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Technical Paper

Radar Detection of High Concentrations of Ice Particles - Methodology and Preliminary Flight Test Results

2019-06-10
2019-01-2028
High Ice Water Content (HIWC) has been identified as a primary causal factor in numerous engine events over the past two decades. Previous attempts to develop a remote detection process utilizing modern commercial radars have failed to produce reliable results. This paper discusses the reasons for previous failures and describes a new technique that has shown very encouraging accuracy and range performance without the need for any modifications to industry’s current radar design(s). The performance of this new process was evaluated during the joint NASA/FAA HIWC RADAR II Flight Campaign in August of 2018. Results from that evaluation are discussed, along with the potential for commercial application, and development of minimum operational performance standards for future radar products.
Technical Paper

Summary of the High Ice Water Content (HIWC) RADAR Flight Campaigns

2019-06-10
2019-01-2027
NASA and the FAA conducted two flight campaigns to quantify onboard weather radar measurements with in-situ measurements of high concentrations of ice crystals found in deep convective storms. The ultimate goal of this research was to improve the understanding of high ice water content (HIWC) and develop onboard weather radar processing techniques to detect regions of HIWC ahead of an aircraft to enable tactical avoidance of the potentially hazardous conditions. Both HIWC RADAR campaigns utilized the NASA DC-8 Airborne Science Laboratory equipped with a Honeywell RDR-4000 weather radar and in-situ microphysical instruments to characterize the ice crystal clouds. The purpose of this paper is to summarize how these campaigns were conducted and highlight key results. The first campaign was conducted in August 2015 with a base of operations in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida.
Technical Paper

777X Control Surface Assembly Using Advanced Robotic Automation

2017-09-19
2017-01-2092
Fabrication and assembly of the majority of control surfaces for Boeing’s 777X airplane is completed at the Boeing Defense, Space and Security (BDS) site in St. Louis, Missouri. The former 777 airplane has been revamped to compete with affordability goals and contentious markets requiring cost-effective production technologies with high maturity and reliability. With tens of thousands of fasteners per shipset, the tasks of drilling, countersinking, hole inspection, and temporary fastener installation are automated. Additionally and wherever possible, blueprint fasteners are automatically installed. Initial production is supported by four (4) Electroimpact robotic systems embedded into a pulse-line production system requiring strategic processing and safeguarding solutions to manage several key layout, build and product flow constraints.
Journal Article

Estimating Return on Investment for SAVI (a Model-Based Virtual Integration Process)

2011-10-18
2011-01-2576
The System Architecture Virtual Integration (SAVI) program is a collaboration of industry, government, and academic organizations within the Aerospace Vehicle System Institute (AVSI) with the goal of structuring a new integration process that relies on a “single-truth” architectural framework. The SAVI approach of “Integrate, then Build” provides a modern distributed development environment which arrests the propagation of requirements errors through the development life cycle. It does so by capturing design assumptions and shared properties of the system design in an authoritative, annotated architectural model. This reference model provides a common, analyzable framework for confirming that system requirements remain complete, consistent, and correct at all levels of system decomposition. Core concepts of SAVI include extensive use of model-based system engineering tools and use of a “single-truth” reference architectural model.
Technical Paper

Calculations of Ice Shapes on Oscillating Airfoils

2011-06-13
2011-38-0015
The desire to operate rotorcraft in icing conditions has renewed the interest in developing high-fidelity analysis methods to predict ice accumulation and the ensuing rotor performance degradation. A subset of providing solutions for rotorcraft icing problems is predicting two-dimensional ice accumulation on rotor airfoils. While much has been done to predict ice for fixed-wing airfoil sections, the rotorcraft problem has two additional challenges: first, rotor airfoils tend to experience flows in higher Mach number regimes, often creating glaze ice which is harder to predict; second, rotor airfoils oscillate in pitch to produce balance across the rotor disk. A methodology and validation test cases are presented to solve the rotor airfoil problem as an important step to solving the larger rotorcraft icing problem. The process couples Navier-Stokes CFD analysis with the ice accretion analysis code, LEWICE3D.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Effects of Simulated Ice Accretion on a Generic Transport Model

2011-06-13
2011-38-0065
An experimental research effort was begun to develop a database of airplane aerodynamic characteristics with simulated ice accretion over a large range of incidence and sideslip angles. Wind-tunnel testing was performed at the NASA Langley 12-ft Low-Speed Wind Tunnel using a 3.5% scale model of the NASA Langley Generic Transport Model. Aerodynamic data were acquired from a six-component force and moment balance in static-model sweeps from α = -5 to 85 deg. and β = -45 to 45 deg. at a Reynolds number of 0.24x10⁶ and Mach number of 0.06. The 3.5% scale GTM was tested in both the clean configuration and with full-span artificial ice shapes attached to the leading edges of the wing, horizontal and vertical tail. Aerodynamic results for the clean airplane configuration compared favorably with similar experiments carried out on a 5.5% scale GTM.
Technical Paper

Automated Model Evaluation and Verification of Aircraft Components

2010-11-02
2010-01-1806
The trend of moving towards model-based design and analysis of new and upgraded aircraft platforms requires integrated component and subsystem models. To support integrated system trades and design studies, these models must satisfy modeling and performance guidelines regarding interfaces, implementation, verification, and validation. As part of the Air Force Research Laboratory's (AFRL) Integrated Vehicle and Energy Technology (INVENT) Program, standardized modeling and performance guidelines have been established and documented in the Modeling Requirement and Implementation Plan (MRIP). Although these guidelines address interfaces and suggested implementation approaches, system integration challenges remain with respect to computational stability and predicted performance over the entire operating region for a given component. This paper discusses standardized model evaluation tools aimed to address these challenges at a component/subsystem level prior to system integration.
Journal Article

Role of Power Distribution System Tests in Final Assembly of a Military Derivative Airplane

2009-11-10
2009-01-3121
Boeing has contracts for military application of twin engine airplanes generically identified in this paper as the MX airplane. Unlike previous derivatives, the MX airplanes are produced with a streamlined manufacturing process to improve cost and schedule performance. The final assembly of each MX airplane includes a series of integration tests, called factory functional tests (FFTs), which are modified from those of typical commercial versions and verify correctness of equipment installation and basic functionalities. Two airplanes have been through the production line resulting in a number of FFT lessons learned. Addressed are the power distribution lessons learned: 1) the expanded coverage of the basic automated power-on generation system test, 2) the need for a manual wire continuity test, 3) salient features of the power distribution tests, and 4) keys to make first pass power distribution test smooth and successful.
Journal Article

Protection of the C-17 Airplane during Semi Prepared Runway Operations

2009-11-10
2009-01-3203
The C-17 airplane operates in some of the most challenging environments in the world including semi prepared runway operations (SPRO). Typical semi-prepared runways are composed of a compacted soil aggregate of sand, silt, gravel, and rocks. When the airplane lands or takes off from a semi-prepared runway, debris, including sand, gravel, rocks and, mud is kicked up from the nose landing gear (NLG) and the main landing gear (MLG) tires. As the airplane accelerates to takeoff or decelerates from landing touchdown, this airborne debris impacts the underbelly and any component mounted on the underbelly. The result is the erosion of the protective surface coating and damage to systems that protrude below the fuselage into the debris path. The financial burden caused by SPRO damage is significant due to maintenance costs, spares costs and Non-Mission Capable (NMC) time.
Journal Article

Characterization of the Tau Parallel Kinematic Machine for Aerospace Application

2009-11-10
2009-01-3222
A consortium of interested parties has conducted an experimental characterization of two Tau parallel kinematic machines which were built as a part of the EU-funded project, SMErobot1. Characteristics such as machine stiffness, work envelope, repeatability and accuracy were considered. This paper will present a brief history of the Tau parallel machine, the results of this testing and some comment on prospective application to the aerospace industry.
Technical Paper

Efficient Assembly Integration and Test (EAIT) Moves Theory to Practice at a System Level to Effect Lean Outcomes on the Shop Floor

2009-11-10
2009-01-3169
This paper will describe the Efficient Assembly Integration and Test (EAIT) system level project operated as a partnership among Boeing business units, universities, and suppliers. The focus is on the successful implementation and sharing of technology solutions to develop a model based, multi-product pulsed line factory of the future. The EAIT philosophy presented in this paper focuses on a collaborative environment that is tightly woven with the Lean Initiatives at Boeing's satellite development center. The prototype is comprised of a platform that includes a wireless instrumentation system, rapid bonding materials and virtual test of guidance hardware there are examples of collaborative development in collaboration with suppliers. Wireless tools and information systems are also being developed across the Boeing Company. Virtual reality development will include university partners in the US and India.
Journal Article

Columbus Thermal Hydraulic Operations with US Payloads

2009-07-12
2009-01-2555
After launch and activation activities, the Columbus module started its operational life on February 2008 providing resources to the internal and external experiments. In March 2008 two US Payloads were successfully installed into Columbus Module: Microgravity Sciences Glovebox (MSG) and a US payload of the Express rack family, Express Rack 3, carrying the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) experiment. They were delivered to the European laboratory from the US laboratory and followed few months later by similar racks; Human Research Facility 1 (HRF1) and HRF2. The following paper provides an overview of US Payloads, giving their main features and experiments run inside Columbus on year 2008. Flight issues, mainly on the hydraulic side are also discussed. Engineering evaluations released to the flight control team, telemetry data, and relevant mathematical models predictions are described providing a background material for the adopted work-around solutions.
Technical Paper

Integrated Electrical System Testing and Modeling for Risk Mitigation

2008-11-11
2008-01-2897
International Space Station (ISS) Payload Engineering Integration (PEI) organization adopted the advanced computation and simulation technology to develop integrated electrical system models based on the test data of various sub-units. This system model was used end-to-end to mitigate system risk for the integrated Space Shuttle Pre-launch and Landing configurations. The Space Shuttle carries the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM), a pressurize transportation carrier, and the Laboratory Freezer for ISS, a freezer rack for storage and transport of science experiments from/to the ISS, is carried inside the MPLM. An end-to-end electrical system model for Space Shuttle Pre-Launch and Landing configurations, including the MPLM and Freezer, provided vital information for integrated electrical testing and to assess Mission success. The Pre-Launch and Landing configurations have different power supplies and cables to provide the power for the MPLM and the Freezer.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Circuit Analysis and Testing for International Space Station Science Experiments

2008-11-11
2008-01-2911
The International Space Station (ISS) Payload Engineering Integration (PEI) organization has developed the critical capabilities in dynamic circuit modeling and simulation to analyze electrical system anomalies during testing and operation. This presentation provides an example of the processes, tools and analytical techniques applied to the improvement of science experiments over-voltage clamp circuit design which is widely used by ISS science experiments. The voltage clamp circuit of Science Rack exhibits parasitic oscillations when a voltage spike couples to the Field-Effect Transistor (FET) in the clamp circuit. The oscillation can cause partial or full conduction of the shunt FET in the circuit and may result in the destruction of the FET. In addition, the voltage clamp circuit is not designed to detect the high current through the FET, and this condition can result in damage to surrounding devices. These abnormal operations were analyzed by dynamic circuit simulation and tests.
Technical Paper

Laser Tracker Assisted Aircraft Machining and Assembly

2008-09-16
2008-01-2313
The patented (US 7,277,811 B1) Position Bar provides precise measurement, machining and drilling data for large Engineering and Tooling structure. The Position Bar also supports end item verification seamlessly in the same machining control code. Position Bar measurements are fast, accurate, and repeatable. The true centerline of the machine tool's spindle bearings are being measured to within .002 in a 20 foot cubic volume (20×20×20). True “I”, “J”, & “K” machine tool spindle positions are also precisely measured. Any Gantry or Post Mill Tool can be converted to a Coordinate Measurement Machine (CMM) with this laser tracker controlled Position Bar. Determinant Assembly (D.A.) holes, for fuselage and wing structures are drilled and then measured to within .006 in X, Y, & Z, over a 40 foot distance. Average laser tracker measurement time, per hole, is 2 seconds.
Journal Article

The 747-400 Dreamlifter - Swing Tail Door Alignment and Latch Mechanism

2008-09-16
2008-01-2281
One essential feature of the 787 production system is the 747-400 Large Cargo Freighter (LCF), also known as the Dreamlifter,[1] and its ability to quickly and efficiently transport large components from global manufacturing locations to the final assembly site in Everett, Washington. This unique airplane has a tail section (Swing Tail) that opens to allow cargo loading. Quickly loading and unloading cargo is largely dependent on the reliable operation of the integral swing tail door alignment and latching systems. The swing tail door is approximately 23 feet horizontally by 29 feet vertically in size. The alignment and latching systems are required to function in a wide range of environmental conditions including temperature extremes and high winds. At the same time, these systems must ensure that flight loads are safely transmitted from the tail to the airplane fuselage without inducing undue fuselage preloads and without excessive play in the latching system.
Journal Article

A Fresh Look at Radiation Exposures from Major Solar Proton Events

2008-06-29
2008-01-2164
Solar proton events (SPEs) represent the single-most significant source of acute radiation exposure during space missions. Historically, an exponential in rigidity (particle momentum) fit has been used to express the SPE energy spectrum using GOES data up to 100 MeV. More recently, researchers have found that a Weibull fit better represents the energy spectrum up to 1000 MeV (1 GeV). In addition, the availability of SPE data extending up to several GeV has been incorporated in analyses to obtain a more complete and accurate energy spectrum representation. In this paper we discuss the major SPEs that have occurred over the past five solar cycles (~50+ years) in detail - in particular, Aug 1972 and Sept & Oct 1989 SPEs. Using a high-energy particle transport/dose code, radiation exposure estimates are presented for various thicknesses of aluminum. The effects on humans and spacecraft systems are also discussed in detail.
Technical Paper

Liquid Water Content and Droplet Size Distribution Mass Fractions for Wind Milling Engine Fan Blade Ice Accretion Analysis

2007-09-24
2007-01-3291
A procedure for calculating the engine inlet diffuser section liquid water content and mass fractions of liquid water content associated with the water droplet size distribution for wind milling engine ice accretion analysis is presented. Critical fuel reserve calculation for extended twin-engine operation requires the determination of drag increase due to ice accretion on inoperative wind milling engine fan blade and guide vane.
Technical Paper

Universal Splice Machine

2007-09-17
2007-01-3782
There is an increasing demand in the aerospace industry for automated machinery that is portable, flexible and light. This paper will focus on a joint project between BROETJE-Automation and Boeing called the Universal Splice Machine (USM). The USM is a portable, flexible and lightweight automated drilling and fastening machine for longitudinal splices. The USM is the first machine of its kind that has the ability not only to drill holes without the need to deburr, (burrless drilling) but also to insert fasteners. The Multi Function End Effector (MFEE) runs on a rail system that is mounted directly on the fuselage using a vacuum cup system. Clamp up is achieved through the use of an advanced electromagnet. A control cart follows along next to the fuselage and includes an Automated Fastener Feeding System. This paper will show how this new advancement has the capabilities to fill gaps in aircraft production that automation has never reached before.
Technical Paper

Development of Portable and Flexible Track Positioning System for Aircraft Manufacturing Processes

2007-09-17
2007-01-3781
The Boeing Company has recently developed a portable positioning system based upon its patented flexible vacuum track technology, in support of its commitment to lean manufacturing techniques. The positioning system, referred to as Mini Flex Track, was initially developed as an inexpensive drilling system that minimizes machine setup time, does not require extensive operator training due to its simple user interface, is general purpose enough to be used in varying airplane applications, and meets strict accuracy requirements for aircraft manufacturing. The system consists of a variable length vacuum track that conforms to a range of contours, a two-axis numerically-controlled positioning carriage that controls machine motion, an additional rail perpendicular to the vacuum rail that provides transverse motion, and an end effector that can perform various tasks.
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