common fix, through a sector, on a specific route or arriving at an airport. This study begins by providing a high-level overview of the distribution and causes of arrival MIT restrictions for the top ten airports in the United States. This is followed by an in-depth analysis of the frequency, duration and cause of MIT restrictions impacting the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport (ATL) from 2009 through 2011.
Technical Paper

NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonic Fixed Wing Project: Generation N+3 Technology Portfolio

2011-10-18
2011-01-2521
Commercial aviation relies almost entirely on subsonic fixed wing aircraft to constantly move people and goods from one place to another across the globe. While air travel is an effective means of transportation providing an unmatched combination of speed and range, future subsonic aircraft must improve substantially to meet efficiency and environmental targets. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy-efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies, and the development of unconventional aircraft systems, offer the potential to achieve these improvements.
Technical Paper

Results and Analysis from Reduced Gravity Experiments of the Flexible Membrane Commode Apparatus

2009-07-12
2009-01-2344
Two separate experimental rigs used in tests on NASA and Zero-G Corporation aircrafts flying low-gravity trajectories, and in the NASA 2.2 Second Drop Tower have been developed to test the functioning of the Flexible Membrane Commode (FMC) concept under reduced gravity conditions. The first rig incorporates the flexible, optically opaque membrane bag and the second rig incorporates a transparent chamber with a funnel assembly for evacuation that approximates the size of the membrane bag. Different waste dispensers have been used including a caulking gun and flexible hose assembly, and an injection syringe. Waste separation mechanisms include a pair of wire cutters, an iris mechanism, as well as discrete slug injection. The experimental work is described in a companion paper. This paper focuses on the obtained results and analysis of the data.
Technical Paper

Fecal Simulant Delivery Systems for Parabolic Flight Testing of the Flexible Membrane Commode

2009-07-12
2009-01-2343
The Flexible Membrane Commode (FMC) is an alternative waste management system designed to address the severe mass restrictions on the Orion vehicle. The concept includes a deployable seat and single use, three layer bags that employ air flow to draw solids away from the body and safely contain them in disposable bags.1 Simulated microgravity testing of the system was performed during two separate parabolic flight campaigns in July and August of 2008. Experimental objectives included verifying the waste fill procedures in reduced gravity, characterizing waste behavior during the filling process, and comparison of the results with model predictions. In addition the operational procedure for bag installation, removal, and sealing were assessed. 2 A difficult operational requirement concerns the delivery of the fecal waste simulant into the upper area of the bag in a manner that faithfully simulates human defecation.
Technical Paper

Fluid Dynamics Assessment of the VPCAR Water Recovery System in Partial and Microgravity

2006-07-17
2006-01-2131
The Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VPCAR) system is being developed to recycle water for future NASA Exploration Missions. Testing was recently conducted on NASA's C-9B Reduced Gravity Aircraft to determine the microgravity performance of a key component of the VPCAR water recovery system. Six flights were conducted to evaluate the fluid dynamics of the Wiped-Film Rotating Disk (WFRD) distillation component of the VPCAR system in microgravity, focusing on the water delivery method. The experiments utilized a simplified system to study the process of forming a thin film on a disk similar to that in the evaporator section of VPCAR. Fluid issues are present with the current configuration, and the initial alternative configurations were only partial successful in microgravity operation. The underlying causes of these issues are understood, and new alternatives are being designed to rectify the problems.
Technical Paper

Summary of NASA's Extreme Short Take-Off and Landing (ESTOL) Vehicle Sector Activities

2005-10-03
2005-01-3145
NASA is exploring a research activity to identify the technologies that will enable an Extreme Short Take-Off and Landing (ESTOL) aircraft. ESTOL aircraft have the potential to offer a viable solution to airport congestion, delay, capacity, and community noise concerns. This can be achieved by efficiently operating in the underutilized or unused airport ground and airspace infrastructure, while operating simultaneously, but not interfering with, conventional air traffic takeoffs and landings. Concurrently, the Air Force is exploring ESTOL vehicle solutions in the same general performance class as the NASA ESTOL vehicle to meet a number of Advanced Air Mobility missions. The capability goals of both the military and civil vehicles suggests synergistic technology development benefits. This paper presents a summary of the activities being supported by the NASA ESTOL Vehicle Sector.
Technical Paper

Secure Large-Scale Airport Simulations Using Distributed Computational Resources

2001-09-11
2001-01-2650
To fully conduct research that will support the far-term concepts, technologies and methods required to improve the safety of Air Transportation a simulation environment of the requisite degree of fidelity must first be in place. The Virtual National Airspace Simulation (VNAS) will provide the underlying infrastructure necessary for such a simulation system. Aerospace-specific knowledge management services such as intelligent data-integration middleware will support the management of information associated with this complex and critically important operational environment. This simulation environment, in conjunction with a distributed network of super-computers, and high-speed network connections to aircraft, and to Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), airline and other data-sources will provide the capability to continuously monitor and measure operational performance against expected performance.
Technical Paper

Airport Remote Tower Sensor Systems

2001-09-11
2001-01-2651
Remote Tower Sensor Systems are proof-of-concept prototypes being developed by NASA/Ames Research Center (NASA/ARC) with collaboration with the FAA and NOAA. RTSS began with the deployment of an Airport Approach Zone Camera System that includes real-time weather observations at San Francisco International Airport. The goal of this research is to develop, deploy, and demonstrate remotely operated cameras and sensors at several major airport hubs and un-towered airports. RTSS can provide real-time weather observations of airport approach zone. RTSS will integrate and test airport sensor packages that will allow remote access to real-time airport conditions and aircraft status.
Technical Paper

Initial Evaluation of CDTI/ADS-B for Commercial Carriers: CAA's Ohio Valley Operational Evaluation

2000-10-10
2000-01-5520
Flight activities during the Cargo Airline Association's Ohio Valley Operations Evaluation (OpEval) were focused on near-term Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) applications. Seven CDTI applications were ranked from highest to lowest priority, and the first two, Enhanced Visual Acquisition for “See & Avoid”, and Enhanced Visual Approaches, were evaluated during OpEval. Five other applications were demonstrated. For the Enhanced Visual Acquisition and Enhanced Visual Approach applications, a detailed, comprehensive operational concept document was prepared. The operational concept and the associated CDTI requirements were tested during OpEval. Both pilots and controllers reported that the CDTI augmented the visual acquisition and visual approach tasks and improved pilot awareness of surrounding traffic.
Technical Paper

Enabling Strategic Flight Deck Route Re-Planning Within A Modified ATC Environment: The Display of 4-D Intent Information on a CSD

2000-10-10
2000-01-5574
The concept of free flight introduces many challenges for both air and ground aviation operations. Of considerable concern has been the issue of moving from centralized control and responsibility to decentralized control and distributed responsibility for aircraft separation. Data from capacity studies suggest that we will reach our capacity limits with ATC centralized control within the next 2 decades, if not sooner. Based on these predictions, research on distributed air-ground concepts was under taken by NASA Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Program to identify and develop air-ground concepts in support of free-flight operations. This paper will present the results of a full mission air-ground simulation conducted in the NASA Crew Vehicle Systems Research Facility. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of advanced displays with “intent” (4-D flight plans) information on flight crew and ATC performance during limited free-flight operations.
Technical Paper

Microphone Array Phased Processing System (MAPPS): Phased Array System for Acoustic Measurements in a Wind Tunnel

1999-10-19
1999-01-5576
A processing system has been developed to meet increasing demands for detailed noise measurement of aircraft in wind tunnels. Phased arrays enable spatial and amplitude measurements of acoustic sources, including low signal-to-noise sources not measurable by conventional measurement techniques. The Microphone Array Phased Processing System (MAPPS) provides processing and visualization of acoustic array measurements made in wind tunnels. The system uses networked parallel computers to provide noise maps at selected frequencies in a near real-time testing environment. The system has been successfully used in two subsonic, hard-walled wind tunnels, the NASA Ames 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel and the NASA Ames 12-Foot Wind Tunnel. Low level airframe noise that can not be measured with traditional techniques was measured in both tests.
Technical Paper

Milestones in Airborne Astronomy: From the 1920's to the Present

1997-10-13
975609
The use of airplanes for astronomical observations began in the 1920's. From then until the early 1960's, almost all of the observations made from aircraft were for the purpose of viewing solar eclipses. Due to advances in technology and increasing interest in infrared astronomy, the use of airplanes for astronomy expanded during the 1960's to include planetary observations and a wide range of other studies. This paper describes some of the major milestones of airborne astronomy, from the1920's to the present.
Technical Paper

Development and Demonstration of a Prototype Free Flight Cockpit Display of Traffic Information

1997-10-01
975554
Two versions of a prototype Free Flight cockpit situational display (Basic and Enhanced) were examined in a simulation at the NASA Ames Research Center. Both displays presented a display of traffic out to a range of 120 NM, and an alert when the automation detected a substantial danger of losing separation with another aircraft. The task for the crews was to detect and resolve threats to separation posed by intruder aircraft. An Enhanced version of the display was also examined. It incorporated two additional conflict alerting levels and tools to aid in trajectory prediction and path planning. Ten crews from a major airline participated in the study. Performance analyses and pilot debriefings showed that the Enhanced display was preferred, and that minimal separation between the intruder and the ownship was larger with the Enhanced display. In addition, the additional information on the Enhanced display did not lead crews to engage in more maneuvering.
Technical Paper

Hover/Ground-Effect Testing and Characteristics for a Joint Strike Fighter Configuration

1996-11-18
962253
Hover and ground-effect tests were conducted with the Lockheed-Martin Large Scale Powered Model (LSPM) during June-November 1995 at the Outdoor Aerodynamics Research Facility (OARF) located at NASA Ames Research Center. This was done in support of the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program being lead by the Department of Defense. The program was previously referred to as the Joint Advanced Strike Technology (JAST) Program. The tests at the OARF included: engine thrust calibrations out of ground effect, measurements of individual nozzle jet pressure decay characteristics, and jet-induced hover force and moment measurements in and out of ground effect. The engine calibrations provide data correlating propulsion system throttle and nozzle settings with thrust forces and moments for the bare fuselage with the wings, canards, and tails removed. This permits measurement of propulsive forces and moments while minimizing any of the effects due to the presence of the large horizontal surfaces.
Technical Paper

Fuselage and Wing Weight of Transport Aircraft

1996-10-01
965583
A method of estimating the load-bearing fuselage weight and wing weight of transport aircraft based on fundamental structural principles has been developed. This method of weight estimation represents a compromise between the rapid assessment of component weight using empirical methods based on actual weights of existing aircraft, and detailed, but time-consuming, analysis using the finite element method. The method was applied to eight existing subsonic transports for validation and correlation. Integration of the resulting computer program, PDCYL, has been made into the weights-calculating module of the AirCraft SYNThesis (ACSYNT) computer program. ACSYNT has traditionally used only empirical weight estimation methods; PDCYL adds to ACSYNT a rapid, accurate means of assessing the fuselage and wing weights of unconventional aircraft.
X