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Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Stabilizing Effect of n-Butanol on Diesel-Bioethanol Blends

2018-09-10
2018-01-1744
In accordance to the current environmental policy of the European Union by 2020, 10% of the transport fuel in every country comes from renewable sources such as biofuels. One of the most popular biofuels, (bio) ethanol is a probable suitable candidate for addition in diesel fuel because of its cleaner combustion and the ability to reduce emissions of gaseous pollutants. However, its use presents some important problems, attributed mainly to its incompatibility with diesel fuel during mixing due to the difference in the polarity. For this reason, substances that act as stabilizers of these mixtures are used, one of the most suitable being butanol. This substance is compatible with diesel fuel and ethanol, acting as a chemical bridge between the two, but also exhibits positive combustion behavior, as it is also an oxygenate that can be produced from renewable sources as well. The aim of this work was to investigate the behavior of diesel-ethanol mixtures using butanol as co-solvent.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Stability and Ignition Quality of Diesel-Biodiesel-Butanol Blends

2017-10-08
2017-01-2320
FAME is the most common renewable component of conventional automotive diesel. Despite the advantages, biodiesel is more susceptible to oxidative deterioration and due to its chemical composition as well as its higher affinity to water, is considered to be a favorable substrate for microorganisms. On the other hand, apart from biodiesel, alcohols are considered to be promising substitutes to conventional diesel fuel because they can offer higher oxygen concentration leading to better combustion characteristics and lower exhaust emissions. More specifically, n-butanol is a renewable alcohol demonstrating better blending capabilities and properties when it is added to diesel fuel, as its composition is closer to conventional fuel, when compared ethanol to for example. Taking into consideration the alleged disinfectant properties of alcohols, it would be interesting to examine also the microbial stability of blends containing n-butanol in various concentrations.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Diluent Addition on Flame Characteristics in a Single Cylinder Optical Diesel Engine

2015-09-06
2015-24-2438
The present work investigates the effect of low levels CO2 addition on the combustion characteristics inside a single cylinder optical engine operated under low load conditions. The effects of dilution levels (up to 7.5% mass flow rate CO2 addition), the number of pilot injections (single or double pilot injections) and injection pressure (25 or 40 MPa), are evaluated towards the direction of achieving a partially premixed combustion (PPC) operation mode. The findings are discussed based on optical measurements and via pressure trace and apparent rate of heat release analyses in a Ricardo Hydra optical light duty diesel engine. The engine was operated under low IMEP levels of the order of 1.6 bar at 1200 rpm and with a CO2 diluent-enhanced atmosphere resembling an environment of simulated low exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates. Flame propagation is captured by means of high speed imaging and OH, CH and C2 line-of-sight chemiluminescence respectively.
Journal Article

Characterization of Hydroprocessed Used Cooking Oils in Blend with Low Quality Gasoil Samples

2014-04-01
2014-01-1468
The scope of this work is to examine the use of hydroprossed used cooking oils as substitute for automotive diesel fuel. Hydroprocessing is an alternative method for the transformation of vegetable oils into high quality transport fuels, even if the quality of the oils is low, such as used cooking oils. In the present work, the utilization of hydroprocessed used cooking oil (HUCO) as neat fuel was proved to be very difficult, due to its very poor cold flow properties; therefore, mixtures of the HUCO with low quality middle distillates (a low cetane number gasoil and a light cycle oil) were prepared and evaluated. Throughout the process the formed blends were evaluated according to the european standard EN 590. The following points were mainly recorded: The lower density of HUCO was beneficial, permitting the use of poor quality distillates, in specific concentrations, and the high cetane number of HUCO was appreciable, improving the worse behavior of the other components.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Phases in a DI Diesel Engine Based on Instantaneous Cyclic Heat Transfer Experimental Data

2013-04-08
2013-01-1646
In the present paper a new method is proposed for the analysis of the two main phases of the engine exhaust stroke blowdown and displacement. The method is based on the processing of fast-response experimental temperatures obtained from the exhaust manifold wall during the engine cycle. A novel experimental installation has been developed, which separates the engine transient temperature signals into two groups, namely the long- and the short- term response ones. This has been achieved by processing the respective signals acquired from two independent data acquisition systems. Furthermore, a new pre-amplification unit for fast response thermocouples, appropriate heat flux sensors and an innovative, object-oriented, control code for fast data acquisition have been designed and applied. For the experimental procedure a direct injection (DI), air-cooled diesel engine is used.
Technical Paper

Identification and Correction of the Error Induced by the Sampling Method Used to Monitor Cylinder Pressure of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines

2012-04-16
2012-01-1155
Cylinder pressure measurements are common practice for internal combustion reciprocating engines during field or lab applications for the purpose of combustion analysis, condition monitoring etc. The most accurate method is to measure cylinder pressure using a crank angle encoder as a trigger source to guarantee cylinder pressure measurement at predefined crank angle events. This solution, even though favorable, presents a number of practical difficulties for field applications and increased cost, for this reason its use is practically restricted to lab applications. Therefore a commonly used approach for ad hoc measurements is to digitize samples at fixed time intervals and then convert time into crank angle assuming a constant rotational speed. But if engine rotational speed is not constant within the engine cycle this may result to incorrect cylinder pressure CA referencing.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a New Diagnostic Technique to Detect and Account for Load Variation during Cylinder Pressure Measurement of Large-Scale Four-Stroke Diesel Engines

2012-04-16
2012-01-1342
High efficiency, power concentration and reliability are the main requirements from Diesel Engines that are used in most technical applications. This becomes more important with the increase of engine size. For this reason the aforementioned characteristics are of significant priority for both marine and power generation applications. To guarantee efficient engine operation and maximum power output, both research and commercial communities are increasingly interested in methods used for supervision, fault-detection and fault diagnosis of large scale Diesel Engines. Most of these methods make use of the measured cylinder pressure to estimate various critical operating parameters such as, brake power, fuel consumption, compression status, etc. The results obtained from the application of any diagnostic technique, used to assess the current engine operating condition and identify the real cause of the malfunction or fault, depend strongly on the quality of these data.
Technical Paper

Tribological Evaluation of the Aviation Kerosene for Use in CI Engines

2009-11-02
2009-01-2804
To reduce the fuel related logistic burden, NATO Armed Forces are advancing the use of a single fuel for both aircraft and ground equipment. To this end, F-34 is replacing distillate diesel fuel in many applications. Yet, unacceptable wear due to poor lubricity was illustrated by tests conducted with kerosene on High Frequency Reciprocating Rig. Therefore, HFRR tests were performed with fatty acid methyl esters of sunflower, palm, cotton-seed, tobacco-seed, olive, rape-seed and used frying oils, at volume concentrations from 0.05% to 0.6%. This study showed that the biodiesels used, produced a significant decrease in the wear scar diameter at concentrations of 0.2% to 0.4 %. Biodiesels derived from non-polyunsaturated oils, such as palm and olive gave better lubrication at certain concentrations.
Journal Article

Regulated and Unregulated Emissions of a Euro 4 SUV Operated with Diesel and Soy-based Biodiesel Blends

2009-11-02
2009-01-2690
In this study, regulated, unregulated exhaust emissions and fuel consumption with ultra low sulphur diesel and soy-based biodiesel blends at proportions of 10 and 30% v/v have been investigated. A Euro 4 compliant SUV, equipped with a 2.2 litre common-rail diesel engine and an oxidation catalyst was tested on a chassis dynamometer with constant volume sampling (CVS) technique. Emission and fuel consumption measurements were performed over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and the non-legislated Artemis driving cycles which simulate urban, rural, and highway driving conditions in Europe. The regulated pollutants were characterized by determined NOx, PM, CO, and HC. CO2 was also quantified in the exhaust. Overall, 16 PAHs, 4 nitro-PAHs, 6 oxy-PAHs, 13 carbonyl compounds and particulate alkanes ranged from C13 to C35 were determined in the exhaust.
Journal Article

Possibility to Determine Diesel Engine Condition and Tuning from the Application of a Diagnostic Technique at a Single Operating Point

2009-04-20
2009-01-0681
A difficulty which exists when applying diagnostic techniques on large-scale diesel engines operating on the field, is that usually it is not possible to obtain measurement data at a wide engine operating range due to a number of constraints. In the present work is investigated the possibility to overcome this practical difficulty originating from the test procedure for engines operating on the field (i.e. marine or stationary applications). The main objective is to examine if a diagnosis procedure provides similar results when applied at various engine operating conditions. For this purpose an existing diagnostic technique, developed by the authors, is applied at different operating conditions on a large-scale two-stroke diesel engine used for power generation in a Greek island.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Instantaneous Cyclic Heat Transfer in the Combustion Chamber and Exhaust Manifold of a DI Diesel Engine under Transient Operating Conditions

2009-04-20
2009-01-1122
In this paper, the results are presented from the analysis of the second stage of an experimental investigation with the aim to provide insight to the cyclic, instantaneous heat transfer phenomena occurring in both the cylinder head and exhaust manifold wall surfaces of a direct injection (DI), air-cooled diesel engine. Results from the first stage of the investigation concerning steady-state engine operation have already been presented by the authors in this series. In this second stage, the mechanism of cyclic heat transfer was investigated during engine transient events, viz. after a sudden change in engine speed and/or load, both for the combustion chamber and exhaust manifold surfaces. The modified experimental installation allowed both long- and short-term signal types to be recorded on a common time reference base during the transient event.
Journal Article

Impact of Simultaneous ETBE and Ethanol Addition on Motor Gasoline Properties

2008-10-06
2008-01-2503
This study examines the impact of ETBE and ethanol addition on the main properties of motor gasoline. European Union mandates the use of biofuels in all transport fuels, according to the 2003/30/EC Directive. The addition of ethanol, a known octane enhancing component, in small proportions significantly increases the vapor pressure of the final gasoline, exceeding the maximum specification limits. ETBE (ethyl tert-butyl ether) is on the other hand an excellent but expensive octane enhancing component with beneficial impact on vapor pressure of the final gasoline. This paper examines the ability of ETBE to act as a stabilizer in gasoline - ethanol blends. Two gasoline samples with different chemical compositions and characteristics were prepared by blending basic refinery components. In each sample, ETBE was added in concentrations of 2, 4, and 6 % V/V respectively. In each of these ETBE - gasoline blends, ethanol was added in concentrations from 1 to 6 % V/V in 1% steps.
Journal Article

Experimental Assessment of Instantaneous Heat Transfer in the Combustion Chamber and Exhaust Manifold Walls of Air-Cooled Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-1326
An experimental analysis is carried out to investigate several heat transfer characteristics during the engine cycle, in the combustion chamber and exhaust manifold walls of a direct injection (DI), air-cooled, diesel engine. For this purpose, a novel experimental installation has been developed, which separates the engine transient temperature signals into two groups, namely the long-and the short- term response ones, processing the respective signals in two independent data acquisition systems. Furthermore, a new pre-amplification unit for fast response thermocouples, appropriate heat flux sensors and an innovative, object-oriented, control code for fast data acquisition have been designed and applied. Experimentally obtained cylinder pressure diagrams together with semi-empirical equations for instantaneous heat transfer were used as basis for the calculation of overall heat transfer coefficient.
Journal Article

Effect of Fuel Chemical Structure and Properties on Diesel Engine Performance and Pollutant Emissions: Review of the Results of Four European Research Programs

2008-04-14
2008-01-0838
During recent years, the deterioration of greenhouse phenomenon, in conjunction with the continuous increase of worldwide fleet of vehicles and crude oil prices, raised heightened concerns over both the improvement of vehicle mileage and the reduction of pollutant emissions. Diesel engines have the highest fuel economy and thus, highest CO2 reduction potential among all other thermal propulsion engines due to their superior thermal efficiency. However, particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from diesel engines are comparatively higher than those emitted from modern gasoline engines. Therefore, reduction of diesel emitted pollutants and especially, PM and NOx without increase of specific fuel consumption or let alone improvement of diesel fuel economy is a difficult problem, which requires immediate and drastic actions to be taken.
Technical Paper

Comparative Evaluation of EGR, Intake Water Injection and Fuel/Water Emulsion as NOx Reduction Techniques for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-0120
Despite the improvement in HD Diesel engine out emissions future emission legislation requires significant reduction of both NOx and particulate matter. To accomplish this task various solutions exist involving both internal and external measures. As widely recognized, it will be possibly required to employ both types of measures to meet future emission limits. Towards this direction, it is necessary to reduce NOx further using internal measures. Several solutions exist in that area, but the most feasible ones according to the present status of technical knowledge are EGR, water injection or fuel/water emulsions. These technologies aim to the reduction of both the gas temperature and oxygen concentration inside the combustion chamber that strongly affect NOx formation. However, there remain open points mainly concerning the effectiveness of water addition techniques and penalties related to bsfc and soot emissions.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Various Dynamic Issues During Transient Operation of Turbocharged Diesel Engine with Special Reference to Friction Development

2007-04-16
2007-01-0136
The modeling of transient turbocharged diesel engine operation appeared in the early seventies and continues to be in the focal point of research, due to the importance of transient response in the everyday operating conditions of engines. The majority of research has focused so far on issues concerning thermodynamic modeling, as these directly affect heat release predictions and consequently performance and pollutants emissions. On the other hand, issues concerning the dynamics of transient operation are often disregarded or over-simplified, possibly for the sake of speeding up program execution time. In the present work, an experimentally validated transient diesel engine simulation code is used to study and evaluate the importance of such dynamic issues. First of all, the development of various forces (piston, connecting rod, crank and main crankshaft bearings) is computed and illustrated in order to evaluate the importance of abrupt load increases on the bearings durability.
Technical Paper

Single Fuel Research Program Comparative Results of the Use of JP-8 Aviation Fuel versus Diesel Fuel on a Direct Injection and Indirect Injection Diesel Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-1673
During the last years a great effort has been made by many NATO nations to move towards the use of one military fuel for all the land-based military aircraft, vehicles and equipment employed on the military arena. This idea is known to as the Single Fuel Concept (SFC). The fuel selected for the idea of SFC is the JP-8 (F-34) military aviation fuel which is based upon the civil jet fuel F-35 (Jet A-1) with the inclusion of military additives possessing anti-icing and lubricating properties. An extended experimental investigation has been conducted in the laboratory of Thermodynamic and Propulsion Systems at the Hellenic Air Force Academy. This investigation was conducted with the collaboration of the respective laboratories of National Technical University of Athens and Hellenic Naval Academy as well.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis of Multi-Zone Modeling for Combustion and Emissions Formation in Diesel Engines

2006-04-03
2006-01-1383
In the present work a sensitivity analysis is conducted using a multi-zone phenomenological model developed in the past by the author's, to estimate the effect of model's constants on engine performance and emissions. The constants used for this analysis are those embedded in the semi-empirical relations of the model, regarding air entrainment rate, combustion rate, ignition delay and evaporation rate. The model is applied on a heavy duty supercharged DI diesel engine and the effect of each of these constants on measurable engine parameters is defined. From the sensitivity analysis the relation between model constants and engine output data is derived. These results are used to define a constants determination procedure. The target is to define a limited number of adjustable constants so that the procedure can be of practical use. Following this, the calibration procedure is applied to determine the value of each constant, at various engine speeds and loads for the engine in question.
Technical Paper

Experimental Heat Release Rate Analysis in Both Chambers of an Indirect Injection Turbocharged Diesel Engine at Various Load and Speed Conditions

2005-04-11
2005-01-0926
A heat release analysis of experimental pressure diagrams, appropriate for indirect injection (divided chamber) diesel engines, is developed and used to obtain heat release rate profiles during the combustion process in each combustion chamber. Attention is paid to the correct processing of the data, due to the inherent complexity of the mass interchange between the two combustion chambers. The analysis concerns a turbocharged, indirect injection diesel engine, having a very small pre-chamber and a very narrow connecting passageway, operated at various load and speed conditions, located at the authors' laboratory. An extended experimental work, at steady-state conditions, is conducted on a specially developed test bed configuration of this engine, which is connected to a high-speed data acquisition and processing system.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of EGR on a Heavy Duty DI Diesel Engine Using a new Quasi-Dimensional Combustion Model

2005-04-11
2005-01-1125
The model has already been applied on an old technology, naturally aspirated HSDI Diesel engine and on a heavy-duty turbocharged DI one equipped with a high pressure PLN fuel injection system, and the results were satisfying as far as performance and pollutant emissions (Soot and NO) are concerned. Taking into account that the main scope of engine simulation models is to assist engineers and researchers to understand the complex mechanisms involved in diesel engine combustion and pollutants formation and that through the continues engine development, new techniques are implemented, it is obvious that engine simulation models must always be enhanced with new features in order to be kept up-to-date. In this study the model has been modified to take into account the effect of EGR, since the latter one is a measure that will be used more extensively in the future to control NO emissions from turbocharged HDDI Diesel engines.
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