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Technical Paper

Radar Detection of High Concentrations of Ice Particles - Methodology and Preliminary Flight Test Results

High Ice Water Content (HIWC) has been identified as a primary causal factor in numerous engine events over the past two decades. Previous attempts to develop a remote detection process utilizing modern commercial radars have failed to produce reliable results. This paper discusses the reasons for previous failures and describes a new technique that has shown very encouraging accuracy and range performance without the need for any modifications to industry’s current radar design(s). The performance of this new process was evaluated during the joint NASA/FAA HIWC RADAR II Flight Campaign in August of 2018. Results from that evaluation are discussed, along with the potential for commercial application, and development of minimum operational performance standards for future radar products.
Journal Article

A Fresh Look at Radiation Exposures from Major Solar Proton Events

Solar proton events (SPEs) represent the single-most significant source of acute radiation exposure during space missions. Historically, an exponential in rigidity (particle momentum) fit has been used to express the SPE energy spectrum using GOES data up to 100 MeV. More recently, researchers have found that a Weibull fit better represents the energy spectrum up to 1000 MeV (1 GeV). In addition, the availability of SPE data extending up to several GeV has been incorporated in analyses to obtain a more complete and accurate energy spectrum representation. In this paper we discuss the major SPEs that have occurred over the past five solar cycles (~50+ years) in detail - in particular, Aug 1972 and Sept & Oct 1989 SPEs. Using a high-energy particle transport/dose code, radiation exposure estimates are presented for various thicknesses of aluminum. The effects on humans and spacecraft systems are also discussed in detail.
Technical Paper

NASA Personal Air Transportation Technologies

The ability to personalize air travel through the use of an on-demand, highly distributed air transportation system will provide the degree of freedom and control that Americans enjoy in other aspects of their life. This new capability, of traveling when, where, and how we want with greatly enhanced mobility, accessibility, and speed requires vehicle and airspace technologies to provide the equivalent of an internet PC ubiquity, to an air transportation system that now exists as a centralized hub and spoke mainframe NASA airspace related research in this new category of aviation has been conducted through the Small Aircraft Transportation (SATS) project, while the vehicle technology efforts have been conducted in the Personal Air Vehicle sector of the Vehicle Systems Program.
Technical Paper

The Third Wave of Aeronautics: On-Demand Mobility

Aviation has experienced one hundred years of dynamic growth and change, resulting in the current air transportation system dominated by commercial airliners in a hub and spoke infrastructure. The first fifty years of aviation was a very chaotic, rapid evolutionary process involving disruptive technologies that required frequent adaptation. The second fifty years produced a stable evolutionary optimization of services based on achieving an objective function of decreased costs. In the third wave of aeronautics over the next fifty years, there is the potential for aviation to transform itself into a more robust, scalable, adaptive, secure, safe, affordable, convenient, efficient, and environmentally fare and friendly system.
Technical Paper

Next Generation NASA GA Advanced Concept

Not only is the common dream of frequent personal flight travel going unfulfilled, the current generation of General Aviation (GA) is facing tremendous challenges that threaten to relegate the Single Engine Piston (SEP) aircraft market to a footnote in the history of U.S. aviation. A case is made that this crisis stems from a generally low utility coupled to a high cost that makes the SEP aircraft of relatively low transportation value and beyond the means of many. The roots of this low value are examined in a broad sense, and a Next Generation NASA Advanced GA Concept is presented that attacks those elements addressable by synergistic aircraft design.
Technical Paper

Standardized Radiation Shield Design Method: 2005 HZETRN

Research committed by the Langley Research Center through 1995 resulting in the HZETRN code provides the current basis for shield design methods according to NASA STD-3000 (2005). With this new prominence, the database, basic numerical procedures, and algorithms are being re-examined with new methods of verification and validation being implemented to capture a well defined algorithm for engineering design processes to be used in this early development phase of the Bush initiative. This process provides the methodology to transform the 1995 HZETRN research code into the 2005 HZETRN engineering code to be available for these early design processes. In this paper, we will review the basic derivations including new corrections to the codes to insure improved numerical stability and provide benchmarks for code verification.
Technical Paper

Performance Automotive Applications of Pressure-Sensitive Paint in the Langley Full Scale Tunnel

Recently, there has been a strong emphasis on aerodynamic and aeroacoustic wind tunnel testing of automobiles. While significant level resources have been spent on investigating aerodynamics, the methodology has not changed appreciably since the beginning of aerodynamics as a science. Over the past decade, a number of global flow diagnostic techniques have been developed that drastically increase the quality and quantity of data from wind tunnel testing. One of these technologies is the use of pressure sensitive luminescent coatings, known as pressure-sensitive paint, a method which has matured considerably since its inception and is now used extensively in aerospace applications with good results. The goal of this research is to implement this technology in the full scale testing of high performance automotive vehicles. This paper discusses the details of a preliminary test, such as technique, paint formulation, camera and lighting hardware, and data reduction and analysis.
Technical Paper

Spin Resistance Development for Small Airplanes - A Retrospective

With the resurgence of the General Aviation industry, the incentive to develop new airplanes for the low-end market has increased. Increased production of small airplanes provides the designers and manufacturers the opportunity to incorporate advanced technologies that are not readily retrofitable to existing designs. Spin resistance is one such technology whose development was concluded by NASA during the 1980’s when the production of small airplanes had slipped into near extinction. This paper reviews the development of spin resistance technology for small airplanes with emphasis on wing design. The definition of what constitutes spin resistance and the resulting amendment of the Federal Aviation Regulations Part 23 to enable certification of spin resistant airplanes are also covered.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of the Flow Over the Rear End of a Notchback Automobile Configuration

An experimental investigation of the flow over the rear end of a 0.16 scale notchback automobile configuration has been conducted in the NASA Langley Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel (BART). The objective of this work was to investigate the flow separation that occurs behind the backlight and obtain experimental data that can be used to understand the physics and time-averaged structure of the flow field. A three-component laser velocimeter was used to make non-intrusive, velocity measurements in the center plane and in a single cross-flow plane over the decklid. In addition to off-body measurements, flow conditions on the car surface were documented via surface flow visualization, boundary layer measurements, and surface pressures.
Technical Paper

A Simplified Orbit Analysis Program for Spacecraft Thermal Design

This paper presents a simplified orbit analysis program developed to calculate orbital parameters for the thermal analysis of spacecraft and space-flight instruments. The program calculates orbit data for inclined and sunsynchronous earth orbits. Traditional orbit analyses require extensive knowledge of orbital mechanics to produce a simplified set of data for thermal engineers. This program was created to perform orbital analyses with minimal input and provides the necessary output for thermal analysis codes. Engineers will find the program to be a valuable analysis tool for fast and simple orbit calculations. A description of the program inputs and outputs is included. An overview of orbital mechanics for inclined and Sun-synchronous orbits is also presented. Finally, several sample cases are presented to illustrate the thermal analysis applications of the program.
Technical Paper

Overview of Noise Reduction Technology in the NASA Short Haul (Civil Tiltrotor) Program

Noise is a barrier issue for penetration of civil markets by future tiltrotor aircraft. To address this issue, elements of the NASA Short Haul (Civil Tiltrotor) [SH(CT)] program are working in three different areas: noise abatement, noise reduction, and noise prediction. Noise abatement refers to modification of flight procedures to achieve quieter approaches. Noise reduction refers to innovative new rotor designs that would reduce the noise produced by a tiltrotor. Noise prediction activities are developing the tools to guide the design of future quiet tiltrotors. This paper presents an overview of SH(CT) activities in all three areas, including sample results.
Technical Paper

Recent Developments of Experimental Techniques and Their Applications at NASA Langley Research Center

The need for highly accurate measurements of velocity, temperature, pressure and density has required the development of new experimental techniques. While the majority of these development efforts at NASA Langley are focused toward applications for aeronautical programs such as the High-Speed Civil Transport, Advanced Subsonic Transport, and the National Aero-Space Plane, a number are applicable to other fields. The intent of this paper is to review recent instrumentation developments and applications at NASA Langley Research Center that may have applications in automotive testing. Five experimental techniques are described along with recent results obtained in NASA facilities.
Technical Paper

NASA Evaluation of Type II Chemical Depositions

Recent findings from NASA Langley tests to define effects of aircraft Type II chemical deicer depositions on aircraft tire friction performance are summarized. The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) is described together with the scope of the tire cornering and braking friction tests conducted up to 160 knots ground speed. Some lower speed 32-96 km/hr (20-60 mph) test run data obtained using an Instrumented Tire Test Vehicle (ITTV) to determine effects of tire bearing pressure and transverse grooving on cornering friction performance are also discussed. Recommendations are made concerning which parameters should be evaluated in future testing.
Technical Paper

Egress Testing of the HL-20 Personnel Launch System

Human factors egress testing of the HL-20 Personnel Launch System, a reusable flight vehicle for Space Station crew rotation, was conducted in both the vertical (launch) and horizontal (landing) positions using a full-scale model. Ingress and egress of 10-person crews were investigated with volunteers representing a range of heights. For both the vertical and horizontal positions, interior structural keels had little impact on egress times which were generally less than 30 seconds. Wearing Shuttle partial pressure suits required somewhat more egress time than when ordinary flight suits were worn due to the larger helmet of the Shuttle suit.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Propulsion-Induced Aerodynamic Characteristics on a Wing-Afterbody Configuration with Thrust Vectoring

Aerodynamic effects induced from vectoring an exhaust jet are investigated using a well established thin-layer Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes code. This multiple block code has been modified to allow for the specification of jet properties at a block face. The applicability of the resulting code for thrust vectoring applications is verified by comparing numerically and experimentally determined pressure coefficient distributions for a jet-wing afterbody configuration with a thrust-vectoring 2-D nozzle. Induced effects on the body and nearby wing from thrust vectoring are graphically illustrated.
Technical Paper

Fifty Years of Laminar Flow Flight Testing

Laminar flow flight experiments conducted over the past fifty years will be reviewed. The emphasis will be on flight testing conducted under the NASA Laminar Flow Control Program which has been directed towards the most challenging technology application- the high subsonic speed transport. The F111/TACT NLF Glove Flight Test, the F-14 Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment, the 757 Wing Noise Survey and NLF Glove Flight Test, the NASA Jetstar Leading Edge Flight Test Program, and the recently initiated Hybrid Laminar Flow Control Flight Experiment will be discussed. To place these recent experiences in perspective, earlier important flight tests will first be reviewed to recall the lessons learned at that time.
Technical Paper

Supersonic Jet Plume Interaction with a Flat Plate

A model scaled test apparatus has been designed and assembled to simulate supersonic plume/aircraft structure Interaction for the cruise configuration. Preliminary results have been obtained to demonstrate the severity of the associated acoustic fatigue loads. Two rectangular supersonic nozzles with aspect ratios of 7 and 7.7 ware fabricated with internal convergent-divergent contours designed for Mach numbers of 1.35 and 2.00. A large flat plate was located beneath each nozzle at various nozzle height separations. The plate was instrumented to measure surface dynamic pressure and mean wall temperature. Phase averaged schliern measurements revealed the presence of high intensity acoustic emission from the supersonic plume above the plate and directed upstream. This radiation can be associated with the shock noise generation mechanism. Narrow band spectra of wall dynamic pressure show spectral peaks with amplitude levels as high as 1 PSI.
Technical Paper

Langley Research Center Resources and Needs for Manned Space Operations Simulation

Over the past three decades, the application of simulation facilities to manned space flight projects has increased chances of successful mission completion by revealing the capabilities and limitations of both man and machine. The Space Station era, which implies on-orbit assembly, heightened system complexity, and great diversity of operations and equipment, will require increased dependence on simulation studies to validate the tools and techniques being proposed. For this reason the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) undertook a survey of both the facilities available for and the research requiring such simulations. This paper was written to provide LaRC input to the SAE survey of simulation needs and resources. The paper provides a brief historial sketch of early Langley Research Center simulators, and the circumstances are described which resulted in a de-emphasis of manned simulation in 1971.
Technical Paper

Navier-Stokes Predictions of Multifunction Nozzle Flows

A two-dimensional, Navier-Stokes code developed by Imlay based on the implicit, finite-volume method of MacCormack has been applied to the prediction of the flow fields and performance of several nonaxisymmetric, convergent-divergent nozzles with and without thrust vectoring. Comparisons of predictions with experiment show that the Navier-Stokes code can accurately predict both the flow fields and performance for nonaxisymmetric nozzles where the flow is predominantly two-dimensional and at nozzle pressure ratios at or above the design values. Discrepancies between predictions and experiment are noted at lower nozzle pressure ratios where separation typically occurs in portions of the nozzle. The overall trends versus parameters such as nozzle pressure ratio, flap angle, and vector angle were generally predicted correctly.
Technical Paper

A Summary of Reynolds Number Effects on Some Recent Tests in the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel

Reynolds number effects noted from selected test programs conducted in the Langiey 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (0.3-m TCT) are discussed. The tests, which cover a unit Reynolds number range from about 2.0 to 80.0 million per foot, summarize effects of Reynolds number on: 1) aerodynamic data from a supercritical airfoil, 2) results from several wall interference correction techniques, and 3) results obtained from advanced, cryogenic test techniques. The test techniques include 1) use of a cryogenic sidewall boundary layer removal system, 2) detailed pressure and hot wire measurements to determine test section flow quality, and 3) use of a new hot film system suitable for transition detection in a cryogenic wind tunnel. The results indicate that Reynolds number effects appear most significant when boundary layer transition effects are present and at high lift conditions when boundary layer separation exists on both the model and the tunnel sidewall.