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Technical Paper

Development of Advanced Non-Bypass Exhaust Heat Recovery System Using Highly Heat-Conductive SiC Honeycomb

2019-04-02
2019-01-0153
An exhaust heat recovery (EHR) system is an effective and attractive means of improving fuel economy and in-vehicle comfort, especially of hybrid cars in winter. However, many conventional bypass systems, which have a bypass pipe and bypass valve with a thermal actuator, are still large and heavy, and it is necessary not only to effectively improve the heat recovery but also to minimize the size and weight of EHR systems. Sakuma et al. reported new-concept heat exchangers and EHR systems using a highly heat-conductive SiC honeycomb, including a non-bypass system. However, since this non-bypass system always recovers heat from the exhaust gas, its heat recovery performance was set so as not to exceed the cooling capability of the radiator at a high engine load to prevent overheating of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Performance of Next Generation Gasoline Particulate Filter Materials under RDE Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0980
In order to meet the challenging CO2 targets beyond 2020 without sacrificing performance, Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) technology, in combination with turbo charging technology, is expanding in the automotive industry. However, while this technology does provide a significant CO2 reduction, one side effect is increased Particle Number (PN) emission. As a result, from September 2017, GDI vehicles in Europe are required to meet the stringent PN emission limits of 6x1011 #/km under the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). In addition, it is required to meet PN emission of 9x1011 #/km under Real Driving Emission (RDE) testing, which includes a Conformity Factor (CF) of 1.5 to account for current measurement inaccuracies on the road. This introduction of RDE testing in Europe and China will especially provide a unique challenge for the design of exhaust after-treatment systems due to its wide boundary conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of Exhaust Heat Recovery System Using Highly Heat-Conductive SiC Honeycomb

2018-04-03
2018-01-0048
Reducing the fuel consumption of powertrains in internal combustion engines is still a major objective from an environmental viewpoint. Internal combustion engines waste a huge part of the fuel energy as heat in the exhaust line. Currently, exhaust heat recovery (EHR) systems are attracting attention as an effective means of reducing fuel consumption by collecting heat from waste exhaust gas and using it for rapid warming up of the engine and cabin heating [1, 2, 3, 4]. The benefits of the EHR system are affected by a trade-off between the efficacy of the recovered useful thermal energy and the adverse effect of the additional weight (heat mass) of the system [5]. Conventional EHR systems have a complex heat exchanger structure and a structure in which a bypass pipe and heat exchanger are connected in parallel, giving them a large size and heavy weight. We have developed a new-concept silicon carbide (SiC) heat exchanger with a dense SiC honeycomb.
Technical Paper

Particle Number Emission Reduction for GDI Engines with Gasoline Particulate Filters

2017-10-08
2017-01-2378
In order to meet the challenging CO2 targets beyond 2020 despite keeping high performance engines, Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) technology usually combined with charged aspiration is expanding in the automotive industry. While providing more efficient powertrains to reduce fuel consumption one side effect of GDI is the increased particle formation during the combustion process. For the first time for GDI from September 2014 there is a Particle Number (PN) limit in EU of 6x10 sup 12 #/km, which will be further reduced by one order of magnitude to 6x10 sup 11 #/km effective from September 2017 to be the same level as applied to Diesel engines. In addition to the PN limit of the certification cycle NEDC further certification of Real Driving Emissions (RDE) including portable PN measurements are under discussion by the European Commission. RDE test procedure requires stable and low emissions in a wide range of engine operations and durable over a distance of 160 000 km.
Technical Paper

Alternative Particle Number Filtration Performance Test Method

2017-03-28
2017-01-0983
Particle Number (PN) regulation was firstly introduced for European light-duty diesel vehicles back in 2011[1]. Since then, PN regulation has been and is being expanded to heavy-duty diesel vehicles and non-road diesel machineries. PN regulation will also be expanded to China and India around 2020 or later. Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is significant factor for the above-mentioned PN regulation. This filter technology is to be continuously evolved for the near future tighter PN regulation. Generally, PN filtration performance test for filter technology development is carried out with chassis dynamometer, engine dynamometer or simulator [2]. This paper describes a simplified and relatively quicker alternative PN filtration performance test method for accelerating filter technology development compared to the current test method.
Technical Paper

Development of New High Porosity Diesel Particulate Filter for Integrated SCR Technology/Catalyst

2015-09-01
2015-01-2018
Diesel engines are widely used to reduce CO2 emission due to its higher thermal efficiency over gasoline engines. Considering long term CO2 targets, as well as tighter gas emission, especially NOx, diesel engines must become cleaner and more efficient. However, there is a tradeoff between CO2 and NOx and, naturally, engine developers choose lower CO2 because NOx can be reduced by a catalytic converter, such as a SCR catalyst. Lower CO2 engine calibration, unfortunately, leads to lower exhaust gas temperatures, which delays the activation of the catalytic converter. In order to overcome both problems, higher engine out NOx emission and lower exhaust gas temperatures, close-coupled a diesel particulate filter (DPF) system with integration of SCR catalyst technology is preferred. For SCR catalyst activity, it is known that the catalyst loading amount has an influence on NOx performance, so a high SCR catalyst loading will be required.
Technical Paper

High Porosity DPF Design for Integrated SCR Functions

2012-04-16
2012-01-0843
Diesel engines are more fuel efficient due to their high thermal efficiency, compared to gasoline engines and therefore, have a higher potential to reduce CO2 emissions. Since diesel engines emit higher amounts of Particulate Matter (PM), DPF systems have been introduced. Today, DPF systems have become a standard technology. Nevertheless, with more stringent NOx emission limits and CO2 targets, additional NOx emission control is needed. For high NOx conversion efficiency, SCR catalysts technology shows high potential. Due to higher temperature at the close coupled position and space restrictions, an integrated SCR concept on the DPFs is preferred. A high SCR catalyst loading will be required to have high conversion efficiency over a wide range of engine operations which causes high pressure for conventional DPF materials.
Technical Paper

Newly Developed Cordierite Honeycomb Substrate for SCR Coating Realizing System Compactness and Low Backpressure

2012-04-16
2012-01-1079
Ammonia Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) and Lean NOx Trap (LNT) systems are key technologies to reduce NOx emission for diesel on-highway vehicles to meet worldwide tighter emission regulations. In addition DeNOx catalysts have already been applied to several commercial off-road applications. Adding the DeNOx catalyst to existing Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) emission control system requires additional space and will result in an increase of emission system back pressure. Therefore it is necessary to address optimizing the DeNOx catalyst in regards to back pressure and downsizing. Recently, extruded zeolite for DeNOx application has been considered. This technology improves NOx conversion at low temperature due to the high catalyst amount. However, this technology has concerned about strength and robustness, because the honeycomb body is composed of catalyst.
Journal Article

New Design Concept for Diesel Particulate Filter

2011-04-12
2011-01-0603
The Inlet-Membrane DPF, which has a small pore size membrane formed on the inlet side of the body wall, has been developed as a next generation diesel particulate filter (DPF). It simultaneously achieves low pressure drop, small pressure drop hysteresis, high robustness, and high filtration efficiency. Low pressure drop improves fuel economy. Small pressure drop hysteresis has the potential to extend the regeneration interval since the linear relationship between pressure drop and accumulated soot mass improves the accuracy of soot mass detection by means of the pressure drop values. The Inlet-membrane DPF's high robustness also extends the regeneration interval resulting in improved fuel economy and a lower risk of oil dilution while its high filtration efficiency reduces PM emissions. The concept of the Inlet-Membrane DPF was confirmed using disc type filters in 2008 and its performance was evaluated using full block samples in 2009.
Technical Paper

Filtration Behavior of Diesel Particulate Filters (2)

2007-04-16
2007-01-0923
Due to its better fuel efficiency and low CO2 emissions, the number of diesel engine vehicles is increasing worldwide. Since they have high Particulate Matter (PM) emissions, tighter emission regulations will be enforced in Europe, the US, and Japan over the coming years. The Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) has made it possible to meet the tighter regulations and Silicon Carbide and Cordierite DPF's have been applied to various vehicles from passenger cars to heavy-duty trucks. However, it has been reported that nano-size PM has a harmful effect on human health. Therefore, it is desirable that PM regulations should be tightened. This paper will describe the influence of the DPF material characteristics on PM filtration efficiency and emissions levels, in addition to pressure drop.
Technical Paper

Durability Study on Si-SiC Material for DPF(2)

2004-03-08
2004-01-0951
Among the durability items of the DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter), high accumulated soot mass limit is important for the low fuel consumption and also for the robustness. In case of catalyzed DPF, it depends on the following two properties during soot regeneration. One is the lower maximum-temperature inside of the DPF during usual regeneration in order to preserve the catalyst performance. The other is the higher thermal resistance against the unusual regeneration of excess amount of soot. This paper presents the improvement in the soot mass limit of Si bonded SiC DPF. Maximum-temperature inside of the DPF was lowered by the improvement of thermal conductivity of the material, resulted from the controlling of the microstructure. Additionally the thermal resistance was improved by the surface treatment of the Si and SiC.
Technical Paper

Engine Bench and Vehicle Durability Tests of Si bonded SiC Particulate Filters

2004-03-08
2004-01-0952
Modern filter systems allow a significant reduction of diesel particulate emissions. The new silicon bonded silicon carbide particulate filters (Si-SiC filters) play an important role in this application, because they provide flexibility in terms of mean pore size and porosity and also have a high thermal shock capability to meet both engineering targets and emission limits for 2005 and beyond. Particulate filters are exposed to high temperatures and a harsh chemical environment in the exhaust gas of diesel vehicles. This paper will present further durability evaluation results of the new Si bonded SiC particulate filters which have been collected in engine bench tests and vehicle durability runs. The Si-SiC filters passed both 100 and 200 regeneration cycles under severe ageing conditions and without any problems. The used filters were subjected to a variety of analytical tests. The back pressure and ash distribution were determined. The filter material was also analysed.
Technical Paper

Soot Regeneration Model for SiC-DPF System Design

2004-03-08
2004-01-0159
The Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) system has been developed as one of key technologies to comply with tight diesel PM emission regulations. For the DPF control system, it is necessary to maintain temperature inside the DPF below the allowable service temperature, especially during soot regeneration to prevent catalyst deterioration and cracks. Therefore, the evaluation of soot regeneration is one of the key development items for the DPF system. On the other hand, regeneration evaluation requires a lot of time and cost since many different regeneration conditions should be investigated in order to simulate actual driving. The simulation tool to predict soot regeneration behavior is a powerful tool to accelerate the development of DPF design and safe regeneration control strategies. This paper describes the soot regeneration model applied to fuel additive and catalyzed types, and shows good correlation with measured data.
Technical Paper

Influence of Cell Shape Between Square and Hexagonal Cells

2003-03-03
2003-01-0661
Developing ultra thin wall ceramic substrates is necessary to meet stricter emissions regulations, in part because substrate cell walls need to be thinner in order to improve warm-up and light-off characteristics and lower exhaust system backpressure. However, the thinner the cell wall becomes, the poorer the mechanical and thermal characteristics of the substrate. Furthermore, the conditions under which the ultra thin wall substrates are used are becoming more severe. Therefore both the mechanical and thermal characteristics are becoming important parameters in the design of advanced converter systems. Whereas square cells are used world-wide in conjunction with oxidation and/or three-way catalysts, hexagonal cells, with features promoting a homogeneous catalyst coating layer, have found limited use as a NOx absorber due to its enhanced sulfur desorption capability.
Technical Paper

Effect of Cell Shape on Mass Transfer and Pressure Loss

2003-03-03
2003-01-0659
To meet stringent emissions regulations, high conversion efficiency is required. This calls for advanced catalyst substrates with thinner walls and higher cell density. Higher cell density is needed because it brings higher mass transfer from the gas to the substrate wall. Basically, the increase in total surface area (TSA) causes higher mass transfer. However, not only the TSA, but the cell shape also has a great effect on mass transfer. There are two main kinds of substrates. One is the extruded ceramic substrate and the other is the metal foil type substrate. These have different cell shapes due to different manufacturing processes. For the extruded ceramic substrate, it is possible to fabricate various cell shapes such as triangle, hexagon, etc. as well as the square shape. The difference in the cell shape changes not only the mass transfer rate, but also causes pressure loss change. This is an important item to be considered in the substrate design.
Technical Paper

The Effect of SiC Properties on the Performance of Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter(DPF)

2003-03-03
2003-01-0383
The DPF(Diesel Particulate Filter) has been established as a key technology in reducing diesel PM emission. Also Catalyzed-DPF Systems are viewed as the next generation DPF System in the automotive sector, replacing the current Fuel Additive System. The performance requirements of the DPF-equipped vehicle are good fuel economy, good driving performance, high PM regeneration performance of accumulated soot and high durability. In this paper the effect of Catalyzed-DPF characteristics, such as porosity, pore size, cell structure and catalyst loading have been defined on pressure drop, filtration efficiency, regeneration efficiency and regeneration behavior.
Technical Paper

Development of the NOx Adsorber Catalyst for Use with High-Temperature Condition

2001-03-05
2001-01-1298
NOx adsorber has already been used for the after-treatment system of series production vehicle installed with a lean burn or direct injection engine [1,2,3]. In order to improve NOx adsorbability at high temperatures, many researchers have recently been trying an addition of potassium (K) as well as other conventional NOx adsorbents. Potassium, however, reacts easily with the cordierite honeycomb substrate at high temperatures, and not only causes a loss in NOx adsorbability but also damages the substrate. Three new technologies have been proposed in consideration of the above circumstances. First, a new concept of K-capture is applied in washcoat design, mixed with zeolite, to improve thermal stability of K and to keep high NOx conversion efficiency, under high temperatures, of NOx adsorber catalyst. Second, another new technology, pre-coating silica over the boundary of a substrate and washcoat, is proposed to prevent the reaction between potassium and cordierite.
Technical Paper

Application of Advanced Three-Way Catalyst Technologies on High Cell Density Ultra Thin-Wall Ceramic Substrates for Future Emission Legislations

2001-03-05
2001-01-0924
The future emission limits for gasoline fuelled passenger cars require more and more efficient exhaust gas aftertreatment devices - the catalytic converter being one essential part of the complex system design. The present paper summarizes the results of several basic research programs putting major emphasis on the application of highly sophisticated three-way catalyst technologies being taylored for the utilization on ultra thin-wall ceramic substrates. In the first part of the investigation the following effects were examined in detail: Different washcoat loadings at constant PGM-loadings Different volumes of catalysts for constant amounts of PGM and washcoat Similar washcoat technologies at different ratios of WC-loading to precious metal concentration in the washcoat.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Catalytic Performance during Light-off Phase with Different Wall Thickness, Cell Density and Cell Shape

2001-03-05
2001-01-0930
Further stringent emission legislation requires advanced technologies, such as sophisticated engine management and advanced catalyst and substrate to achieve high catalytic performance, especially during the light-off phase. This paper presents the results of calculations and measurements of hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide light-off performance for substrates of different wall thickness, cell density and cell shapes. The experimental data from catalyst light-off testing on an engine dynamometer are compared with theoretical results of computer modeling under different temperature ramps and flow rates. The reaction kinetics in the computer modeling are derived from the best fit for the performance of conventional ceramic substrate (6mil/400cpsi), by comparing the theoretical and experimental results on both HC and CO emissions. The calibrated computer model predicts the effects of different wall thickness, cell density and cell shape.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Catalytic Performance for Ultra Thin Wall and High Cell Density Substrates

2000-03-06
2000-01-0494
New ultra-low vehicle emission legislation requires advanced catalyst systems to achieve high conversion requirements. Manufacturers have to improve both the washcoat formulations and the catalyst substrate technology to meet these new regulations. This paper will present the results of a computer modeling study on the effects of ultra-thinwall catalysts on hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide light-off performance improvement. The experimental data from catalyst light-off testing on an engine dynamometer are compared with theoretical results of advanced substrate modeling for ultra-thin wall ceramic substrates. Results show that thermal mass has the greatest effect on light-off performance. Decreases in wall thickness offer the greatest benefit to light-off performance by lowering the thermal mass of the substrate, thus allowing it to reach light-off temperature faster.
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