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Technical Paper

Frostwing Co-Operation in Aircraft Icing Research

2019-06-10
2019-01-1973
The aerodynamic effects of Cold Soaked Fuel Frost have become increasingly significant as airworthiness authorities have been asked to allow it during aircraft take-off. The Federal Aviation Administration and the Finnish Transport Safety Agency signed a Research Agreement in aircraft icing research in 2015 and started a research co-operation in frost formation studies, computational fluid dynamics for ground de/anti-icing fluids, and de/anti-icing fluids aerodynamic characteristics. The main effort has been so far on the formation and aerodynamic effects of CSFF. To investigate the effects, a generic high-lift common research wind tunnel model and DLR-F15 airfoil, representing the wing of a modern jet aircraft, was built including a wing tank cooling system. Real frost was generated on the wing in a wind tunnel test section and the frost thickness was measured with an Elcometer gauge. Frost surface geometry was measured with laser scanning and photogrammetry.
Technical Paper

Influence of Freestream Temperature on Ice Accretion Roughness

2019-06-10
2019-01-1993
The influence of freestream static temperature on roughness temporal evolution and spatial variation was investigated in the Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) at NASA Glenn Research Center. A 53.34 cm (21-in.) NACA 0012 airfoil model and a 152.4 cm (60-in.) HAARP-II business jet airfoil model were exposed to Appendix C clouds for fixed exposure times and thus fixed ice accumulation parameter. For the base conditions, the static temperature was varied to produce different stagnation point freezing fractions. The resulting ice shapes were then scanned using a ROMER Absolute Arm system and analyzed using the self-organizing map approach of McClain and Kreeger. The ice accretion prediction program LEWICE was further used to aid in interrogations of the ice accretion point clouds by using the predicted surface variations of local collection efficiency.
Technical Paper

Additional Comparison of Iced Aerodynamic Measurements on a Swept Wing from Two Wind Tunnels

2019-06-10
2019-01-1986
Artificial ice shapes of various geometric fidelity were tested on a wing model based on the Common Research Model. Low Reynolds number tests were conducted at Wichita State University’s Walter H. Beech Memorial Wind Tunnel utilizing an 8.9% scale model, and high Reynolds number tests were conducted at ONERA’s F1 wind tunnel utilizing a 13.3% scale model. Several identical geometrically-scaled ice shapes were tested at both facilities, and the results were compared at overlapping Reynolds and Mach numbers. This was to ensure that the results and trends observed at low Reynolds number could be applied and continued to high, near-flight Reynolds number. The data from Wichita State University and ONERA F1 agreed well at matched Reynolds and Mach numbers. The lift and pitching moment curves agreed very well for most configurations.
Technical Paper

Experimental Aerodynamic Simulation of a Scallop Ice Accretion on a Swept Wing

2019-06-10
2019-01-1984
Understanding the aerodynamic impact of swept-wing ice accretions is a crucial component of the design of modern aircraft. Computer-simulation tools are commonly used to approximate ice shapes, so the necessary level of detail or fidelity of those simulated ice shapes must be understood relative to high-fidelity representations of the ice. Previous tests were performed in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel to acquire high-fidelity ice shapes. From this database, full-span artificial ice shapes were designed and manufactured for both an 8.9%-scale and 13.3%-scale semispan wing model of the CRM65 which has been established as the full-scale baseline for this swept-wing project. These models were tested in the Walter H. Beech wind tunnel at Wichita State University and at the ONERA F1 facility, respectively. The data collected in the Wichita St.
Technical Paper

Summary of the High Ice Water Content (HIWC) RADAR Flight Campaigns

2019-06-10
2019-01-2027
NASA and the FAA conducted two flight campaigns to quantify onboard weather radar measurements with in-situ measurements of high concentrations of ice crystals found in deep convective storms. The ultimate goal of this research was to improve the understanding of high ice water content (HIWC) and develop onboard weather radar processing techniques to detect regions of HIWC ahead of an aircraft to enable tactical avoidance of the potentially hazardous conditions. Both HIWC RADAR campaigns utilized the NASA DC-8 Airborne Science Laboratory equipped with a Honeywell RDR-4000 weather radar and in-situ microphysical instruments to characterize the ice crystal clouds. The purpose of this paper is to summarize how these campaigns were conducted and highlight key results. The first campaign was conducted in August 2015 with a base of operations in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Ice Particle Breakup and Ingestion into the Honeywell Uncertified Research Engine (HURE)

2019-06-10
2019-01-1965
Numerical solutions have been generated which simulate flow inside an aircraft engine flying at altitude through an ice crystal cloud. The geometry used for this study is the Honeywell Uncertified Research Engine (HURE) which was recently tested in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) in January 2018. The simulations were carried out at predicted operating points with a potential risk of ice accretion. The extent of the simulation is from upstream of the engine inlet to downstream past the strut in the core and bypass. The flow solution is produced using GlennHT, a NASA in-house code. A mixing plane approximation is used upstream and downstream of the fan. The use of the mixing plane allows for steady state solutions in the relative frame. The flow solution is then passed on to LEWICE3D for particle trajectory, impact and breakup prediction. The LEWICE3D code also uses a mixing plane approximation at the boundaries upstream and downstream of the fan.
Technical Paper

A Reevaluation of Appendix C Ice Roughness Using Laser Scanning

2015-06-15
2015-01-2098
Many studies have been performed to quantify the formation and evolution of roughness on ice shapes created in Appendix C icing conditions, which exhibits supercooled liquid droplets ranging from 1-50 µm. For example Anderson and Shin (1997), Anderson et al. (1998), and Shin (1994) represent early studies of ice roughness during short-duration icing events measured in the Icing Research Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. In the historical literature, image analysis techniques were employed to characterize the roughness. Using multiple images of the roughness elements, these studies of roughness focused on extracting parametric representations of ice roughness elements. While the image analysis approach enabled many insights into icing physics, recent improvements in laser scanning approaches have revolutionized the process of ice accretion shape characterization.
Technical Paper

An Overview of NASA Engine Ice-Crystal Icing Research

2011-06-13
2011-38-0017
Ice accretions that have formed inside gas turbine engines as a result of flight in clouds of high concentrations of ice crystals in the atmosphere have recently been identified as an aviation safety hazard. NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) has made plans to conduct research in this area to address the hazard. This paper gives an overview of NASA's engine ice-crystal icing research project plans. Included are the rationale, approach, and details of various aspects of NASA's research.
Technical Paper

In-flight Icing Hazard Verification with NASA's Icing Remote Sensing System for Development of a NEXRAD Icing Hazard Level Algorithm

2011-06-13
2011-38-0030
From November 2010 until May of 2011, NASA's Icing Remote Sensing System was positioned at Platteville, Colorado between the National Science Foundation's S-Pol radar and Colorado State University's CHILL radar (collectively known as FRONT, or ‘Front Range Observational Network Testbed’). This location was also underneath the flight-path of aircraft arriving and departing from Denver's International Airport, which allowed for comparison to pilot reports of in-flight icing. This work outlines how the NASA Icing Remote Sensing System's derived liquid water content and in-flight icing hazard profiles can be used to provide in-flight icing verification and validation during icing and non-icing scenarios with the purpose of comparing these times to profiles of polarized moment data from the two nearby research radars.
Technical Paper

Lunar Dust Cloud Characterization in a Gravitational Settling Chamber Experiencing Zero, Lunar, Earth and 1.8-g Levels

2009-07-12
2009-01-2357
In order to study dust propagation and mitigation techniques, an inertial separation and gravitational settling experiment rig was constructed and used for experimental work in reduced gravity aircraft flights. The first experimental objective was to test dust filtration by a cyclone separator in lunar gravity. The second objective was to characterize dust flow and settling in lunar gravity in order to devise more comprehensive dust mitigation strategies. A settling channel provided a flow length over which particles settled out of the air flow stream. The experimental data provides particle quantity and size distribution, and a means of verifying numerical predictions.
Technical Paper

Smoke Particle Sizes in Low-Gravity and Implications for Spacecraft Smoke Detector Design

2009-07-12
2009-01-2468
This paper presents results from a smoke detection experiment entitled Smoke Aerosol Measurement Experiment (SAME) which was conducted in the Microgravity Science Glovebox on the International Space Station (ISS) during Expedition 15. Five different materials representative of those found in spacecraft were pyrolyzed at temperatures below the ignition point with conditions controlled to provide repeatable sample surface temperatures and air flow conditions. The sample materials were Teflon®, Kapton®, cellulose, silicone rubber and dibutylphthalate. The transport time from the smoke source to the detector was simulated by holding the smoke in an aging chamber for times ranging from 10 to1800 seconds. Smoke particle samples were collected on Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) grids for post-flight analysis.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Characteristics of the Concentric Disk inside the WFRD Evaporator for the VPCAR Water Recovery System

2009-07-12
2009-01-2487
We consider the heat transfer characteristics of an ideal concentric disk used in the Wiped-Film Rotating-Disk (WFRD) evaporator for the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VPCAR) water recovery system. A mathematical model is derived to predict the radial temperature distribution and its average over the surface of the disk as a function of system parameters. The model shows self-similarity of the temperature distribution and the existence of a dimensionless parameter S (ratio of heat flux to convection) that can be used as a criterion to optimize the thermal characteristics of the disk in order to approach uniform surface temperature. Comparison of the model to experimental data using global (infrared imager) and local (resistive temperature devices) measurements shows that agreement with the model depends on the ambient condition denoted by the local heat transfer coefficient.
Journal Article

Effect of Illumination Angle on the Performance of Dusted Thermal Control Surfaces in a Simulated Lunar Environment

2009-07-12
2009-01-2420
JSC-1A lunar simulant has been applied to AZ93 and AgFEP thermal control surfaces on aluminum substrates in a simulated lunar environment. The temperature of these surfaces was monitored as they were heated with a solar simulator using varying angles of incidence and cooled in a 30 K coldbox. Thermal modeling was used to determine the solar absorptivity (a) and infrared emissivity (e) of the thermal control surfaces in both their clean and dusted states. It was found that even a sub-monolayer of dust can significantly raise the α of either type of surface. A full monolayer can increase the α/ε ratio by a factor of 3–4 over a clean surface. Little angular dependence of the α of pristine thermal control surfaces for both AZ93 and AgFEP was observed, at least until 30° from the surface. The dusted surfaces showed the most angular dependence of α when the incidence angle was in the range of 25° to 35°.
Journal Article

Test of SOI 555 Timer with High Temperature Packaging

2008-11-11
2008-01-2882
The thick oxide layer of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices significantly reduces the junction leakage current at elevated temperatures compared to similar Si devices, resulting in an elevated maximum operating temperature. The maximum operating temperature, specified by manufacturers, of commercial SOI devices/circuits with conventional packaging is usually 225°C. It is important to understand the performance and de-ratings of these SOI circuits at temperatures above 225°C without the temperature limit imposed by commercial packaging technology. This work tested a low frequency square-wave oscillator based on an SOI 555 Timer with a special high temperature ceramic packaging technology from room temperature to 375°C. The timer die was attached to a 96% aluminum oxide substrate with high temperature durable gold (Au) thick-film metallization, and interconnected with Au wires.
Journal Article

Lunar RFC Reliability Testing for Assured Mission Success

2008-11-11
2008-01-2901
NASA's Constellation program has selected the closed cycle hydrogen oxygen Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) regenerative Fuel Cell (RFC) as its baseline solar energy storage system for the lunar outpost and manned rover vehicles. Since the outpost and manned rovers are "human-rated", these energy storage systems will have to be of proven reliability exceeding 99 percent over the length of the mission. Because of the low (TRL=5) development state of the closed cycle hydrogen oxygen PEM RFC at present, and because there is no equivalent technology base in the commercial sector from which to draw or infer reliability information from, NASA will have to spend significant resources developing this technology from TRL 5 to TRL 9, and will have to embark upon an ambitious reliability development program to make this technology ready for a manned mission. Because NASA would be the first user of this new technology, NASA will likely have to bear all the costs associated with its development.
Journal Article

Measurement of Smoke Particle Size under Low-Gravity Conditions

2008-06-29
2008-01-2089
Smoke detection experiments were conducted in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) on the International Space Station (ISS) during Expedition 15 in an experiment entitled Smoke Aerosol Measurement Experiment (SAME). The preliminary results from these experiments are presented. In order to simulate detection of a prefire overheated-material event, samples of five different materials were heated to temperatures below the ignition point. The smoke generation conditions were controlled to provide repeatable sample surface temperatures and air flow conditions. The smoke properties were measured using particulate aerosol diagnostics that measure different moments of the size distribution. These statistics were combined to determine the count mean diameter which can be used to describe the overall smoke distribution.
Technical Paper

Review of Role of Icing Feathers in Ice Accretion Formation

2007-09-24
2007-01-3294
This paper presents a review of our current experimental and theoretical understanding of icing feathers and the role that they play in the formation of ice accretions. It covers the following areas: a short review of past research work related to icing feathers; a discussion of the physical characteristics and terminology used in describing icing feathers; the presence of feathers on ice accretions formed in unswept airfoils, especially at SLD conditions; the role that icing feathers play in the formation of ice accretion shapes on swept wings; the formation of icing feathers from roughness elements; theoretical considerations regarding feather formation, feather interaction to form complex icing structures, the role of film dynamics in the formation of roughness elements and the formation of feathers. Hypotheses related to feather formation and feather growth are discussed.
Technical Paper

Status, Vision, and Challenges of an Intelligent Distributed Engine Control Architecture

2007-09-17
2007-01-3859
A Distributed Engine Control Working Group (DECWG) consisting of the Department of Defense (DoD), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)- Glenn Research Center (GRC) and industry has been formed to examine the current and future requirements of propulsion engine systems. The scope of this study will include an assessment of the paradigm shift from centralized engine control architecture to an architecture based on distributed control utilizing open system standards. Included will be a description of the work begun in the 1990's, which continues today, followed by the identification of the remaining technical challenges which present barriers to on-engine distributed control.
Technical Paper

The CEV Smart Buyer Team Effort: A Summary of the Crew Module & Service Module Thermal Design Architecture

2007-07-09
2007-01-3046
The NASA-wide CEV Smart Buyer Team (SBT) was assembled in January 2006 and was tasked with the development of a NASA in-house design for the CEV Crew Module (CM), Service Module (SM), and Launch Abort System (LAS). This effort drew upon over 250 engineers from all of the 10 NASA Centers. In 6 weeks, this in-house design was developed. The Thermal Systems Team was responsible for the definition of the active and passive design architecture. The SBT effort for Thermal Systems can be best characterized as a design architecting activity. Proof-of-concepts were assessed through system-level trade studies and analyses using simplified modeling. This nimble design approach permitted definition of a point design and assessing its design robustness in a timely fashion. This paper will describe the architecting process and present trade studies and proposed thermal designs
Technical Paper

ISS Destiny Laboratory Smoke Detection Model

2007-07-09
2007-01-3076
Smoke transport and detection were modeled numerically in the ISS Destiny module using the NIST, Fire Dynamics Simulator code. The airflows in Destiny were modeled using the existing flow conditions and the module geometry included obstructions that simulate the currently installed hardware on orbit. The smoke source was modeled as a 0.152 by 0.152 m region that emitted smoke particulate ranging from 1.46 to 8.47 mg/s. In the module domain, the smoke source was placed in the center of each Destiny rack location and the model was run to determine the time required for the two smoke detectors to alarm. Overall the detection times were dominated by the circumferential flow, the axial flow from the intermodule ventilation and the smoke source strength.
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