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Technical Paper

Performance of Next Generation Gasoline Particulate Filter Materials under RDE Conditions

In order to meet the challenging CO2 targets beyond 2020 without sacrificing performance, Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) technology, in combination with turbo charging technology, is expanding in the automotive industry. However, while this technology does provide a significant CO2 reduction, one side effect is increased Particle Number (PN) emission. As a result, from September 2017, GDI vehicles in Europe are required to meet the stringent PN emission limits of 6x1011 #/km under the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). In addition, it is required to meet PN emission of 9x1011 #/km under Real Driving Emission (RDE) testing, which includes a Conformity Factor (CF) of 1.5 to account for current measurement inaccuracies on the road. This introduction of RDE testing in Europe and China will especially provide a unique challenge for the design of exhaust after-treatment systems due to its wide boundary conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of Improved SCRonDPF Design for Future Tighter Regulations and Reduced System Packaging

With the push towards more stringent on-road US heavy duty diesel regulations (i.e. HD GHG Phase 2 and the proposed ARB 20 mg/bhp-hr NOx), emission system packaging has grown critical while improving fuel economy and NOx emissions. The ARB regulations are expected to be implemented post 2023 while regulation for EU off-road segment will begin from 2019. The regulation, called Stage V, will introduce particle number (PN) regulation requiring EU OEMs to introduce a diesel particulate filter (DPF) while customer demands will require the OEMs to maintain current emission system packaging. A viable market solution to meet these requirements, especially for EU Stage V being implemented first, is a DPF coated with a selective catalyst reduction (SCR) washcoat (i.e. SCRonDPF).
Technical Paper

Development of New High Porosity Diesel Particulate Filter for Integrated SCR Technology/Catalyst

Diesel engines are widely used to reduce CO2 emission due to its higher thermal efficiency over gasoline engines. Considering long term CO2 targets, as well as tighter gas emission, especially NOx, diesel engines must become cleaner and more efficient. However, there is a tradeoff between CO2 and NOx and, naturally, engine developers choose lower CO2 because NOx can be reduced by a catalytic converter, such as a SCR catalyst. Lower CO2 engine calibration, unfortunately, leads to lower exhaust gas temperatures, which delays the activation of the catalytic converter. In order to overcome both problems, higher engine out NOx emission and lower exhaust gas temperatures, close-coupled a diesel particulate filter (DPF) system with integration of SCR catalyst technology is preferred. For SCR catalyst activity, it is known that the catalyst loading amount has an influence on NOx performance, so a high SCR catalyst loading will be required.
Technical Paper

Next Generation of Ceramic Wall Flow Gasoline Particulate Filter with Integrated Three Way Catalyst

A Particle Number (PN) limit for Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) vehicles was introduced in Europe from September 2014 (Euro 6b). In addition, further certification to Real Driving Emissions (RDE) is planned [1] [2], which requires low and stable emissions in a wide range of engine operation, which must be durable for at least 160,000 km. To achieve such stringent targets, a ceramic wall-flow Gasoline Particulate Filter (GPF) is one potential emission control device. This paper focuses on a catalyzed GPF, combining particle trapping and catalytic conversion into a single device. The main parameters to be considered when introducing this technology are filtration efficiency, pressure drop and catalytic conversion. This paper portrays a detailed study starting from the choice of material recipe, design optimization, engine bench evaluation, and final validation inside a standard vehicle from the market during an extensive field test up to 160,000 km on public roads.
Technical Paper

Advanced Ceramic Wall Flow Filter for Reduction of Particulate Number Emission of Direct Injection Gasoline Engines

Low fuel consumption and improved power output are the main market drivers in the automotive industry. For these challenges, Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) technology provides higher thermal efficiency than Multi Point Injection (MPI) engines and this technology is expanding as a solution to reduce CO₂ and improve driveability. In Europe under the Euro 5 regulation, engine downsizing becomes a major solution to reduce CO₂ of gasoline engines. For this concept GDI is essential together with turbocharging technology. However GDI technology increases particulate matter (PM) emissions compared to MPI engines. As the introduction of a Particle Number (PN) regulation for Euro 6 GDI vehicles has been decided, technologies to reduce GDI PN emissions start to become necessary. For this requirement, a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) is an effective solution.
Technical Paper

High Porosity DPF Design for Integrated SCR Functions

Diesel engines are more fuel efficient due to their high thermal efficiency, compared to gasoline engines and therefore, have a higher potential to reduce CO2 emissions. Since diesel engines emit higher amounts of Particulate Matter (PM), DPF systems have been introduced. Today, DPF systems have become a standard technology. Nevertheless, with more stringent NOx emission limits and CO2 targets, additional NOx emission control is needed. For high NOx conversion efficiency, SCR catalysts technology shows high potential. Due to higher temperature at the close coupled position and space restrictions, an integrated SCR concept on the DPFs is preferred. A high SCR catalyst loading will be required to have high conversion efficiency over a wide range of engine operations which causes high pressure for conventional DPF materials.
Technical Paper

Potential of a Low Pressure Drop Filter Concept for Direct Injection Gasoline Engines to Reduce Particulate Number Emission

The automotive industry is currently evaluating the gasoline particulate filter (GPF) as a potential technology to reduce particulate emissions from gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines. In this paper, several GPF design measures which were taken to obtain a filter with lower pressure drop when compared to our previous concept will be presented. Based on engine test bench and vehicle test results, it was determined some soot will accumulate on the GPF walls, resulting in an increase in pressure drop. However, the accumulated soot will be combusted under high temperature and high O₂ concentration conditions. In a typical vehicle application, passive regeneration will likely occur and a cycle of soot accumulation and combustion might be repeated in the actual driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Engine Bench and Vehicle Durability Tests of Si bonded SiC Particulate Filters

Modern filter systems allow a significant reduction of diesel particulate emissions. The new silicon bonded silicon carbide particulate filters (Si-SiC filters) play an important role in this application, because they provide flexibility in terms of mean pore size and porosity and also have a high thermal shock capability to meet both engineering targets and emission limits for 2005 and beyond. Particulate filters are exposed to high temperatures and a harsh chemical environment in the exhaust gas of diesel vehicles. This paper will present further durability evaluation results of the new Si bonded SiC particulate filters which have been collected in engine bench tests and vehicle durability runs. The Si-SiC filters passed both 100 and 200 regeneration cycles under severe ageing conditions and without any problems. The used filters were subjected to a variety of analytical tests. The back pressure and ash distribution were determined. The filter material was also analysed.
Technical Paper

Utilization of Advanced Three-Way Catalyst Formulations on Ceramic Ultra Thin Wall Substrates for Future Legislation

The LEV II and SULEV/PZEV emission standards legislated by the US EPA and the Californian ARB will require continuous reduction in the vehicles' emission over the next several years. Similar requirements are under discussion in the European Union (EU) in the EU Stage V program. These future emission standards will require a more efficient after treatment device that exhibits high activity and excellent durabilty over an extended lifetime. The present study summarizes the findings of a joint development program targeting such demanding future emission challenges, which can only be met by a close and intensive co-operation of the individual expert teams. The use of active systems, e.g. HC-adsorber or electrically heated light-off catalysts, was not considered in this study. The following parameters were investigated in detail: The development of a high-tech three-way catalyst technology is described being tailored for applications on ultra thin wall ceramic substrates (UTWS).