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Technical Paper

Particle Number Emission Reduction for GDI Engines with Gasoline Particulate Filters

In order to meet the challenging CO2 targets beyond 2020 despite keeping high performance engines, Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) technology usually combined with charged aspiration is expanding in the automotive industry. While providing more efficient powertrains to reduce fuel consumption one side effect of GDI is the increased particle formation during the combustion process. For the first time for GDI from September 2014 there is a Particle Number (PN) limit in EU of 6x10 sup 12 #/km, which will be further reduced by one order of magnitude to 6x10 sup 11 #/km effective from September 2017 to be the same level as applied to Diesel engines. In addition to the PN limit of the certification cycle NEDC further certification of Real Driving Emissions (RDE) including portable PN measurements are under discussion by the European Commission. RDE test procedure requires stable and low emissions in a wide range of engine operations and durable over a distance of 160 000 km.
Technical Paper

Development of New High Porosity Diesel Particulate Filter for Integrated SCR Technology/Catalyst

Diesel engines are widely used to reduce CO2 emission due to its higher thermal efficiency over gasoline engines. Considering long term CO2 targets, as well as tighter gas emission, especially NOx, diesel engines must become cleaner and more efficient. However, there is a tradeoff between CO2 and NOx and, naturally, engine developers choose lower CO2 because NOx can be reduced by a catalytic converter, such as a SCR catalyst. Lower CO2 engine calibration, unfortunately, leads to lower exhaust gas temperatures, which delays the activation of the catalytic converter. In order to overcome both problems, higher engine out NOx emission and lower exhaust gas temperatures, close-coupled a diesel particulate filter (DPF) system with integration of SCR catalyst technology is preferred. For SCR catalyst activity, it is known that the catalyst loading amount has an influence on NOx performance, so a high SCR catalyst loading will be required.
Journal Article

Development of New High Porosity Diesel Particulate Filter for Integrated SCR Technology/Catalyst

Since the implementation of Euro 6 in September 2014, diesel engines are facing another drastic reduction of NOx emission limits from 180 to only 80 mg/km during NEDC and real driving emissions (RDE) are going to be monitored until limit values are enforced from September 2017. Considering also long term CO2 targets of 95 g/km beyond 2020, diesel engines must become cleaner and more efficient. However, there is a tradeoff between NOx and CO2 and, naturally, engine developers choose lower CO2 because NOx can be reduced by additional devices such as EGR or a catalytic converter. Lower CO2 engine calibration, unfortunately, leads to lower exhaust gas temperatures, which delays the activation of the catalytic converter. In order to overcome both problems, higher NOx engine out emission and lower exhaust gas temperatures, new aftertreatment systems will incorporate close-coupled DeNOx systems.
Technical Paper

High Porosity DPF Design for Integrated SCR Functions

Diesel engines are more fuel efficient due to their high thermal efficiency, compared to gasoline engines and therefore, have a higher potential to reduce CO2 emissions. Since diesel engines emit higher amounts of Particulate Matter (PM), DPF systems have been introduced. Today, DPF systems have become a standard technology. Nevertheless, with more stringent NOx emission limits and CO2 targets, additional NOx emission control is needed. For high NOx conversion efficiency, SCR catalysts technology shows high potential. Due to higher temperature at the close coupled position and space restrictions, an integrated SCR concept on the DPFs is preferred. A high SCR catalyst loading will be required to have high conversion efficiency over a wide range of engine operations which causes high pressure for conventional DPF materials.
Journal Article

New Particulate Matter Sensor for On Board Diagnosis

The reduction of greenhouse gas is becoming increasingly important for humankind, and vehicles with low CO₂ emissions have a part to play in any reduction initiatives. Diesel engines emit 30% less CO₂ than gasoline engines, so diesel engines will make an important contribution to the overall decrease. Unfortunately diesel exhaust gas contains particulate matter (PM) which may cause health problems, and such PM emissions are regulated by law. In order to reduce PM, especially soot, diesel particulate filters (DPFs) are widely fitted to diesel vehicles. A DPF can remove more than 99% by weight of soot from exhaust gas under normal operating conditions, and they are one of the most important methods to achieve any regulation targets. But if the system malfunctions, the PM emissions may exceed the regulation limit. To detect such PM leakage, on-board diagnostics (OBD) are required.
Technical Paper

Study on Next Generation Diesel Particulate Filter

Although diesel engines are superior to gasoline engines in terms of the demand to reduce CO2 emissions, diesel engines suffer from the problem of emitting Particulate Matter (PM). Therefore, a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) has to be fitted in the engine exhaust aftertreatment system. From the viewpoint of reducing CO2 emissions, there is a strong demand to reduce the exhaust system pressure drop and for DPF designs that are able to help reduce the pressure drop. A wall flow DPF having a novel wall pore structure design for reducing pressure drop, increasing robustness and increasing filtration efficiency is presented. The filter offers a linear relationship between PM loading and pressure drop, offering lower pressure drop and greater accuracy in estimating the accumulated PM amount from pressure drop. First, basic experiments were performed on small plate test samples having various pore structure designs.
Technical Paper

Filtration Behavior of Diesel Particulate Filters (2)

Due to its better fuel efficiency and low CO2 emissions, the number of diesel engine vehicles is increasing worldwide. Since they have high Particulate Matter (PM) emissions, tighter emission regulations will be enforced in Europe, the US, and Japan over the coming years. The Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) has made it possible to meet the tighter regulations and Silicon Carbide and Cordierite DPF's have been applied to various vehicles from passenger cars to heavy-duty trucks. However, it has been reported that nano-size PM has a harmful effect on human health. Therefore, it is desirable that PM regulations should be tightened. This paper will describe the influence of the DPF material characteristics on PM filtration efficiency and emissions levels, in addition to pressure drop.
Technical Paper

Application of Converter Efficiency Simulation Tool for Substrate Design

As emissions regulations are becoming more stringent, various efforts to improve emission performance have been carried out in different areas including the honeycomb structure of catalytic converters. This report describes the development of a simulation tool to predict emission performance and simulation results for different cell structures. The simulation model was developed based on global kinetic chemical reaction model [1]. Having tuned the reaction parameters through a light-off test and estimated oxygen storage capacity through an oxygen storage test, we ultimately tuned the model in a vehicle test (with Bags 1 and 2, FTP 75). As a result, the simulated cumulative tailpipe emissions are within ±25 percent of the test results. Parameter analyses indicate that the amount of emissions decreased as the density of cells increased and that the amount of emissions also decreased the thinner the wall thicknesses were.
Technical Paper

Durability Study on Si-SiC Material for DPF

DPF substrate is exposed to high temperature during regeneration and to acid components in exhaust gas. Therefore, DPF material needs to have an excellent thermal shock resistance, thermal and chemical stability to the sulfuric acid. This paper presents the durability test results of the Si-SiC DPF material. In particular, thermal shock resistance, oxidation resistance and acid resistance parameters have been evaluated by comparison with recrystallized-SiC and cordierite materials. As the results, the strength of Si-SiC decreased between ΔT=500 and 600deg.C, while that of recrystallized-SiC decreased between ΔT=300 and 400deg.C. The result is attributed to the difference in the elastic modulus. About oxidation resistance, material properties of Si-SiC, compared between pre- and post- oxidation, have greater stability than those of recrystallized SiC. And naturally, both SiC materials have superior acid resistance to cordierite.
Technical Paper

Long Term Stable NOx Sensor with Integrated In-Connector Control Electronics

This paper describes improvements achieved with regard to the long term stability and the system integrability of a previously described thick film NOx sensor for gasoline lean burn and diesel applications. (1, 2, 3) Durability test up to 1000 hours consisting of a temperature cycle have been carried out by a stoichiometric operating gasoline engine test bench. The NOx sensor demonstrates the NOx output shift in terms of the NOx sensitivity less than 5 % on a model gas apparatus and ± 7 % measuring accuracy in practical operating condition on a diesel engine after 1000 hours that is equivalent to approximately 60K miles driving. The integration of the control electronics for the sensor in its connector is achieved for the sensitive measuring current in the μA-range or less on vehicle applications. The developed electronics functions closed-loop controls for a tip temperature and oxygen pumps as well as a diagnosis of sensor malfunctions.
Technical Paper

Thick Film ZrO2 NOx Sensor for the Measurement of Low NOx Concentration

A practical ZrO2 NOx sensor using dual oxygen pumping cells has been introduced for the control of NOx emitted from a lean-burn gasoline engine and diesel engine.(1),(2). However, the measuring accuracy was not high enough to be useful for controlling or monitoring a low level of NOx concentration such as several tens ppm behind a three way catalyst or lean NOx catalyst which is NOx adsorption or De-NOx catalyst. This paper describes improvement of the interference effect of oxygen in the exhaust gas from the lean-burn gasoline engine and diesel engine. The cause of oxygen dependency is analyzed/revealed and a method of improvement is introduced. The improved NOx sensor has an approximately · · 2% measuring error in the wide range of oxygen concentration on a model gas system, compared to the · ·10% of the previous one.
Technical Paper

Performance of Thick Film NOx Sensor on Diesel and Gasoline Engines

This paper describes a thick film ZrO2 NOx sensor feasible for diesel and gasoline engine applications, and introduces modification items from the previous concept design.(1) The modification items comprise simplifying the sensing element design to reduce output terminals for package design and applying temperature control to the sensing element in order to minimize sensor performance dependency on gas temperature. The NOx sensor indicates a stable linear signal in proportion to NOx concentration in a wide range of temperature, A/F and NOx concentration as a practical condition on both gasoline and diesel engines. The NOx sensor shows a good response in hundred msec. and a sharp signal following NOx generation in a transient state as well. Besides, another type of a NOx sensor is proposed for low NOx measurement in a practical use, by an electromotive force(EMF) voltage instead of a pumping current.
Technical Paper

Development of Wall-Flow Type Diesel Particulate Filter System with Efficient Reverse Pulse Air Regeneration

A wall-flow type diesel particulate filter system with reverse pulse air developed for vehicles should have the best regeneration performance possible with the least reverse pulse air as possible. We improved the reverse pulse air arrangement to decrease the air consumption and raise regeneration performance. Then, we developed diesel particulate filter (DPF) materials for the pore structure suitable for regeneration. Test equipment was designed to consume less air than a previous prototype system presented in our SAE paper [1]. The experiments used a soot generator simulating a diesel engine and a diesel engine. We confirmed that a wall-flow type DPF could possibly be applied to a regeneration system with the low air consumption for mounting on vehicles.
Technical Paper

Selective Heat Insulation of Combustion Chamber Walls for a DI Diesel Engine with Monolithic Ceramics

The engine performance and emissions characteristics of a single-cylinder DI diesel engine were experimentally investigated. The combustion chamber walls of the engine were thermally insulated with ceramic materials of SSN (Sintered Silicon Nitride) and PSZ (Partially Stabilized Zirconia). Fuel economy and emissions characteristics were improved by insulating selected locations of the combustion chamber walls. The selective insulation helped to create activated diffusion combustion and resulted in more efficient use of the intake air.
Technical Paper

Computer Simulation of an LHR DI Diesel Engine

The effect on engine performance of insulating combustion chambers was simulated for a turbocharged direct injection diesel engine. We developed a low heat rejection (LHR) diesel cycle simulation. It includes a gas flow model, a heat transfer model, and a two zone combustion model. In the heat transfer model, convective and radiation heat transfer between the gas and walls was computed, taking into account the combustion chamber surface temperature swings. In the combustion model's combustion zone, the temperature and the chemical equilibrium compositions were determined. They were used to calculate the NO formation rate by assuming a modified Zeldvich mechanism. The combustion zone temperature was also used to estimate the radiation heat transfer. Simulations were performed of various combustion chamber surface materials and various LHR levels. The factors which affect thermal efficiency and exhaust emissions were deduced and their influences discussed.
Technical Paper

PSZ Ceramics for Adiabatic Engine Components

Partially stabilized zirconia is an insulating ceramic which offers high strength, high thermal expansion, and wear resistance. Low thermal conductivity provides the required insulation, high strength improves reliability, and high thermal expansion provides a simple means of attachment for ceramic engine components. Pistons, cylinder liners, and cylinder heads have been insulated with PSZ and engine tested in an adiabatic diesel engine.