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Technical Paper

Advanced Intra-Cycle Detection of Pre-Ignition Events through Phase-Space Transforms of Cylinder Pressure Data

2020-09-15
2020-01-2046
The widespread adoption of boosted, downsized SI engines has brought pre-ignition phenomena into greater focus, as the knock events resulting from pre-ignitions can cause significant hardware damage. Much attention has been given to understanding the causes of pre-ignition and identify lubricant or fuel properties and engine design and calibration considerations that impact its frequency. This helps to shift the pre-ignition limit to higher specific loads and allow further downsizing but does not fundamentally eliminate the problem. Real-time detection and mitigation of pre-ignition would thus be desirable to allow safe engine operation in pre-ignition-prone conditions. This study focuses on advancing the time of detection of pre-ignition in an engine cycle where it occurs.
Technical Paper

Knock Mitigation Effectiveness of EGR across the Pressure-Temperature Domain

2020-09-15
2020-01-2053
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has been shown to enable efficiency improvements in SI engines through multiple different mechanisms, including decreasing the knock propensity at high load, which allows higher compression ratio. While many of the benefits of EGR are applicable to both low and high power density engines, including reductions in pumping work and improved specific heat ratio, the knock benefits and corresponding compression ratio increases have been limited to low power density naturally aspirated engines primarily intended for hybrid vehicle architectures. An earlier study [1] indicated that there may be a kinetic limitation for the ability of EGR to mitigate knock under these conditions, but that study only considered a small number of conditions. This investigation expands on that study while also providing data for model validation for the new light-duty combustion consortium from the U.S. Department of Energy: Partnership for Advancing Combustion Engines (PACE).
Technical Paper

Achieving Diesel-Like Efficiency in a High Stroke-to-Bore Ratio DISI Engine under Stoichiometric Operation

2020-04-14
2020-01-0293
This work explores pathways to achieve diesel-like, high-efficiency combustion with stoichiometric 3-way catalyst compatible spark ignition (SI). A high stroke-to-bore engine design (1.5:1) with cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and high compression ratio (rc) was used to improve engine efficiency by up to 30% compared with a production turbocharged gasoline direct injection spark ignition engine. To achieve efficiency improvements, engine experiments were coupled with computational fluid dynamics simulations to guide and explain experimental trends between the original engine and the high stroke-to-bore ratio design (1.5:1). The effects of EGR and late intake valve closing (IVC) and fuel characteristics are investigated through their effects on knock mitigation. Direct injection of 91 RON E10 gasoline, 99 RON E0 gasoline, and liquified petroleum gas (i.e., propane/autogas) were evaluated with geometric rc ranging from 13.3:1 to 16.8:1.
Technical Paper

Performance of a Printed Bimetallic (Stainless Steel and Bronze) Engine Head Operating under Stoichiometric and Lean Spark Ignited (SI) Combustion of Natural Gas

2020-04-14
2020-01-0770
Additive manufacturing was used to fabricate a head for an automotive-scale single-cylinder engine operating on natural gas. The head was consisted of a bimetallic composition of stainless steel and bronze. The engine performance using the bimetallic head was compared against the stock cast iron head. The heads were tested at two speeds (1200 and 1800 rpm), two brake mean effective pressures (6 and 10 bar), and two equivalence ratios (0.7 and 1.0). The bimetallic head showed good durability over the test and produced equivalent efficiencies, exhaust temperatures, and heat rejection to the coolant to the stock head. Higher combustion temperatures and advanced combustion phasing resulted from use with the bimetallic head. The implication is that with optimization of the valve timing, an efficiency benefit may be realized with the bimetallic head.
Technical Paper

Impact of Multimode Range and Location on Urban Fuel Economy on a Light-Duty Spark-Ignition Based Powertrain Using Vehicle System Simulations

2020-04-14
2020-01-1018
Multimode engine operation uses two or more combustion modes to maximize engine efficiency across the operational range of a vehicle to achieve higher overall vehicle fuel economy than is possible with a single combustion mode. More specifically for this study, multimode solutions are explored that make use of boosted SI under high load operation and other advanced combustion modes such as advanced compression ignition (ACI) under part-load conditions to enable additional engine efficiency improvements across a broader range of the engine operating map. ACI combustion has well-documented potential to improve efficiency and emissions under part-load operation but poses challenges that limit full engine speed-load range. This study investigates the potential impact of ACI operational range on simulated fuel economy to help focus research on areas with the most opportunity for improving fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Low Cost, Low Thermal Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coating on HCCI Combustion, Efficiency, and Emissions

2020-04-14
2020-01-1140
In-cylinder surface temperature is of heightened importance for Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion since the combustion mechanism is thermo-kinetically driven. Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) selectively manipulate the in-cylinder surface temperature, providing an avenue for improving thermal and combustion efficiency. A surface temperature swing during combustion/expansion reduces heat transfer losses, leading to more complete combustion and reduced emissions. At the same time, achieving a highly dynamic response sidesteps preheating of charge during intake and eliminates the volumetric efficiency penalty. The magnitude and temporal profile of the dynamic surface temperature swing is affected by the TBC material properties, thickness, morphology, engine speed, and heat flux from the combustion process. This study follows prior work of authors with Yttria Stabilized Zirconia, which systematically engineered coatings for HCCI combustion.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a High-Efficiency Single Cylinder Natural Gas-Fueled Jet Ignition Engine

2020-01-24
2019-32-0565
The current energy climate has created a push toward reducing consumption of fossil fuels and lowering emissions output in power generation applications. Combined with the desire for a more distributed energy grid, there is currently a need for small displacement, high efficiency engines for use in stationary power generation. An enabling technology for achieving high efficiencies with spark ignited engines for such applications is the use of jet ignition which enables ultra-lean (λ > ~1.6) combustion via air dilution. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the development of a 390cc, high efficiency single cylinder natural gas-fueled jet ignition engine operating ultra-lean. The engine was developed as part of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Research Projects Agency–Energy (DOE ARPA-E) GENSETS program. Design choices for minimizing friction are highlighted as well as test results showing further friction reduction through downspeeding.
Technical Paper

Fuel-Lubricant Interactions on the Propensity for Stochastic Pre-Ignition

2019-09-09
2019-24-0103
This work explores the impact of the interaction of lubricant and fuel properties on the propensity for stochastic pre-ignition (SPI). Findings are based on statistically significant changes in SPI tendency and magnitude, as determined by measurements of cylinder pressure. Specifically, lubricant detergents, lubricant volatility, fuel volatility, fuel chemical composition, fuel-wall impingement, and engine load were varied to study the physical and chemical effects of fuel-lubricant interactions on SPI tendency. The work illustrates that at low loads, with fuels susceptible to SPI events, lubricant detergent package effects on SPI were non-significant. However, with changes to fuel distillation, fuel-wall impingement, and most importantly engine load, lubricant detergent effects could be observed even at reduced loads This suggests that there is a thermal effect associated with the higher load operation.
Journal Article

High Load Expansion of Catalytic EGR-Loop Reforming under Stoichiometric Conditions for Increased Efficiency in Spark Ignition Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0244
The use of fuel reformate from catalytic processes is known to have beneficial effects on the spark-ignited (SI) combustion process through enhanced dilution tolerance and decreased combustion duration, but in many cases reformate generation can incur a significant fuel penalty. In a previous investigation, the researchers showed that, by controlling the boundary conditions of the reforming catalyst, it was possible to minimize the thermodynamic expense of the reforming process, and in some cases, realize thermochemical recuperation (TCR), a form of waste heat recovery where exhaust heat is converted to usable chemical energy. The previous work, however, focused on a relatively light-load engine operating condition of 2000 rpm, 4 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). The present investigation demonstrates that this operating strategy is applicable to higher engine loads, including boosted operation up to 10 bar BMEP.
Journal Article

Screening of Potential Biomass-Derived Streams as Fuel Blendstocks for Mixing Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion

2019-04-02
2019-01-0570
Mixing controlled compression ignition, i.e., diesel engines are efficient and are likely to continue to be the primary means for movement of goods for many years. Low-net-carbon biofuels have the potential to significantly reduce the carbon footprint of diesel combustion and could have advantageous properties for combustion, such as high cetane number and reduced engine-out particle and NOx emissions. We developed a list of over 400 potential biomass-derived diesel blendstocks and populated a database with the properties and characteristics of these materials. Fuel properties were determined by measurement, model prediction, or literature review. Screening criteria were developed to determine if a blendstock met the basic requirements for handling in the diesel distribution system and use as a blend with conventional diesel. Criteria included cetane number ≥40, flashpoint ≥52°C, and boiling point or T90 ≤338°C.
Journal Article

Analytical Examination of the Relationship between Fuel Properties, Engine Efficiency, and R Factor Values

2019-04-02
2019-01-0309
The variability in gasoline energy content, though most frequently not a consumer concern, is an issue of concern for vehicle manufacturers in demonstrating compliance with regulatory requirements. Advancements in both vehicle technology, test methodology, and fuel formulations have increased the level of visibility and concern with regard to the energy content of fuels used for regulatory testing. The R factor was introduced into fuel economy calculations for vehicle certification in the late 1980s as a means of addressing batch-to-batch variations in the heating value of certification fuels and the resulting variations in fuel economy results. Although previous studies have investigated values of the R factor for modern vehicles through experimentation, subsequent engine studies have made clear that it is difficult to distinguish between the confounding factors that influence engine efficiency when R is being studied experimentally.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Particulate Matter Emissions from Heavy-Duty Partially Premixed Compression Ignition with Gasoline-Range Fuels

2019-04-02
2019-01-1185
In this study, the compression ratio of a commercial 15L heavy-duty diesel engine was lowered and a split injection strategy was developed to promote partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) combustion. Various low reactivity gasoline-range fuels were compared with ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD) for steady-state engine performance and emissions. Specially, particulate matter (PM) emissions were examined for their mass, size and number concentrations, and further characterized by organic/elemental carbon analysis, chemical speciation and thermogravimetric analysis. As more fuel-efficient PPCI combustion was promoted, a slight reduction in fuel consumption was observed for all gasoline-range fuels, which also had higher heating values than ULSD. Since mixing-controlled combustion dominated the latter part of the combustion process, hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were only slightly increased with the gasoline-range fuels.
Technical Paper

Engine-Aftertreatment in Closed-Loop Modeling for Heavy Duty Truck Emissions Control

2019-04-02
2019-01-0986
An engine-aftertreatment computational model was developed to support in-loop performance simulations of tailpipe emissions and fuel consumption associated with a range of heavy-duty (HD) truck drive cycles. For purposes of this study, the engine-out exhaust dynamics were simulated with a combination of steady-state engine maps and dynamic correction factors that accounted for recent engine operating history. The engine correction factors were approximated as dynamic first-order lags associated with the thermal inertia of the major engine components and the rate at which engine-out exhaust temperature and composition vary as combustion heat is absorbed or lost to the surroundings. The aftertreatment model included catalytic monolith components for diesel exhaust oxidation, particulate filtration, and selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) with urea.
Technical Paper

Characterization of GDI PM during Vehicle Start-Stop Operation

2019-01-15
2019-01-0050
As the fuel economy regulations increase in stringency, many manufacturers are implementing start-stop operation to enhance vehicle fuel economy. During start-stop operation, the engine shuts off when the vehicle is stationary for more than a few seconds. When the brake is released by the driver, the engine restarts. Depending on traffic conditions, start-stop operation can result in fuel savings from a few percent to close to 10%. Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are also increasingly available on light-duty vehicles. While GDI engines offer fuel economy advantages over port fuel injected (PFI) engines, they also tend to have higher PM emissions, particularly during start-up transients. Thus, there is interest in evaluating the effect of start-stop operation on PM emissions. In this study, a 2.5L GDI vehicle was operated over the FTP75 drive cycle.
Technical Paper

Choice of Tuning Parameters on 3D IC Engine Simulations Using G-Equation

2018-04-03
2018-01-0183
3D CFD spark-ignition IC engine simulations are extremely complex for the regular user. Truly-predictive CFD simulations for the turbulent flame combustion that solve fully coupled transport/chemistry equations may require large computational capabilities unavailable to regular CFD users. A solution is to use a simpler phenomenological model such as the G-equation that decouples transport/chemistry result. Such simulation can still provide acceptable and faster results at the expense of predictive capabilities. While the G-equation is well understood within the experienced modeling community, the goal of this paper is to document some of them for a novice or less experienced CFD user who may not be aware that phenomenological models of turbulent flame combustion usually require heavy tuning and calibration from the user to mimic experimental observations.
Technical Paper

Ignition Delay in Low Temperature Combustion

2018-04-03
2018-01-1125
Low temperature combustion (LTC) strategies present a means of reducing soot and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions while simultaneously increasing efficiency relative to conventional combustion modes. By sufficiently premixing fuel and air before combustion, LTC strategies avoid high fuel-to-air equivalence ratios that lead to soot production. Dilution of the mixture lowers the combustion temperatures to reduce NOx production and offers thermodynamic advantages for improved efficiency. However, issues such as high heat release rates (HRRs), incomplete combustion, and difficulty in controlling the timing of combustion arise with low equivalence ratios and combustion temperatures. Ignition delay (the time until the start of combustion) is a way to quantify the time available for fuel and air to mix inside the cylinder before combustion. Previous studies have used ignition delay to explain trends seen in LTC such as combustion stability and HRRs.
Technical Paper

Development of a Cold Start Fuel Penalty Metric for Evaluating the Impact of Fuel Composition Changes on SI Engine Emissions Control

2018-04-03
2018-01-1264
The U.S. Department of Energy’s Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines initiative (Co-Optima) aims to simultaneously transform both transportation fuels and engines to maximize performance and energy efficiency. Researchers from across the DOE national laboratories are working within Co-Optima to develop merit functions for evaluating the impact of fuel formulations on the performance of advanced engines. The merit functions relate overall engine efficiency to specific measurable fuel properties and will serve as key tools in the fuel/engine co-optimization process. This work focused on developing a term for the Co-Optima light-duty boosted spark ignition (SI) engine merit function that captures the effects of fuel composition on emissions control system performance. For stoichiometric light-duty SI engines, the majority of NOx, NMOG, and CO emissions occur during cold start, before the three-way catalyst (TWC) has reached its “light-off” temperature.
Technical Paper

Non-Destructive Measurement of Residual Strain in Connecting Rods Using Neutrons

2018-04-03
2018-01-1063
Increasing the strength of materials is effective in reducing weight and boosting structural part performance, but there are cases in where the residual strain generated during the process of manufacturing of high-strength materials results in a decline of durability. It is therefore important to understand how the residual strain in a manufactured component changes due to processing conditions. In the case of a connecting rod, because the strain load on the connecting rod rib sections is high, it is necessary to clearly understand the distribution of strain in the ribs. However, because residual strain is generally measured by using X-ray diffractometers or strain gauges, measurements are limited to the surface layer of the parts. Neutron beams, however, have a higher penetration depth than X-rays, allowing for strain measurement in the bulk material.
Technical Paper

Effects of NOX Storage Component on Ammonia Formation in TWC for Passive SCR NOX Control in Lean Gasoline Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0946
A prototype three-way catalyst (TWC) with NOX storage component was evaluated for ammonia (NH3) generation on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine as a component in a passive ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. The passive NH3 SCR system is a potential approach for controlling nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions from lean burn gasoline engines. In this system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly-rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. Adding a NOX storage component to a TWC provides two benefits in the context of a passive SCR system: (1) enabling longer lean operation by storing NOX upstream and preserving NH3 inventory on the downstream SCR catalyst; and (2) increasing the quantity and rate of NH3 production during rich operation.
Journal Article

RCCI Combustion Regime Transitions in a Single-Cylinder Optical Engine and a Multi-Cylinder Metal Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0088
Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is an approach to increase engine efficiency and lower engine-out emissions by using in-cylinder stratification of fuels with differing reactivity (i.e., autoignition characteristics) to control combustion phasing. Stratification can be altered by varying the injection timing of the high-reactivity fuel, causing transitions across multiple regimes of combustion. When injection is sufficiently early, combustion approaches a highly-premixed autoignition regime, and when it is sufficiently late it approaches more mixing-controlled, diesel-like conditions. Engine performance, emissions, and control authority over combustion phasing with injection timing are most favorable in between, within the RCCI regime.
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