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Technical Paper

Development of Lightweight Radiators for Lunar Based Power Systems

This report discusses application of a new lightweight carbon-carbon (C-C) space radiator technology developed under the NASA Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) High Capacity Power Program to a 20 kWe lunar based power system. This system comprises a nuclear (SP-100 derivative) heat source, a Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) power conversion unit with heat rejection by means of a plane radiator. The new radiator concept is based on a C-C composite heat pipe with integrally woven fins and a thin walled metallic liner for containment of the working fluid. Using measured areal specific mass values (1.5 kg/m2) for flat plate radiators, comparative CBC power system mass and performance calculations show significant advantages if conventional heat pipes for space radiators are replaced by the new C-C heat pipe technology.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Isotope Power System Design Considerations for Human Exploration of the Moon and Mars

To support the Space Exploration Initiative, studies were performed to investigate and characterize Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) alternatives for the surface mission elements associated with a lunar base and subsequent manned Mars expedition. A key part of this characterization was to determine how the mission environment affects system design. The impact of shielding to provide astronaut protection from power system radiation was also examined. Impacts of mission environment and shielding were examined for two representative DIPS types (closed Brayton cycle and Stirling cycle converters). Mission environmental factors included: (1) thermal background; (2) dust and atmospheric corrosion; (3) meteoroid damage; and (4) presence of an atmosphere on Mars. Physical effects of these factors on thermal power systems were identified and their parametric range associated with the mission and mission environment were determined.
Technical Paper

The STOL Performance of a Two-Engine, USB Powered-Lift Aircraft with Cross-Shafted Fans

The short takeoff and landing capabilities that characterize the performance of powered-lift aircraft are dependent on engine thrust and are, therefore, severely affected by loss of an engine. This paper shows that the effects of engine loss on the short takeoff and landing performance of powered-lift aircraft can be effectively mitigated by cross-shafting the engine fans in a twin-engine configuration. Engine-out takeoff and landing performances are compared for three powered-lift aircraft configurations: one with four engines, one with two engines, and one with two engines in which the fans are cross-shafted. The results show that the engine-out takeoff and landing performance of the cross-shafted two-engine configuration is significantly better than that of the two-engine configuration without cross-shafting.
Technical Paper

Reverse Thrust Performance of the QCSEE Variable Pitch Turbofan Engine

Results of steady-state reverse and forward-to-reverse thrust transient performance tests are presented. The original QCSEE 4-segment variable fan nozzle was retested in reverse and compared with a continuous, 30° half-angle conical exlet. Data indicated that the significantly more stable, higher pressure recovery flow with the fixed 30° exlet resulted in lower engine vibrations, lower fan blade stress and approximately a 20% improvement in reverse thrust. Objective reverse thrust of 35% of takeoff thrust was reached. Thrust response of less than 1.5 sec was achieved for the approach and the takeoff-to-reverse thrust transients.