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Technical Paper

Summary of the High Ice Water Content (HIWC) RADAR Flight Campaigns

2019-06-10
2019-01-2027
NASA and the FAA conducted two flight campaigns to quantify onboard weather radar measurements with in-situ measurements of high concentrations of ice crystals found in deep convective storms. The ultimate goal of this research was to improve the understanding of high ice water content (HIWC) and develop onboard weather radar processing techniques to detect regions of HIWC ahead of an aircraft to enable tactical avoidance of the potentially hazardous conditions. Both HIWC RADAR campaigns utilized the NASA DC-8 Airborne Science Laboratory equipped with a Honeywell RDR-4000 weather radar and in-situ microphysical instruments to characterize the ice crystal clouds. The purpose of this paper is to summarize how these campaigns were conducted and highlight key results. The first campaign was conducted in August 2015 with a base of operations in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida.
Journal Article

Noise Control Capability of Structurally Integrated Resonator Arrays in a Foam-Treated Cylinder

2017-06-05
2017-01-1765
Corrugated-core sandwich structures with integrated acoustic resonator arrays have been of recent interest for launch vehicle noise control applications. Previous tests and analyses have demonstrated the ability of this concept to increase sound absorption and reduce sound transmission at low frequencies. However, commercial aircraft manufacturers often require fibrous or foam blanket treatments for broadband noise control and thermal insulation. Consequently, it is of interest to further explore the noise control benefit and trade-offs of structurally integrated resonators when combined with various degrees of blanket noise treatment in an aircraft-representative cylindrical fuselage system. In this study, numerical models were developed to predict the effect of broadband and multi-tone structurally integrated resonator arrays on the interior noise level of cylindrical vibroacoustic systems.
Technical Paper

NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonic Fixed Wing Project: Generation N+3 Technology Portfolio

2011-10-18
2011-01-2521
Commercial aviation relies almost entirely on subsonic fixed wing aircraft to constantly move people and goods from one place to another across the globe. While air travel is an effective means of transportation providing an unmatched combination of speed and range, future subsonic aircraft must improve substantially to meet efficiency and environmental targets. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy-efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies, and the development of unconventional aircraft systems, offer the potential to achieve these improvements.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Effects of Simulated Ice Accretion on a Generic Transport Model

2011-06-13
2011-38-0065
An experimental research effort was begun to develop a database of airplane aerodynamic characteristics with simulated ice accretion over a large range of incidence and sideslip angles. Wind-tunnel testing was performed at the NASA Langley 12-ft Low-Speed Wind Tunnel using a 3.5% scale model of the NASA Langley Generic Transport Model. Aerodynamic data were acquired from a six-component force and moment balance in static-model sweeps from α = -5 to 85 deg. and β = -45 to 45 deg. at a Reynolds number of 0.24x10⁶ and Mach number of 0.06. The 3.5% scale GTM was tested in both the clean configuration and with full-span artificial ice shapes attached to the leading edges of the wing, horizontal and vertical tail. Aerodynamic results for the clean airplane configuration compared favorably with similar experiments carried out on a 5.5% scale GTM.
Technical Paper

Nowcasting Aircraft Icing Conditions in the Presence of Multilayered Clouds Using Meteorological Satellite Data

2011-06-13
2011-38-0041
Cloud properties retrieved from satellite data are used to diagnose aircraft icing threat in single layer and multilayered ice-over-liquid clouds. The algorithms are being applied in real time to the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) data over the CONUS with multilayer data available over the eastern CONUS. METEOSAT data are also used to retrieve icing conditions over western Europe. The icing algorithm's methodology and validation are discussed along with future enhancements and plans. The icing risk product is available in image and digital formats on NASA Langley ‘s Cloud and Radiation Products web site, http://www-angler.larc.nasa.gov.
Journal Article

A Fresh Look at Radiation Exposures from Major Solar Proton Events

2008-06-29
2008-01-2164
Solar proton events (SPEs) represent the single-most significant source of acute radiation exposure during space missions. Historically, an exponential in rigidity (particle momentum) fit has been used to express the SPE energy spectrum using GOES data up to 100 MeV. More recently, researchers have found that a Weibull fit better represents the energy spectrum up to 1000 MeV (1 GeV). In addition, the availability of SPE data extending up to several GeV has been incorporated in analyses to obtain a more complete and accurate energy spectrum representation. In this paper we discuss the major SPEs that have occurred over the past five solar cycles (~50+ years) in detail - in particular, Aug 1972 and Sept & Oct 1989 SPEs. Using a high-energy particle transport/dose code, radiation exposure estimates are presented for various thicknesses of aluminum. The effects on humans and spacecraft systems are also discussed in detail.
Journal Article

Neutron Transport Models and Methods for HZETRN and Coupling to Low Energy Light Ion Transport

2008-06-29
2008-01-2162
Exposure estimates inside space vehicles, surface habitats, and high altitude aircraft exposed to space radiation are highly influenced by secondary neutron production. The deterministic transport code HZETRN has been identified as a reliable and efficient tool for such studies, but improvements to the underlying transport models and numerical methods are still necessary. In this paper, the forward-backward (FB) and directionally coupled forward-backward (DC) neutron transport models are derived, numerical methods for the FB model are reviewed, and a computationally efficient numerical solution is presented for the DC model. Both models are compared to the Monte Carlo codes HETC-HEDS and FLUKA, and the DC model is shown to agree closely with the Monte Carlo results.
Technical Paper

Thermal Modeling of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter 's Solar Panel and Instruments During Aerobraking

2007-07-09
2007-01-3244
The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) launched on August 12, 2005 and started aerobraking at Mars in March 2006. During the spacecraft's design phase, thermal models of the solar panels and instruments were developed to determine which components would be the most limiting thermally during aerobraking. Having determined the most limiting components, (from a temperature limit standpoint), thermal limits in terms of heat rate were established. Advanced thermal modeling techniques were developed utilizing Thermal Desktop and Patran Thermal. Heat transfer coefficients were calculated using a Direct Simulation Monte Carlo technique. Analysis established that the solar panels were the most limiting components during the aerobraking phase of the mission.
Technical Paper

Thermal Model Correlation for Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

2007-07-09
2007-01-3243
The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) launched on August 12, 2005 and began aerobraking at Mars in March 2006. In order to save propellant, MRO used aerobraking to modify the initial orbit at Mars. The spacecraft passed through the atmosphere briefly on each orbit; during each pass the spacecraft was slowed by atmospheric drag, thus lowering the orbit apoapsis. The largest area on the spacecraft, most affected by aeroheating, was the solar arrays. A thermal analysis of the solar arrays was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center to simulate their performance throughout the entire roughly 6-month period of aerobraking. A companion paper describes the development of this thermal model. This model has been correlated against many sets of flight data. Several maneuvers were performed during the cruise to Mars, such as thruster calibrations, which involve large abrupt changes in the spacecraft orientation relative to the sun.
Technical Paper

NASA Personal Air Transportation Technologies

2006-08-30
2006-01-2413
The ability to personalize air travel through the use of an on-demand, highly distributed air transportation system will provide the degree of freedom and control that Americans enjoy in other aspects of their life. This new capability, of traveling when, where, and how we want with greatly enhanced mobility, accessibility, and speed requires vehicle and airspace technologies to provide the equivalent of an internet PC ubiquity, to an air transportation system that now exists as a centralized hub and spoke mainframe NASA airspace related research in this new category of aviation has been conducted through the Small Aircraft Transportation (SATS) project, while the vehicle technology efforts have been conducted in the Personal Air Vehicle sector of the Vehicle Systems Program.
Technical Paper

The Third Wave of Aeronautics: On-Demand Mobility

2006-08-30
2006-01-2429
Aviation has experienced one hundred years of dynamic growth and change, resulting in the current air transportation system dominated by commercial airliners in a hub and spoke infrastructure. The first fifty years of aviation was a very chaotic, rapid evolutionary process involving disruptive technologies that required frequent adaptation. The second fifty years produced a stable evolutionary optimization of services based on achieving an objective function of decreased costs. In the third wave of aeronautics over the next fifty years, there is the potential for aviation to transform itself into a more robust, scalable, adaptive, secure, safe, affordable, convenient, efficient, and environmentally fare and friendly system.
Technical Paper

Next Generation NASA GA Advanced Concept

2006-08-30
2006-01-2430
Not only is the common dream of frequent personal flight travel going unfulfilled, the current generation of General Aviation (GA) is facing tremendous challenges that threaten to relegate the Single Engine Piston (SEP) aircraft market to a footnote in the history of U.S. aviation. A case is made that this crisis stems from a generally low utility coupled to a high cost that makes the SEP aircraft of relatively low transportation value and beyond the means of many. The roots of this low value are examined in a broad sense, and a Next Generation NASA Advanced GA Concept is presented that attacks those elements addressable by synergistic aircraft design.
Technical Paper

A New Method for Calculating Low Energy Neutron Flux

2006-07-17
2006-01-2149
A new method is developed for calculating the low energy neutron flux in a space environment which is protected from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) by shielding materials. Our calculations are compared with low energy neutron flux flight data recorded on four different STS low earth orbit missions. We also compare our neutron flux calculations with the low energy neutron flux data recorded by MIR. The low energy neutron flux calculations can be described as a deterministic method for solving the Boltzmann equation for the light ion flux associated with a given environment. Existing Monte Carlo neutron flux simulations associated with the MIR and ISS space stations are also compared with our deterministic method for calculating neutron flux.
Technical Paper

Space Radiation Exposure Mitigation: Study of Select Materials

2006-07-17
2006-01-2103
The development of “next generation” human-rated space vehicles, surface habitats and rovers, and spacesuits will require the integration of low-cost, lightweight materials that also include excellent mechanical, structural, and thermal properties. In addition, it is highly desirable that these materials exhibit excellent space radiation exposure mitigation properties for protection of both the crew and onboard sensitive electronics systems. In this paper, we present trapped electron and proton space radiation exposure computational results for a variety of materials and shielding thicknesses for several earth orbit scenarios that include 1) low earth orbit (LEO), 2) medium earth orbit (MEO), and 3) geostationary orbit (GEO). We also present space radiation exposure (galactic cosmic radiation and solar particle event) results as a function of selected materials and thicknesses.
Technical Paper

Development of the Temperature Control Scheme for the CALIPSO Integrated Lidar Transmitter Subsystem

2006-07-17
2006-01-2277
Following the satellite-level thermal vacuum test for the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation spacecraft, project thermal engineers determined that the radiator used to cool the Integrated Lidar Transmitter subsystem during its operation was oversized. In addition, the thermal team also determined that the operational heaters were undersized, thus creating two related problems. Without the benefit of an additional thermal vacuum test, it was necessary to develop and prove by analysis a laser temperature control scheme using the available resources within the spacecraft along with proper resizing of the radiator. A resizing methodology and new laser temperature control scheme were devised that allowed, with a minimum of 20% heater power margin, the operating laser to maintain temperature at the preferable set point. This control scheme provided a solution to a critical project problem.
Technical Paper

Radiation Environment Modeling for the Planet Mars

2005-07-11
2005-01-2832
In view of manned missions targeted to Mars, for which radiation exposure is one of the greatest challenges to be tackled, it is of fundamental importance to have available a tool, which allows the determination of the particle flux and spectra at any time at any point of the Martian surface. With this goal in mind, a new model for the radiation environment to be found on the planet Mars due to Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE) has been developed. Primary particle environments computed for Martian conditions are transported within the Mars atmosphere, with temporal properties modeled with variable timescales, down to the surface, with topography and backscattering patterns taken into account. The atmospheric chemical and isotopic composition has been modeled over results from the in-situ Viking Lander measurements for both major and minor components.
Technical Paper

Parametric Shielding Strategies for Jupiter Magnetospheric Missions

2005-07-11
2005-01-2834
Judicious shielding strategies incorporated in the initial spacecraft design phase for the purpose of minimizing deleterious effects to onboard systems in intense radiation environments will play a major role in ensuring overall mission success. In this paper, we present parametric shielding analyses for the three Jupiter Icy Moons, Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa, as a function of time in orbit at each moon, orbital inclination, and various thicknesses, for low- and high-Z shielding materials. Trapped electron and proton spectra using the GIRE (Galileo Interim Radiation Electron) environment model were generated and used as source terms to both deterministic and Monte Carlo high energy particle transport codes to compute absorbed dose as a function of thickness for aluminum, polyethylene, and tantalum. Extensive analyses are also presented for graded-Z materials.
Technical Paper

Performance Characterization of a Lithium-Ion Gel Polymer Battery Power Supply System for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

2004-11-02
2004-01-3166
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are currently under development for NASA missions, earth sciences, aeronautics, the military, and commercial applications. The design of an all electric power and propulsion system for small UAVs was the focus of a detailed study. Currently, many of these small vehicles are powered by primary (nonrechargeable) lithium-based batteries. While this type of battery is capable of satisfying some of the mission needs, a secondary (rechargeable) battery power supply system that can provide the same functionality as the current system at the same or lower system mass and volume is desired. A study of commercially available secondary battery cell technologies that could provide the desired performance characteristics was performed.
Technical Paper

Simulation Study of a Commercial Transport Airplane During Stall and Post-Stall Flight

2004-11-02
2004-01-3100
As part of NASA’s Aviation Safety and Security Program, a simulation study of a twin-jet transport aircraft crew training simulation was conducted to address fidelity for upset or loss-of-control flight conditions. Piloted simulation studies were conducted to compare the baseline crew training simulation model with an enhanced aerodynamic model that was developed for high-angle-of-attack conditions. These studies were conducted in a flaps-up configuration and covered the approach-to-stall, stall and post-stall flight regimes. Qualitative pilot comments and preliminary comparison with flight test data indicate that the enhanced model is a significant improvement over the baseline. Some of the significant unrepresentative characteristics that are predicted by the baseline crew training simulation for flight in the post-stall regime have been identified.
Technical Paper

JOVIAN ICY MOON EXCURSIONS: Radiation Fields, Microbial Survival and Bio-contamination Study

2004-07-19
2004-01-2327
The effects of both the cosmic ray heavy ion exposures and the intense trapped electron exposures are examined with respect to impact on cellular system survival on exterior spacecraft surfaces as well as at interior (shielded) locations for a sample mission to Jupiter’s moons. Radiation transport through shield materials and subsequent exposures are calculated with the established Langley heavy ion and electron deterministic codes. In addition to assessing fractional DNA single and double strand breaks, a variety of cell types are examined that have greatly differing radio-sensitivities. Finally, implications as to shield requirements for controlled biological experiments are discussed.
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