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Technical Paper

Development of Plastic Region Tightening 1.6-GPa Ultra-High Strength Bolt with High Delayed Fracture Resistance

A new variable compression turbo (VC-Turbo) engine, which has a multi-link system for controlling the compression ratio from 8:1 to 14:1, requires high axial force for fastening the multi-links because of high input loads and the downsizing requirement. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a 1.6-GPa tensile strength bolt with plastic region tightening. One of the biggest technical concerns is delayed fracture. In this study, quenched and tempered alloy steels were chosen for the 1.6-GPa tensile strength bolt.
Journal Article

Development of Low Viscosity API SN 0W-16 Fuel-Saving Engine Oil Considering Chain Wear Performance

A low viscosity API SN 0W-16 engine oil was developed to achieve a 0.5% improvement in fuel efficiency over the current GF-5/API SN 0W-20 oil. Oil consumption and engine wear are the main roadblocks to the development of low viscosity engine oils. However, optimization of the base oil and additives successfully prevent oil consumption and wear. First, it was confirmed in engine tests that NOACK volatility is still an effective indicator of oil consumption even for a low viscosity grade like 0W-16. As a result of base oil volatility control, the newly developed oil achieves the same level of oil consumption as the current GF-5/API SN 0W-20 oil. Second, it was found that the base oil viscosity and molybdenum dithiocarbamate (MoDTC) had a significant effect on chain wear in rig testing that simulated silent chain wear. For the same base oil viscosity, the new oil maintains the same oil film thickness under high surface pressure.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Properties Associated with In-Cylinder Behavior on Particulate Number from a Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

The purpose of this work was to gain a fundamental understanding of which fuel property parameters are responsible for particulate emission characteristics, associated with key intermediate behavior in the engine cylinder such as the fuel film and insufficient mixing. Accordingly, engine tests were carried out using various fuels having different volatility and chemical compositions under different coolant temperature conditions. In addition, a fundamental spray and film visualization analysis was also conducted using a constant volume vessel, assuming the engine test conditions. As for the physical effects, the test results showed that a low volatility fuel displayed high particulate number (PN) emissions when the injection timing was advanced. The fundamental test clearly showed that the amount of fuel film on the impingement plate increased under such operating conditions with a low volatility fuel.
Technical Paper

Development of GF-5 0W-20 Fuel-Saving Engine Oil for DLC-Coated Valve Lifters

A suitable GF-5 engine oil formulation is investigated to improve the fuel economy of gasoline engines with hydrogen-free DLC-coated valve lifters. Molybdenum dithocarbamate (MoDTC) is shown to be a suitable friction modifier for low viscosity grade engine oils like 0W-20. A suitable Ca salicylate detergent is also determined from several types examined for maximizing the friction reduction effects of MoDTC. The most suitable Ca salicylate has a chemical structure capable of forming a borophosphate glass film on metal surfaces, which is known to improve the effects of MoDTC. A high viscosity index Group III base oil (VI>140) is also effective in improving fuel efficiency. It is further clarified that the structural design of the polymethacrylate viscosity modifier is another important factor in reducing engine friction.
Journal Article

Verification of Flag Usage Patterns by Static Analysis Techniques

A flag is a global boolean variable used to achieve synchronization between various tasks of an embedded system. An application implementing flags performs actions or events based on the value of the flags. If flag variables are not implemented properly, certain synchronization related issues can arise which can lead to unexpected behavior or failure of the underlying system. In this paper, we present an automated verification technique to identify and verify flag usage patterns at an early stage of code development. We propose a two-step approach which consists of: a. identification of all potential flag variables and b. verification of flag usage patterns against predefined set of rules. The results of our experiment demonstrate that the proposed approach reduces the cost and complexity of the flag review process by almost 70%.
Technical Paper

Development of an Electric Motor for a Newly Developed Electric Vehicle

This paper describes the development of the drive motor adopted on the newly developed 2013 Model Year (MY) electric vehicle (EV). Based on the 2011MY EV that was specifically designed and engineered for mass-production, the 2013MY powertrain integrates the electric motor, inverter and charging system into one unit in order to achieve downsizing and weight saving, unlike previous 2011 model which had these components segregated. In general, integration of all components into one unit causes deterioration of the noise and vibration performance of vehicles due to an increase in weight and the number of resonance parts. In order to overcome such problems associated with this integration, each component in the 2013 model has been optimized to reduce noise and vibration resulting in high degree of vehicle quietness.
Journal Article

Improvement of Combustion Stability under Cold Ambient Condition by Mixture Control

For diesel engine, lower compression ratio has been demanded to improve fuel consumption, exhaust emission and maximum power recently. However, low compression ratio engine might have combustion instability issues under cold temperature condition, especially just after engine started. As a first step of this study, cold temperature combustion was investigated by in-cylinder pressure analysis and it found out that higher heat release around top dead center, which was mainly contributed by pilot injection, was the key factor to improve engine speed fluctuation. For further understanding of combustion in cold condition, particularly mixture formation near a glow plug, 3D CFD simulation was applied. Specifically for this purpose, TI (Time-scale Interaction) combustion model has been developed for simulating combustion phenomena. This model was based on a reasonable combustion mode, taking into account the characteristic time scale of chemical reactions and turbulence eddy break-up.
Technical Paper

A Lubrication Analysis of Multi Link VCR Engine Components using a Mixed Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication Theory Model

Research is under way on an engine system [1] that achieves a variable compression ratio using a multiple-link mechanism between the crankshaft and pistons for the dual purpose of improving fuel economy and power output. At present, there is no database that allows direct judgment of the feasibility of the specific sliding parts in this mechanism. In this paper, the feasibility was examined by making a comparison with the sliding characteristics and material properties of conventional engine parts, for which databases exist, and using evaluation parameters based on mixed elasto-hydrodynamic (EHD) lubrication calculations. In addition, the innovations made to the mixed EHD calculation method used in this study to facilitate calculations under various lubrication conditions are also explained, including the treatment of surface roughness, wear progress and stiffness around the bearings.
Technical Paper

High Throughput Computation of Optical Flow with a High Frame-Rate Camera

This paper presents a new method for calculating optical flow using data from a high frame-rate camera. We focused on a feature of image data captured with a high frame-rate camera in which objects do not move more than one pixel between successive frames. This approach eliminates repetitive processing for object identification among frames taken at different sampling times. High-speed processing hardware architecture was designed with sequential processing only, and the algorithm was implemented in a field programmable gate array. The resultant unit can calculate optical flow for a 640×120 pixel size image with a 480-Hz processing cycle and 0.5-μsec processing latency.
Technical Paper

HCCI Combustion on a Diesel VCR Engine

A variable compression ratio (VCR) technology, that has a new piston-crankshaft mechanism with multi links, has been patented and developed by Nissan for some years (This technology has been detailed in previous SAE paper 2003-01-0921 and 2005-01-1134). This paper will present the use of this VCR technology for Diesel engine. The objective set with the use of VCR for Diesel engine is mainly to reduce as much as possible engine out emission to prepare for long-term, more strict emission standards. Results presented will include the description of the 2l Diesel VCR engine and its VCR mechanism adapted to Diesel constraints. Combustion tests have been performed with the use of HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) combustion. This technology is still in a research phase in Renault: the adaptation of VCR technology to a Diesel engine consists in the modification of several parts with the addition of lower links, control links and control shaft.
Technical Paper

Unregulated Emissions Evaluation of Gasoline Combustion Systems (Lean Burn / Stoichiometric DISI and MPI), State of the Art Diesel Aftertreatment Technologies (DPF, urea-SCR and DOC), and Fuel Qualities Effects (EtOH, ETBE, Aromatics and FAME)

In order to clarify future automobile technologies and fuel qualities to improve air quality, second phase of Japan Clean Air Program (JCAPII) had been conducted from 2002 to 2007. Predicting improvement in air quality that might be attained by introducing new emission control technologies and determining fuel qualities required for the technologies is one of the main issues of this program. Unregulated material WG of JCAPII had studied unregulated emissions from gasoline and diesel engines. Eight gaseous hydrocarbons (HC), four Aldehydes and three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated as unregulated emissions. Specifically, emissions of the following components were measured: 1,3-Butadiene, Benzene, Toluene, Xylene, Ethylbenzene, 1,3,5-Trimethyl-benzene, n-Hexane, Styrene as gaseous HCs, Formaldehyde, Acetaldehyde, Acrolein, Benzaldehyde as Aldehydes, and Benzo(a)pyrene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene as PAHs.
Technical Paper

Summary report of Japan Clean Air Program diesel and diesel fuel activities

Diesel emissions are significant issue worldwide, and emissions requirements have become so tough that. the application of after-treatment systems is now indispensable in many countries To meet even more stringent future emissions requirements, it has become apparent that the improvement of market fuel quality is essential as well as the development in engine and exhaust after-treatment technology. Japan Clean Air Program II (JCAP II) is being conducted to assess the direction of future technologies through the evaluation of current automobile and fuel technologies and consequently to realize near zero emissions and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction. In this program, effects of fuel properties on the performance of diesel engines and a vehicle equipped with two types of diesel NOx emission after-treatment devices, a Urea-SCR system and a NOx storage reduction (NSR) catalyst system, were examined.
Technical Paper

Development of Diesel Engine System with DPF for the European Market

Nissan Motor has put on the European SUV market a 2.2-L direct-injection diesel engine with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) system that complies with the EURO IV emission regulations. This paper describes the DPF system, cooperative control of a variable geometry turbo (VGT) and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and a high-accuracy lambda control adopted for this engine. In order to achieve a compact DPF, the high-accuracy lambda control was developed to reduce variation in engine-out particulate matter (PM) emissions. Moreover, the accuracy of the technique for predicting the quantity of PM accumulation was improved for reliable detection of the DPF regeneration. Prediction error for PM accumulation increases during transient operation. Control logic was adopted to correct the PM prediction according to lambda fluctuation detected by an observer for lambda at cylinder under transient operating conditions. The observer is corrected lambda sensor output.
Technical Paper

Impact of Oil-derived Sulfur and Phosphorus on Diesel NOx Storage Reduction Catalyst - JCAP II Oil WG Report

Emission regulations for diesel-powered vehicles have been gradually tightening. Installation of after-treatment devices such as diesel particulate filters (DPF), NOx storage reduction (NSR) catalysts, and so on is indispensable to satisfy rigorous limits of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Japan Clean Air Program II Oil Working Group (JCAPII Oil WG) has been investigating the effect of engine oil on advanced diesel after-treatment devices. First of all, we researched the impact of oil-derived ash on continuous regeneration-type diesel particulate filter (CR-DPF), and already reported that the less sulfated ash in oil gave rise to lower pressure drop across CR-DPF [1]. In this paper, impact of oil-derived sulfur and phosphorus on NSR catalyst was investigated using a 4L direct injection common-rail diesel engine with turbo-intercooler. This engine equipped with NSR catalyst meets the Japanese new short-term emission regulations.
Technical Paper

Application Development of Low Carbon Type Dual Phase 980MPa High Strength Steel

Use of high strength steel (HSS) could be an important consideration in achieving competitive weight and safety performance of the body-in-white (BIW). This study covers key technical issues in the application development. Many aspects were studied such as formability, weldability and impact strength for application of this grade to the BIW. One of the key issues is spot weldability, especially in the assembly of heavy gauge materials for structural parts. The spot weld strength appears not to satisfy the target for some HSS applications, when hardness of the nugget is high. The relation between weld strength and the chemical composition of steel sheets was studied, because hardness can be controlled by chemical composition and welding conditions. It was found that using lower carbon content or carbon equivalent compared to conventional grades could improve weld strength.
Technical Paper

Combination of Combustion Concept and Fuel Property for Ultra-Clean DI Diesel

Experimental investigations were previously conducted with a direct-injection diesel engine with the aim of reducing exhaust emissions, especially nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). As a result of that work, a combustion concept, called Modulated Kinetics (MK) combustion, was developed that reduces NOx and smoke simultaneously through low-temperature combustion and premixed combustion to achieve a cleaner diesel engine. In subsequent work, it was found that applying a low compression ratio was effective in expanding the MK combustion region on the high-load side. The MK concept was then combined with an exhaust after-treatment system and applied to a test vehicle. The results indicated the attainment of ULEV emission levels, albeit in laboratory evaluations. In the present work, the combination of the MK combustion concept and certain fuel properties has been experimentally investigated with the aim of reducing exhaust emissions further.
Technical Paper

Impact of Oil-derived Ash on Continuous Regeneration-type Diesel Particulate Filter - JCAPII Oil WG Report

Impact of oil-derived ash on the pressure drop of continuous regeneration-type diesel particulate filter (CR-DPF) was investigated through 600hrs running test at maximum power point on a 6.9L diesel engine, which meets the Japanese long-term emission regulations enacted in 1998, using approximately 50ppm sulfur content fuel. Sulfated ash content of test oils were varied as 0.96, 1.31, and 1.70 mass%, respectively. During the running test, the exhaust pressure drop through CR-DPF was measured. And after the test, the ventilation resistance through CR-DPF was also evaluated before and after the baking process, which was applied to eliminate the effect of soot accumulated in CR-DPF. The results revealed that the less sulfated ash in oil gave rise to lower pressure drop across CR-DPF. According to microscope examination of the baked DPF, ash was mainly accumulated on the wall surface of CR-DPF, and that seemed to be related to the magnitude of pressure drop caused by ash.
Technical Paper

Development of Transient Knock Prediction Technique by Using a Zero-Dimensional Knocking Simulation with Chemical Kinetics

A transient knock prediction technique has been developed by coupling a zero-dimensional knocking simulation with chemical kinetics and a one-dimensional gas exchange engine model to study the occurrence of transient knock in SI engines. A mixed chemical reaction mechanism of the primary reference fuels was implemented in the two-zone combustion chamber model as the auto-ignition model of the end-gas. An empirical correlation between end-gas auto-ignition and knock intensity obtained through intensive analysis of experimental data has been applied to the knocking simulation with the aim of obtaining better prediction accuracy. The results of calculations made under various engine operating parameters show good agreement with experimental data for trace knock sensitivity to spark advance.
Technical Paper

FEM analysis on gap control mechanism in batting process of tailored blank sheets production

Recently tailored blank sheets are widely and very often applied to car body's panels in order to reduce weight and number of automobile parts. The tailored blank sheets are produced by welding more than two metal sheets. The gap between edges of blank sheets before laser welding should be controlled for obtaining good quality tailored blank sheets. Therefore control of gap within 0.1mm between batting two blank sheets for production is one of main subjects for producing tailored blank sheets. This report presents not only a new mechanism on gap control but also a development of Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis for prediction of gap. The new mechanism has been applied successfully to produce good quality tailored blank sheets. The gap prediction simulation can reduce the time for gap control apparatus design.
Technical Paper

Study of an Integrated Diesel Engine-CVT Control Algorithm for Improving Drivability and Exhaust Emission Performance

Diesel engines have attracted more attention in recent years as one means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from motor vehicles. One of the major issues for diesel engines is exhaust emissions performance. Diesel engines also face various difficulties in providing the driving force demanded by the driver because of their greater inertia than that of gasoline engines. Meanwhile, continuously variable transmissions (CVTs) have been popularized as gearboxes that execute ratio changes continuously without generating shift shock. The aim of this research is to achieve higher levels of drivability and exhaust emissions performance by mating a CVT to a diesel engine and making maximum use of the continuous ratio change capability. An integrated engine-CVT control algorithm that can freely set the driving force and also the engine operating conditions for generating that driving force has been developed through this study.