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Technical Paper

Radar Detection of High Concentrations of Ice Particles - Methodology and Preliminary Flight Test Results

2019-06-10
2019-01-2028
High Ice Water Content (HIWC) has been identified as a primary causal factor in numerous engine events over the past two decades. Previous attempts to develop a remote detection process utilizing modern commercial radars have failed to produce reliable results. This paper discusses the reasons for previous failures and describes a new technique that has shown very encouraging accuracy and range performance without the need for any modifications to industry’s current radar design(s). The performance of this new process was evaluated during the joint NASA/FAA HIWC RADAR II Flight Campaign in August of 2018. Results from that evaluation are discussed, along with the potential for commercial application, and development of minimum operational performance standards for future radar products.
Technical Paper

Summary of the High Ice Water Content (HIWC) RADAR Flight Campaigns

2019-06-10
2019-01-2027
NASA and the FAA conducted two flight campaigns to quantify onboard weather radar measurements with in-situ measurements of high concentrations of ice crystals found in deep convective storms. The ultimate goal of this research was to improve the understanding of high ice water content (HIWC) and develop onboard weather radar processing techniques to detect regions of HIWC ahead of an aircraft to enable tactical avoidance of the potentially hazardous conditions. Both HIWC RADAR campaigns utilized the NASA DC-8 Airborne Science Laboratory equipped with a Honeywell RDR-4000 weather radar and in-situ microphysical instruments to characterize the ice crystal clouds. The purpose of this paper is to summarize how these campaigns were conducted and highlight key results. The first campaign was conducted in August 2015 with a base of operations in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida.
Technical Paper

The Importance of HEV Fuel Economy and Two Research Gaps Preventing Real World Implementation of Optimal Energy Management

2017-01-10
2017-26-0106
Optimal energy management of hybrid electric vehicles has previously been shown to increase fuel economy (FE) by approximately 20% thus reducing dependence on foreign oil, reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and reducing Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Mono Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) emissions. This demonstrated FE increase is a critical technology to be implemented in the real world as Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) rise in production and consumer popularity. This review identifies two research gaps preventing optimal energy management of hybrid electric vehicles from being implemented in the real world: sensor and signal technology and prediction scope and error impacts. Sensor and signal technology is required for the vehicle to understand and respond to its environment; information such as chosen route, speed limit, stop light locations, traffic, and weather needs to be communicated to the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Online Project Information System (OPIS) Description, Annual Reporting Outcomes, and Resulting Improvements

2009-07-12
2009-01-2513
The On-line Project Information System (OPIS) is the Exploration Life Support (ELS) mechanism for task data sharing and annual reporting. Fiscal year 2008 (FY08) was the first year in which ELS Principal Investigators (PI's) were required to complete an OPIS annual report. The reporting process consists of downloading a template that is customized to the task deliverable type(s), completing the report, and uploading the document to OPIS for review and approval. In addition to providing a general status and overview of OPIS features, this paper describes the user critiques and resulting system modifications of the first year of OPIS reporting efforts. Specifically, this paper discusses process communication and logistics issues, user interface ambiguity, report completion challenges, and the resultant or pending system improvements designed to circumvent such issues for the fiscal year 2009 reporting effort.
Journal Article

1-g Suit Port Concept Evaluator 2008 Test Results

2009-07-12
2009-01-2572
The Lunar Electric Rover (LER), which was formerly called the Small Pressurized Rover (SPR), is currently being carried as an integral part of the lunar surface architectures that are under consideration in the Constellation Program. One element of the LER is the suit port, which is the means by which crew members perform Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). Two suit port deliverables were produced in fiscal year 2008: a 1-g suit port concept evaluator for functional integrated testing with the LER 1-g concept vehicle and a functional and pressurizable Engineering Unit (EU). This paper focuses on the 1-g suit port concept evaluator test results from the Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) October 2008 testing at Black Point Lava Flow (BPLF), Arizona. The 1-g suit port concept evaluator was integrated with the 1-g LER cabin and chassis concepts.
Journal Article

A Fresh Look at Radiation Exposures from Major Solar Proton Events

2008-06-29
2008-01-2164
Solar proton events (SPEs) represent the single-most significant source of acute radiation exposure during space missions. Historically, an exponential in rigidity (particle momentum) fit has been used to express the SPE energy spectrum using GOES data up to 100 MeV. More recently, researchers have found that a Weibull fit better represents the energy spectrum up to 1000 MeV (1 GeV). In addition, the availability of SPE data extending up to several GeV has been incorporated in analyses to obtain a more complete and accurate energy spectrum representation. In this paper we discuss the major SPEs that have occurred over the past five solar cycles (~50+ years) in detail - in particular, Aug 1972 and Sept & Oct 1989 SPEs. Using a high-energy particle transport/dose code, radiation exposure estimates are presented for various thicknesses of aluminum. The effects on humans and spacecraft systems are also discussed in detail.
Technical Paper

Numerical Uncertainty Quantification for Radiation Analysis Tools

2007-07-09
2007-01-3110
Recently a new emphasis has been placed on engineering applications of space radiation analyses and thus a systematic effort of Verification, Validation and Uncertainty Quantification (VV&UQ) of the tools commonly used for radiation analysis for vehicle design and mission planning has begun. There are two sources of uncertainty in geometric discretization addressed in this paper that need to be quantified in order to understand the total uncertainty in estimating space radiation exposures. One source of uncertainty is in ray tracing, as the number of rays increase the associated uncertainty decreases, but the computational expense increases. Thus, a cost benefit analysis optimizing computational time versus uncertainty is needed and is addressed in this paper. The second source of uncertainty results from the interpolation over the dose vs. depth curves that is needed to determine the radiation exposure.
Technical Paper

Advances in Testing and Analytical Simulation Methodologies to Support Design and Structural Integrity Assessment of Large Monolithic Parts

2006-09-12
2006-01-3179
Significant system efficiency gains can be achieved in high-performance aircraft via a unitized structure that reduces parts count. For instance, reduced parts count leads to substantial engineering logistic cost savings through higher levels of subsystem and mounting hardware integration. It also creates performance benefits by eliminating structural connections. Residual stress management, however, remains a major obstacle to capturing full benefits and broadening the application of unitized structure solutions. This paper describes how Alcoa and others are developing tools to overcome limitations in current testing, evaluation, and design practices attributed to residual stress effects. The authors present recent advancements in fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth characterization, along with a new, integrated approach for improved accounting of residual stress effects during fracture critical component design, manufacturing planning, and life management.
Technical Paper

NASA Personal Air Transportation Technologies

2006-08-30
2006-01-2413
The ability to personalize air travel through the use of an on-demand, highly distributed air transportation system will provide the degree of freedom and control that Americans enjoy in other aspects of their life. This new capability, of traveling when, where, and how we want with greatly enhanced mobility, accessibility, and speed requires vehicle and airspace technologies to provide the equivalent of an internet PC ubiquity, to an air transportation system that now exists as a centralized hub and spoke mainframe NASA airspace related research in this new category of aviation has been conducted through the Small Aircraft Transportation (SATS) project, while the vehicle technology efforts have been conducted in the Personal Air Vehicle sector of the Vehicle Systems Program.
Technical Paper

The Third Wave of Aeronautics: On-Demand Mobility

2006-08-30
2006-01-2429
Aviation has experienced one hundred years of dynamic growth and change, resulting in the current air transportation system dominated by commercial airliners in a hub and spoke infrastructure. The first fifty years of aviation was a very chaotic, rapid evolutionary process involving disruptive technologies that required frequent adaptation. The second fifty years produced a stable evolutionary optimization of services based on achieving an objective function of decreased costs. In the third wave of aeronautics over the next fifty years, there is the potential for aviation to transform itself into a more robust, scalable, adaptive, secure, safe, affordable, convenient, efficient, and environmentally fare and friendly system.
Technical Paper

Next Generation NASA GA Advanced Concept

2006-08-30
2006-01-2430
Not only is the common dream of frequent personal flight travel going unfulfilled, the current generation of General Aviation (GA) is facing tremendous challenges that threaten to relegate the Single Engine Piston (SEP) aircraft market to a footnote in the history of U.S. aviation. A case is made that this crisis stems from a generally low utility coupled to a high cost that makes the SEP aircraft of relatively low transportation value and beyond the means of many. The roots of this low value are examined in a broad sense, and a Next Generation NASA Advanced GA Concept is presented that attacks those elements addressable by synergistic aircraft design.
Technical Paper

Metric Evaluation of Food Packaging Scenarios Intended for a Mars Surface Mission

2006-07-17
2006-01-2067
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is working towards future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit. For these missions several food provisioning strategies are being investigated. Individual, prepackaged meals may be provided throughout the mission or commodities may be taken in bulk and processed while on the planetary surface. To enable these different supply scenarios, a packaging system must be developed that will protect the food or commodity and have minimal impact on system mass. Metric values for a prepackaged scenario and a bulk supply scenario, using current packaging material technologies, were compared. The results of this comparison show that bulk packaging penalties will potentially be more than an order of magnitude less than those of a prepackaged food system.
Technical Paper

Trade Study for a Mars Surface Mission Bulk Commodity Supply Scenario: Processed Peanut Oil Versus Bulk Oil

2006-07-17
2006-01-2071
A comparison of resource cost was made between processed peanut oil and a bulk supply of peanut oil within a reference menu using nominal yield values from literature and equivalency factors from the Exploration Life Support (ELS) Baseline Values and Assumptions Document (BVAD). Results of the comparison show a potential mass savings of up to 496.3 kg if a bulk supply of oil were to replace processed peanut oil within identified recipes. Direct comparison of processed peanut oil and bulk oil commodities shows the cost-to-launch value for processed peanut oil will be 3.2 times greater than a bulk supply. This replacement would also remove 164.4 kg of solid waste generated through peanut processing. These values and the general versatility of a bulk supply of oil indicate that recipes under the bulk commodity supply scenario should use a variety of oils.
Technical Paper

Standardized Radiation Shield Design Method: 2005 HZETRN

2006-07-17
2006-01-2109
Research committed by the Langley Research Center through 1995 resulting in the HZETRN code provides the current basis for shield design methods according to NASA STD-3000 (2005). With this new prominence, the database, basic numerical procedures, and algorithms are being re-examined with new methods of verification and validation being implemented to capture a well defined algorithm for engineering design processes to be used in this early development phase of the Bush initiative. This process provides the methodology to transform the 1995 HZETRN research code into the 2005 HZETRN engineering code to be available for these early design processes. In this paper, we will review the basic derivations including new corrections to the codes to insure improved numerical stability and provide benchmarks for code verification.
Technical Paper

Toward Human-Robot Interface Standards: Use of Standardization and Intelligent Subsystems for Advancing Human-Robotic Competency in Space Exploration

2006-07-17
2006-01-2019
NASA's plans to implement the Vision for Space Exploration include extensive human-robot cooperation across an enterprise spanning multiple missions, systems, and decades. To make this practical, strong enterprise-level interface standards (data, power, communication, interaction, autonomy, and physical) will be required early in the systems and technology development cycle. Such standards should affect both the engineer and operator roles that humans adopt in their interactions with robots. For the engineer role, standards will result in reduced development lead-times, lower cost, and greater efficiency in deploying such systems. For the operator role, standards will result in common autonomy and interaction modes that reduce operator training, minimize workload, and apply to many different robotic platforms. Reduced quantities of spare hardware could also be a benefit of standardization.
Technical Paper

Steps Toward Developing a Multi-layer Green’s Function Code for Ion Beam Transport

2006-07-17
2006-01-2148
Recently, a new Green’s function code (GRNTRN) for simulation of HZE ion beams in the laboratory setting has been developed. Once fully developed and experimentally verified, GRNTRN will be a great asset in assessing radiation exposures in both the laboratory and space settings. The computational model consists of combinations of physical perturbation expansions based on the scales of atomic interaction, multiple elastic scattering, and nuclear reactive processes with use of Neumann-series expansions with non-perturbative corrections. The code contains energy loss with straggling, nuclear attenuation, nuclear fragmentation with energy dispersion and down shifts. Previous reports show that the new code accurately models the transport of ion beams through a single slab of material. Current research efforts are focused on enabling the code to handle multiple layers of material and the present paper reports on progress made towards that end.
Technical Paper

Simulation Study of a Commercial Transport Airplane During Stall and Post-Stall Flight

2004-11-02
2004-01-3100
As part of NASA’s Aviation Safety and Security Program, a simulation study of a twin-jet transport aircraft crew training simulation was conducted to address fidelity for upset or loss-of-control flight conditions. Piloted simulation studies were conducted to compare the baseline crew training simulation model with an enhanced aerodynamic model that was developed for high-angle-of-attack conditions. These studies were conducted in a flaps-up configuration and covered the approach-to-stall, stall and post-stall flight regimes. Qualitative pilot comments and preliminary comparison with flight test data indicate that the enhanced model is a significant improvement over the baseline. Some of the significant unrepresentative characteristics that are predicted by the baseline crew training simulation for flight in the post-stall regime have been identified.
Technical Paper

Education Outreach Associated with Technology Transfer in a Colonia of South Texas: Green Valley Farms Science and Space Club for Middle School Aged Children in Green Valley Farms, San Benito, Texas

2004-07-19
2004-01-2419
Texas colonias are unincorporated subdivisions characterized by inadequate water and wastewater infrastructure, inadequate drainage and road infrastructure, substandard housing, and poverty. Since 1989 the Texas Legislature has implemented policies to halt further development of colonias and to address water and wastewater infrastructure needs in existing and new colonias along the border with Mexico. Government programs and non-government and private organization projects aim to address these infrastructure needs. Texas Tech University's Water Resources Center demonstrated the use of alternative on-site wastewater treatment in the Green Valley Farms colonia, San Benito, Texas. The work in Green Valley Farms was a component of a NASA-funded project entitled “Evaluation of NASA's Advanced Life Support Integrated Water Recovery System for Non-Optimal Conditions and Terrestrial Applications.” Two households within the colonia were demonstration sites for the constructed wetlands.
Technical Paper

Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly Software Product Improvements

2004-07-19
2004-01-2545
The Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) on board the International Space Station (ISS) has experienced periodic check valve and selector valve failures as a result of a gradual build-up of contamination from particles that have breeched the adsorbent bed seals. The current software that controls CDRA has limitations that make troubleshooting the unit difficult in these situations, in large part due to the fact that valve position telemetry is only available during certain times. There are also situations where it is required to perform operations manually that would benefit from added code logic and commands to facilitate these operations. The software has been reviewed for possible upgrades and changes that will allow engineers to better troubleshoot the unit in the event of various failures and also allow for better operability in degraded states.
Technical Paper

Atmospheric Monitoring Strategy for Ground Testing of Closed Ecological Life Support Systems

2004-07-19
2004-01-2477
This paper reviews the evolution and current state of atmospheric monitoring on the International Space Station to provide context from which we can imagine a more advanced and integrated system. The unique environmental hazards of human space flight are identified and categorized into groups, taking into consideration the time required for the hazard to become a threat to human health or performance. The key functions of a comprehensive monitoring strategy for a closed ecological life support system are derived from past experience and a survey of currently available technologies for monitoring air quality. Finally, a system architecture is developed incorporating the lessons learned from ISS and other analogous closed life support systems. The paper concludes by presenting recommendations on how to proceed with requirements definition and conceptual design of an air monitoring system for exploration missions.
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