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Technical Paper

Validation of Wireless Power Transfer up to 11kW Based on SAE J2954 with Bench and Vehicle Testing

2019-04-02
2019-01-0868
Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) promises automated and highly efficient charging of electric and plug-in-hybrid vehicles. As commercial development proceeds forward, the technical challenges of efficiency, interoperability, interference and safety are a primary focus for this industry. The SAE Vehicle Wireless Power and Alignment Taskforce published the Recommended Practice J2954 to help harmonize the first phase of high-power WPT technology development. SAE J2954 uses a performance-based approach to standardizing WPT by specifying ground and vehicle assembly coils to be used in a test stand (per Z-class) to validate performance, interoperability and safety. The main goal of this SAE J2954 bench testing campaign was to prove interoperability between WPT systems utilizing different coil magnetic topologies. This type of testing had not been done before on such a scale with real automaker and supplier systems.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Sensitivity Analysis of Wheel Shape Factors

2019-04-02
2019-01-0667
Wheels play an important role in determining the aerodynamic drag of passenger vehicles. This is because the contribution of wheels to aerodynamic drag comes from not only the wheels themselves, but also from the interference effect between wheel wakes and the base wake. As far as the authors are aware, there have been no reports about aerodynamic drag sensitivity to wheel shape factors for different vehicle types and different exterior body shapes. The purpose of this study was to clarify CD sensitivity to wheel shape factors for a sedan and an SUV, including different rear fender shapes. Many different wheel configurations were investigated in terms of the CD, base pressure and flow fields in wind tunnel tests. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to clarify CD sensitivity to each wheel shape factor based on the test data. This study revealed high CD sensitivity factors for both the sedan and SUV.
Technical Paper

Reciprocal Measurements of the Vehicle Transfer Function for Road Noise

2015-06-15
2015-01-2241
Road Noise is generated by the change of random displacement input inside the tire contact patch. Since the existing 3 or 6 directional electromagnetic shakers have a flat surface at the tire contact patch, these shakers cannot excite the vehicle in a manner representative of actual on-road road noise input. Therefore, this paper proposes a new experimental method to measure the road noise vehicle transfer function. This method is based on the reciprocity between the tire contact patch and the driver's ear location. The reaction force sensor of the tire contact patch is newly developed for the reciprocal loud speaker excitation at the passenger ear location. In addition, with this equipment, it is possible to extract the dominant structural mode shapes creating high sound pressure in the automotive interior acoustic field. This method is referred to as experimental structure mode participation to the noise of the acoustic field in the vibro-acoustic coupling analysis.
Technical Paper

Independent Control of Steering Force and Wheel Angles to Improve Straight Line Stability

2014-04-01
2014-01-0065
This paper describes a control method to improve straight-line stability without sacrificing natural steering feel, utilizing a newly developed steering system controlling the steering force and the wheel angle independently. It cancels drifting by a road cant and suppresses the yaw angle induced by road surface irregularities or a side wind. Therefore drivers can keep the car straight with such a little steering input adjustment, thus reducing the driver's workload greatly. In this control method, a camera mounted behind the windshield recognizes the forward lane and calculate the discrepancy between the vehicle direction and the driving lane. This method has been applied to the test car, and the reduction of the driver's workload was confirmed. This paper presents an outline of the method and describes its advantages.
Technical Paper

Development of Regenerative Cooperative Braking System with Conventional ESC

2014-04-01
2014-01-0331
HEV and EV markets are in a rapid expansion tendency. Development of low-cost regenerative cooperation brake system is needed in order to respond to the consumers needs for HEV and EV. Regenerative cooperation brake system which HEV and EV are generally equipped with has stroke simulator. We developed simple composition brake system based on the conventional ESC unit without the stroke simulator, and our system realized a low-cost regenerative cooperation brake. The key technologies are the quiet pressurization control which can be used in the service application, which is to make brake force depending on brake travel, by gear pump and the master cylinder with idle stroke to realize regenerative cooperation brake. Thanks to the key technologies, both the high regenerative efficiency and the good service brake feeling were achieved.
Journal Article

Development of Hardware-In-the-Loop Simulation System for Steering Evaluation Using Multibody Kinematic Analysis

2014-04-01
2014-01-0086
The adoption of the electronic controlled steering systems with new technologies has been extended in recent years. They have interactions with other complex vehicle subsystems and it is a hard task for the vehicle developer to find the best solution from huge number of the combination of parameter settings with track tests. In order to improve the efficiency of the steering system development, the authors had developed a steering bench test method for steering system using a Hardware-In-the-Loop Simulation (HILS). In the steering HILS system, vehicle dynamics simulation and the tie rod axial force calculation are required at the same time in the real-time simulation environment. The accuracy of the tie rod axial force calculation is one of the key factors to reproduce the vehicle driving condition. But the calculation cannot be realized by a commercial software for the vehicle dynamics simulation.
Journal Article

Instantaneous Estimation of Road Friction based on Front Tire SAT using Kalman Filter

2013-04-08
2013-01-0680
This paper proposes a method of estimating road friction and tire slip angle in a cornering maneuver. The method can estimate front tire road friction accurately at low lateral acceleration because it is based on the tire self-aligning torque (SAT) that exhibits high sensitivity to road friction at low slip angles. Road friction and tire slip angle, which are mutually interdependent, are estimated simultaneously using an extended Kalman filter designed around a model describing the relationship between road friction and SAT and a vehicle lateral dynamic model. The front tire SAT is calculated with a mathematical model that describes the torque transmission characteristics from the electric power steering torque to SAT. Therefore, the proposed method is readily applicable to production vehicles. Results of an experimental study show that the change in road friction is instantaneously estimated at low lateral acceleration.
Technical Paper

Development of an Electrically-Driven Intelligent Brake System for EV

2011-05-17
2011-39-7211
This paper presents the electrically driven intelligent brake system that has been developed for electric vehicles, which are expected to penetrate markets rapidly amid the ongoing energy paradigm shift. This brake system achieves a cooperative energy regeneration function and high responsiveness while providing braking performance, system reliability and vehicle mounting ease equal to that of conventional brake systems with a vacuum booster. This paper outlines the newly developed brake system and describes how to decide the target brake force which is achieved a regenerative braking capability for recovering energy efficiently without sacrificing braking.
Technical Paper

DEVELOPMENT OF MOTOR AND INVERTER FOR RWD HYBRID VEHICLES

2011-05-17
2011-39-7239
At Nissan we have developed a new parallel hybrid system for rear-wheel-drive hybrid vehicles. As the main components of the hybrid system, both the motor and the inverter have been developed and are manufactured in house to attain high power density for providing responsive acceleration, a quiet EV drive mode and improved fuel economy. Because the motor is located between the engine and the transmission, it had to be shortened to be within the length allowed for the powertrain. Therefore, new technologies have been developed such as high-density, square-shaped windings and an optimized magnetic circuit specially designed for concentrated winding motors. The inverter is sized to a 12V battery, which it replaces in the engine compartment. Despite its compact size, the inverter must have rather large current capacity to drive a high-power motor. Heat management is critical to the design of a small but high-power inverter.
Technical Paper

HBMC (Hydraulic Body Motion Control System) for Production Vehicle Application

2011-04-12
2011-01-0563
In order to satisfy increasing customer demands on ride quality as well as expectations for off-road performance of sport-utility vehicles (SUVs), it is necessary to develop technologies which offer enhanced levels of both performances. For ride quality, it is important to minimize body roll angle during cornering, which is achieved by suppressing suspension travel, and also to reduce vertical motion during straight-ahead travel. While for off-road performance, it is necessary to allow a long suspension stroke to allow a high level of off-road traction by delivering driving force reliably to the surface. These two performance parameters require a tradeoff with respect to vehicle roll stiffness. To reconcile these conflicting performance requirements, for first time in the world we adopted for production vehicles the system which connects the four shock absorbers together.
Technical Paper

Development of “Hybrid EPS”

2011-04-12
2011-01-0564
Hydraulic power steering is applied for petrol and diesel models of Infinity M series to provide supreme feeling of steering. Power assist of hydraulic power steering (here after called HPS), however, does not work when hybrid vehicle is in EV drive mode because the engine, which is the power source stops and the power is not supplied. Electric Power Steering (hereafter called EPS), therefore, “MUST” be installed to assist the power. Here comes the need that Nissan has developed our Hybrid EPS for Infinity M Hybrid model to keep providing supreme feeling of steering of hydraulic power steering without huge packaging change from the standard packaging of petrol & diesel models with hydraulic power steering. Our Hybrid EPS is the 1st hybrid EPS system in the world that is effectuated by oil pressure, and succesively realized by unique and excellent technology of Nissan.
Technical Paper

Development of an Electrically-Driven Intelligent Brake Unit

2011-04-12
2011-01-0572
An electrically-driven, intelligent brake unit has been developed, to be combined with a regenerative braking system in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) which went into production in 2010 - 11. The brake pedal force is assisted by an electrically driven motor, without using vacuum pressure, unlike conventional braking systems. The actuator can be implemented to coordinate with a regenerative braking system, and to have adjustable pedal feel through use of a unique pressure-generating mechanism and a pedal-force compensator. In this paper, we describe features of the actuator mechanism and performance test results
Technical Paper

Road-load Input Contribution Analysis for Suspension Durability using a Multi-axial Road Simulator

2008-04-14
2008-01-1482
The durability test with road-load input is necessary for evaluating durability of body and chassis structure in automotive applications. This paper shows the method to analyze road-load input to a suspension system for development of a simple component level bench test. This method enables the extraction of the essential inputs to evaluate the durability of suspension parts using the transfer function (frequency response function) measured by Multi-axial Road Simulator and wheel force transducers. These extracted inputs contribute to development of a new realistic component bench test.
Journal Article

Novel Microsurface Machining Techniques for Improving the Traction Coefficient

2008-04-14
2008-01-0414
This study examined methods of machining a microsurface texture on the surface of the rolling elements of a toroidal continuously variable transmission (CVT) for improving the traction coefficient. The microsurface texture of the toroidal surfaces consists of tiny circumferential grooves (referred to here as micro grooves) and a mirror-like surface finish similar to the rolling surface of bearings. Hard turning with a cubic boron nitride (cBN) cutting tool, grinding with a cBN wheel and micro forming were applied to machine the micro grooves. The results made clear the practical potential of each method. A micro forming device was also developed for use in actual production. A mirror-like surface finish and micro crowning of the convex portions of the microsurface texture were simultaneously executed by superfinishing them with a fine-grained elastic superfinishing stone.
Technical Paper

Feasibility Study of a New Optimization Technique for the Vehicle Body Structure in the Initial Phase of the Design Process

2007-05-15
2007-01-2344
This paper proposes a new hierarchical optimization technique for the vehicle body structure, by combining topology optimization and shape optimization based on the traction method. With the proposed approach, topology optimization is first performed on the overall allowable design domain in 3D. The surface is extracted from the optimization result and converted to a thin shell structure. Shape optimization based on the traction method is then applied to obtain an overall optimal body shape. In the shape optimization process, iterative calculations are performed in the course of consolidating parts by deleting those whose contribution is small. The result obtained by applying this method to the front frame structure of a vehicle is explained. The resultant optimal shape has stiffness greater than or equal to the original structure and is 35% lighter. This confirms the validity of the proposed technique. It was found, however, that some issues remain to be addressed.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Cornering and Braking Behavior Simulation Using a Finite Element Method

2005-04-11
2005-01-0384
This paper presents a vehicle dynamic simulation using a finite element method for performing more accurate simulations under extreme operating conditions with large tire deformation. A new hourglass control scheme implemented in an explicit finite element analysis code LS-DYNA(1) is used to stabilize tire deformation. The tires and suspension systems are fully modeled using finite elements and are connected to a rigid body that represents the whole vehicle body as well as the engine, drive train system and all other interior parts. This model is used to perform cornering and braking behavior simulations and the results are compared with experimental data. In the cornering behavior simulation, the calculated lateral acceleration and yaw rate at the vehicle's center of gravity agree well with the experimental results. Their nonlinear behavior is also well expressed.
Technical Paper

Research on a Braking System for Reducing Collision Speed

2003-03-03
2003-01-0251
An investigation was made of the relationship between the driving speed at the time of impact and the injury levels suffered in accidents. The results showed that a 5 km/h or more reduction in collision speed tends to mitigate injury severity. Using sensors and brake actuators already in practical use, we have started to research a braking system aimed at reducing the collision speed by at least 5 km/h in rear-end collisions. The system estimates the risk of a collision with the vehicle ahead. If it judges there is a very high possibility of a collision, it applies the brakes.
Technical Paper

Research on a brake assist system with a preview function

2001-06-04
2001-06-0209
Traffic accidents in Japan claim some 10,000 precious lives every year, and there is seemingly no end to the problem. In an effort to overcome this situation, vehicle manufacturers have been pushing ahead with the development of a variety of advanced safety technologies. Joint public- private sector projects related to Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) are also proceeding vigorously. Most accidents can be attributed to driver error in recognition, judgment or vehicle operation. This paper presents an analysis of driver behavior characteristics in emergency situations that lead to an accident, focusing in particular on operation of the brake pedal. Based on the insights gained so far, we have developed a Brake Assist System with a Preview Function (BAP) designed to prevent accidents by helping drivers with braking actions. Experimental results have confirmed that BAP is effective in reducing the impact speed and the frequency of accidents in emergency situations.
Technical Paper

Research on a Brake Assist System with a Preview Function

2001-03-05
2001-01-0357
Traffic accidents in Japan claim some 10,000 precious lives every year, and there is seemingly no end to the problem. In an effort to overcome this situation, vehicle manufacturers have been pushing ahead with the development of a variety of advanced safety technologies. Joint public-private sector projects related to Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) are also proceeding vigorously. Most accidents can be attributed to driver error in recognition, judgment or vehicle operation. This paper presents an analysis of driver behavior characteristics in emergency situations that lead to an accident, focusing in particular on operation of the brake pedal. Based on the insights gained so far, we have developed a Brake Assist System with a Preview Function (BAP) designed to prevent accidents by helping drivers with braking actions. Experimental results have confirmed that BAP is effective in reducing the impact speed and the frequency of accidents in emergency situations.
Technical Paper

Method of Fatigue Life Estimation for Arc–Welded Structures

2000-03-06
2000-01-0781
Two working groups in the JSAE Committee of Fatigue–Reliability Section1 are currently researching the issue of fatigue life by both experimental and the CAE approach. Information regarding frequent critical problems on arc–welded structures were sought from auto–manufacturers, vehicle component suppliers, and material suppliers. The method for anti–fatigue design on arc–welded structures was established not only by a database created by physical test results in accordance with the collected information but also with design procedure taking Fracture–Mechanics into consideration. This method will be applied to vehicle development as one of the virtual laboratories in the digital prototype phase. In this paper, both the database from bench–test results on arc welded structures and FEA algorithm unique to JSAE are proposed some of the analysis results associated with the latter proposal are also reported.
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