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Technical Paper

Transient Internal Nozzle Flow in Transparent Multi-Hole Diesel Injector

2020-04-14
2020-01-0830
An accurate prediction of internal nozzle flow in fuel injector offers the potential to improve predictions of spray computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in an engine, providing a coupled internal-external calculation or by defining better rate of injection (ROI) profile and spray angle information for Lagrangian parcel computations. Previous research has addressed experiments and computations in transparent nozzles, but less is known about realistic multi-hole diesel injectors compared to single axial-hole fuel injectors. In this study, the transient injector opening and closing is characterized using a transparent multi-hole diesel injector, and compared to that of a single axial hole nozzle (ECN Spray D shape). A real-size five-hole acrylic transparent nozzle was mounted in a high-pressure, constant-flow chamber. Internal nozzle phenomena such as cavitation and gas exchange were visualized by high-speed long-distance microscopy.
Journal Article

Assessing the Importance of Radiative Heat Transfer for ECN Spray A Using the Transported PDF Method

2016-04-05
2016-01-0857
The importance of radiative heat transfer on the combustion and soot formation characteristics under nominal ECN Spray A conditions has been studied numerically. The liquid n-dodecane fuel is injected with 1500 bar fuel pressure into the constant volume chamber at different ambient conditions. Radiation from both gas-phase as well as soot particles has been included and assumed as gray. Three different solvers for the radiative transfer equation have been employed: the discrete ordinate method, the spherical-harmonics method and the optically thin assumption. The radiation models have been coupled with the transported probability density function method for turbulent reactive flows and soot, where unresolved turbulent fluctuations in temperature and composition are included and therefore capturing turbulence-chemistry-soot-radiation interactions. Results show that the gas-phase (mostly CO2 ad H2O species) has a higher contribution to the net radiation heat transfer compared to soot.
Journal Article

A Progress Review on Soot Experiments and Modeling in the Engine Combustion Network (ECN)

2016-04-05
2016-01-0734
The 4th Workshop of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) was held September 5-6, 2015 in Kyoto, Japan. This manuscript presents a summary of the progress in experiments and modeling among ECN contributors leading to a better understanding of soot formation under the ECN “Spray A” configuration and some parametric variants. Relevant published and unpublished work from prior ECN workshops is reviewed. Experiments measuring soot particle size and morphology, soot volume fraction (fv), and transient soot mass have been conducted at various international institutions providing target data for improvements to computational models. Multiple modeling contributions using both the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Equations approach and the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) approach have been submitted. Among these, various chemical mechanisms, soot models, and turbulence-chemistry interaction (TCI) methodologies have been considered.
Technical Paper

Soot Formation Modelling of Spray-A Using a Transported PDF Approach

2015-09-01
2015-01-1849
Numerical simulations of soot formation were performed for n-dodecane spray using the transported probability density function (TPDF) method. Liquid n-dodecane was injected with 1500 bar fuel pressure into a constant-volume vessel with an ambient temperature, oxygen volume fraction and density of 900 K, 15% and 22.8 kg/m3, respectively. The interaction by exchange with the mean (IEM) model was employed to close the micro-mixing term. The unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations coupled with the realizable k-ε turbulence model were used to provide turbulence information to the TPDF solver. A 53-species reduced n-dodecane chemical mechanism was employed to evaluate the reaction rates. Soot formation was modelled with an acetylene-based two-equation model which accounts for simultaneous soot particle inception, surface growth, coagulation and oxidation by O2 and OH.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study of the Influence of Different Operating Conditions on the Combustion Development in an Automotive-Size Diesel Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1852
In this paper, numerical simulations of an automotive-size optical diesel engine have been conducted employing the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with the standard k-ε turbulence model and a reduced n-heptane chemical mechanism implemented in OpenFOAM. The current paper builds on a previous work where the model has been validated for the same engine using optical diagnostic data. The present study investigates numerically the influence of different operating conditions - relevant for modern diesel engines - on the mixture formation development under non-reactive conditions as well as low- and high-temperature ignition behaviour and flame evolution in the presence of strong jet-wall interactions typically encountered in automotive-size diesel engines. Also, emissions of CO and unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) are considered.
Journal Article

Comparison of Near-Field Structure and Growth of a Diesel Spray Using Light-Based Optical Microscopy and X-Ray Radiography

2014-04-01
2014-01-1412
A full understanding and characterization of the near-field of diesel sprays is daunting because the dense spray region inhibits most diagnostics. While x-ray diagnostics permit quantification of fuel mass along a line of sight, most laboratories necessarily use simple lighting to characterize the spray spreading angle, using it as an input for CFD modeling, for example. Questions arise as to what is meant by the “boundary” of the spray since liquid fuel concentration is not easily quantified in optical imaging. In this study we seek to establish a relationship between spray boundary obtained via optical diffused backlighting and the fuel concentration derived from tomographic reconstruction of x-ray radiography. Measurements are repeated in different facilities at the same specified operating conditions on the “Spray A” fuel injector of the Engine Combustion Network, which has a nozzle diameter of 90 μm.
Journal Article

Soot Volume Fraction and Morphology of Conventional, Fischer-Tropsch, Coal-Derived, and Surrogate Fuel at Diesel Conditions

2012-04-16
2012-01-0678
Future fuels will come from a variety of feed stocks and refinement processes. Understanding the fundamentals of combustion and pollutants formation of these fuels will help clear hurdles in developing flex-fuel combustors. To this end, we investigated the combustion, soot formation, and soot oxidation processes for various classes of fuels, each with distinct physical properties and molecular structures. The fuels considered include: conventional No. 2 diesel (D2), low-aromatics jet fuel (JC), world-average jet fuel (JW), Fischer-Tropsch synthetic fuel (JS), coal-derived fuel (JP), and a two-component surrogate fuel (SR). Fuel sprays were injected into high-temperature, high-pressure ambient conditions that were representative of a practical diesel engine. Simultaneous laser extinction measurement and planar laser-induced incandescence imaging were performed to derive the in-situ soot volume fraction.
Journal Article

Diesel Spray Ignition Detection and Spatial/Temporal Correction

2012-04-16
2012-01-1239
Methods for detection of the spatial position and timing of diesel ignition with improved accuracy are demonstrated in an optically accessible constant-volume chamber at engine-like pressure and temperature conditions. High-speed pressure measurement using multiple transducers, followed by triangulation correction for the speed of the pressure wave, permits identification of the autoignition spatial location and timing. Simultaneously, high-speed Schlieren and broadband chemiluminescence imaging provides validation of the pressure-based triangulation technique. The combined optical imaging and corrected pressure measurement techniques offer improved understanding of diesel ignition phenomenon. Schlieren imaging shows the onset of low-temperature (first-stage) heat release prior to high-temperature (second-stage) ignition. High-temperature ignition is marked by more rapid pressure rise and broadband chemiluminescence.
Journal Article

Liquid Penetration of Diesel and Biodiesel Sprays at Late-Cycle Post-Injection Conditions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0610
The liquid and vapor-phase spray penetrations of #2 diesel and neat (100%) soybean-derived biodiesel have been studied at late expansion-cycle conditions in a constant-volume optical chamber. In modern diesel engines, late-cycle staged injections may be used to assist in the operation of exhaust stream aftertreatment devices. These late-cycle injections occur well after top-dead-center (TDC), when post-combustion temperatures are relatively high and densities are low. The behavior of diesel sprays under these conditions has not been well-established in the literature. In the current work, high-speed Mie-scatter and schlieren imaging are employed in an optically accessible chamber to characterize the transient and quasi-steady liquid penetration behavior of diesel sprays under conditions relevant for late-cycle post injections, with very low densities (1.2 - 3 kg/m 3 ) and moderately high temperatures (800 - 1400 K).
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