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Technical Paper

Performance Comparison of LPG and Gasoline in an Engine Configured for EGR-Loop Catalytic Reforming

2021-09-21
2021-01-1158
In prior work, the EGR loop catalytic reforming strategy developed by ORNL has been shown to provide a relative brake engine efficiency increase of more than 6% by minimizing the thermodynamic expense of the reforming processes, and in some cases achieving thermochemical recuperation (TCR), a form of waste heat recovery where waste heat is converted to usable chemical energy. In doing so, the EGR dilution limit was extended beyond 35% under stoichiometric conditions. In this investigation, a Microlith®-based metal-supported reforming catalyst (developed by Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI)) was used to reform the parent fuel in a thermodynamically efficient manner into products rich in H2 and CO. We were able to expand the speed and load ranges relative to previous investigations: from 1,500 to 2,500 rpm, and from 2 to 14 bar break mean effective pressure (BMEP).
Technical Paper

Particle Matter Index and Fuel Wall-wetting Relations on Stochastic Pre-ignition

2021-09-21
2021-01-1163
This work explores the effect of the particle matter index (PMI) and aromatic content on fuel wall impingement associated with stochastic pre-ignition (SPI). Statically significant measurements of SPI rates are directly coupled with laser induced florescence (LIF) measurements of fuel dilution from spray-linear impingement. Literature suggests that PMI is could be correlated with the number of SPI events, but the root cause(s) of PMI and SPI are directly causational or are a predicator of SPI. Three fuels have been used in this study with 3 different PMI and two different aromatic contents. The fuels are direct injected at two different injection timings, an earlier injection timing which initially targets the piston crown, 310°CA bTDC, and a later injection timing that the liner, 220°CA bTDC start of injection timings (SOI) respectively. The earlier 310 SOI injection increases soot, whereas the later 220°CA SOI targets the liner and increases wall-wetting.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Spark-Plug Heat Dispersal Range and Exhaust Valve Opening Timing on Cold-Start Emissions and Cycle-to-Cycle Variability

2021-09-21
2021-01-1180
The partnership for advancing combustion engines (PACE) is a US Department of Energy consortium involving multiple national laboratories and includes a goal of addressing key efficiency and emission barriers in light-duty engines fueled with a market-representative E10 gasoline. A major pillar of the initiative is the generation of detailed experimental data and modeling capabilities to understand and predict cold-start behavior. Cold-start, as defined by the time between first engine crank and three-way catalyst light-off, is responsible for a large percentage of NOx, unburned hydrocarbon and particulate matter emissions in light-duty engines. Minimizing emissions during cold-start is a trade-off between achieving faster light-off of the three-way catalyst and engine out emissions during that period.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects on Advanced Compression Ignition Load Limits

2021-09-21
2021-01-1172
In order to maximize the efficiency of light-duty gasoline engines, the Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines (Co-Optima) initiative from the U.S. Department of Energy is investigating multi-mode combustion strategies. Multi-mode combustion can be describe as using conventional spark-ignited combustion at high loads, and at the part-load operating conditions, various advanced compression ignition (ACI) strategies are being investigated to increase efficiency. Of particular interest to the Co-Optima initiative is the extent to which optimal fuel properties and compositions can enable higher efficiency ACI combustion over larger portions of the operating map. Extending the speed-load range of these ACI modes can enable greater part-load efficiency improvements for multi-mode combustion strategies.
Technical Paper

Fuel Stratification Effects on Gasoline Compression Ignition with a Regular-Grade Gasoline on a Single-Cylinder Medium-Duty Diesel Engine at Low Load

2021-09-21
2021-01-1173
Prior research studies have investigated a wide variety of gasoline compression ignition (GCI) injection strategies and the resulting fuel stratification levels to maintain control over the combustion phasing, duration, and heat release rate. Previous GCI research at the US Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory has shown that for a combustion mode with a low degree of fuel stratification, called “partial fuel stratification” (PFS), gasoline range fuels with anti-knock index values in the range of regular-grade gasoline (~87 anti-knock index or higher) provides very little controllability over the timing of combustion without significant boost pressures. On the contrary, heavy fuel stratification (HFS) provides control over combustion phasing but has challenges achieving low temperature combustion operation, which has the benefits of low NOX and soot emissions, because of the air handling burdens associated with the required high exhaust gas recirculation rates.
Technical Paper

Impact of Materials Properties on Higher-Temperature Engine Operation

2021-09-21
2021-01-1142
We examine the effects on materials temperatures and engine efficiency via simulations of engines operating at temperatures which exceed the thermal limits of today’s materials. Potential focus areas include high-speed, high-load operation (in the fuel-enrichment zone) as well as conditions of selective cooling at lower speeds and loads. We focus on a light-duty DISI and a heavy-duty CI engine using GT-Power. Temperature distributions within the head, block, piston, and valves were obtained from 3D FEA simulations coupled with 1D GT-Power representations of the engine’s gas flow and combustion regions.
Technical Paper

Dilute Combustion Control Using Spiking Neural Networks

2021-04-06
2021-01-0534
Dilute combustion with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in spark-ignition engines presents a cost-effective method for achieving higher levels of engine efficiency. At high levels of EGR, however, cycle-to-cycle variability (CCV) of the combustion process is exacerbated by sporadic occurrences of misfires and partial burns. Previous studies have shown that temporal deterministic patterns emerge at such conditions and certain combustion cycles have a significant influence over future events. Due to the complexity of the combustion process and the nature of CCV, harnessing all the deterministic information for control purposes has remained challenging even with physics based 0-D, 1-D, and high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. In this study, we present a data-driven approach to optimize the combustion process by controlling CCV adjusting the cycle-to-cycle fuel injection quantity.
Technical Paper

In Situ Laser Induced Florescence Measurements of Fuel Dilution from Low Load to Stochastic Pre Ignition Prone Conditions

2021-04-06
2021-01-0489
This work employs a novel laser induced fluorescence (LIF) diagnostic to measure fuel dilution in a running single cylinder research engine operated at stochastic pre ignition (SPI) and non-SPI prone conditions. Measurements of LIF based fuel dilution are quantified over a range of engine loads and fuel injection timings for two fuels. The in situ LIF measurements of fuel/lubricant interactions illustrate regions of increased fuel dilution from fuel-wall interactions and is believed to be a fundamental underpinning to generating top ring zone liquid conditions conducive to SPI. A novel level of dye doped in the fuel, between 50 to 500 ppm was used as the fluorescence source, at engine operating speed of 2000r/min from 5 to 18 bar of IMEPg injection timings was swept for two fuels of varying volatility.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional CFD Investigation of Pre-Spark Heat Release in a Boosted SI Engine

2021-04-06
2021-01-0400
Low-temperature heat release (LTHR) in spark-ignited internal combustion engines is a critical step toward the occurrence of auto-ignition, which can lead to an undesirable phenomenon known as engine knock. Hence, correct predictions of LTHR are of utmost importance to improve the understanding of knock and enable techniques aimed at controlling it. While LTHR is typically obscured by the deflagration following the spark ignition, extremely late ignition timings can lead to LTHR occurrence prior to the spark, i.e., pre-spark heat release (PSHR). In this research, PSHR in a boosted direct-injection SI engine was numerically investigated using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A hybrid approach was used, based on the G-equation model for representing the turbulent flame front and the multi-zone well-stirred reactor model for tracking the chemical reactions within the unburnt region.
Journal Article

EGR Dilution and Fuel Property Effects on High-Efficiency Spark-Ignition Flames

2021-04-06
2021-01-0483
Modern spark ignition internal combustion engines rely on fast combustion rates and high dilution to achieve high brake thermal efficiencies. To accomplish this, new engine designs have moved towards increased tumble ratios and stroke-to-bore ratios. Increased tumble ratios correlate positively with increases in turbulent kinetic energy and improved fuel and residual gas mixing, all of which favor faster and more efficient combustion. Longer stroke-to-bore ratios allow higher geometric compression ratios and use of late intake valve closing to control peak compression pressures and temperatures. The addition of dilution to improve efficiency is limited by the resulting increase in combustion instabilities manifested by cycle-to-cycle variability.
Technical Paper

Potential Impacts of High-Octane Fuel Introduction in a Naturally Aspirated, Port Fuel-Injected Legacy Vehicle

2020-11-20
2020-01-5117
In recent years there has been an increased interest in raising the octane level of gasoline to enable higher compression ratios (CR) in spark-ignition engines to improve vehicle fuel efficiency. A number of studies have examined opportunities to increase efficiency in future vehicles, but potential impacts on the legacy fleet have not received as much attention. This effort focused on experimental studies on an engine using high-octane fuels without changing the engine’s CR. Spark timing was advanced until maximum torque was reached or knock was encountered for each engine condition, using each individual fuel to maximize engine efficiency. Knock-limited conditions occurred as the output brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) neared the maximum attainable output at a given engine speed. Increasing research octane numbers generally enabled knock-free operation under a greater number of operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Dynamic Brake Assessment for Heavy Commercial Vehicle Safety

2020-10-05
2020-01-1646
This paper summarizes initial results and findings of a model developed to determine the braking performance of commercial motor vehicles in motion regardless of brake type or gross weight. Real-world data collected by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for a U.S. Department of Energy study was used to validate the model. Expanding on previous proof-of-concept research showing the linear relationship of brake application pressure and deceleration additional parameters such as elevation were added to the model. Outputs from the model consist of coefficients calculated for every constant pressure braking event from a vehicle that can be used to calculate a deceleration and thus compute a stopping distance for a given scenario. Using brake application pressure profiles derived from the dataset, stopping distances for light and heavy loads of the same vehicle were compared for various speed and road grades.
Journal Article

Knock Mitigation Effectiveness of EGR across the Pressure-Temperature Domain

2020-09-15
2020-01-2053
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has been shown to enable efficiency improvements in SI engines through multiple different mechanisms, including decreasing the knock propensity at high load, which allows higher compression ratio. While many of the benefits of EGR are applicable to both low and high power density engines, including reductions in pumping work and improved specific heat ratio, the knock benefits and corresponding compression ratio increases have been limited to low power density naturally aspirated engines primarily intended for hybrid vehicle architectures. An earlier study [1] indicated that there may be a kinetic limitation for the ability of EGR to mitigate knock under these conditions, but that study only considered a small number of conditions. This investigation expands on that study while also providing data for model validation for the new light-duty combustion consortium from the U.S. Department of Energy: Partnership for Advancing Combustion Engines (PACE).
Journal Article

Advanced Intra-Cycle Detection of Pre-Ignition Events through Phase-Space Transforms of Cylinder Pressure Data

2020-09-15
2020-01-2046
The widespread adoption of boosted, downsized SI engines has brought pre-ignition phenomena into greater focus, as the knock events resulting from pre-ignitions can cause significant hardware damage. Much attention has been given to understanding the causes of pre-ignition and identify lubricant or fuel properties and engine design and calibration considerations that impact its frequency. This helps to shift the pre-ignition limit to higher specific loads and allow further downsizing but does not fundamentally eliminate the problem. Real-time detection and mitigation of pre-ignition would thus be desirable to allow safe engine operation in pre-ignition-prone conditions. This study focuses on advancing the time of detection of pre-ignition in an engine cycle where it occurs.
Technical Paper

Achieving Diesel-Like Efficiency in a High Stroke-to-Bore Ratio DISI Engine under Stoichiometric Operation

2020-04-14
2020-01-0293
This work explores pathways to achieve diesel-like, high-efficiency combustion with stoichiometric 3-way catalyst compatible spark ignition (SI). A high stroke-to-bore engine design (1.5:1) with cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and high compression ratio (rc) was used to improve engine efficiency by up to 30% compared with a production turbocharged gasoline direct injection spark ignition engine. To achieve efficiency improvements, engine experiments were coupled with computational fluid dynamics simulations to guide and explain experimental trends between the original engine and the high stroke-to-bore ratio design (1.5:1). The effects of EGR and late intake valve closing (IVC) and fuel characteristics are investigated through their effects on knock mitigation. Direct injection of 91 RON E10 gasoline, 99 RON E0 gasoline, and liquified petroleum gas (i.e., propane/autogas) were evaluated with geometric rc ranging from 13.3:1 to 16.8:1.
Journal Article

Deep Learning-Based Queue-Aware Eco-Approach and Departure System for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Buses at Signalized Intersections: A Simulation Study

2020-04-14
2020-01-0584
Eco-Approach and Departure (EAD) has been considered as a promising eco-driving strategy for vehicles traveling in an urban environment, where information such as signal phase and timing (SPaT) and geometric intersection description is well utilized to guide vehicles passing through intersections in the most energy-efficient manner. Previous studies formulated the optimal trajectory planning problem as finding the shortest path on a graphical model. While this method is effective in terms of energy saving, its computation efficiency can be further enhanced by adopting machine learning techniques. In this paper, we propose an innovative deep learning-based queue-aware eco-approach and departure (DLQ-EAD) system for a plug-in hybrid electric bus (PHEB), which is able to provide an online optimal trajectory for the vehicle considering both the downstream traffic condition (i.e. traffic lights, queues) and the vehicle powertrain efficiency.
Technical Paper

Performance of a Printed Bimetallic (Stainless Steel and Bronze) Engine Head Operating under Stoichiometric and Lean Spark Ignited (SI) Combustion of Natural Gas

2020-04-14
2020-01-0770
Additive manufacturing was used to fabricate a head for an automotive-scale single-cylinder engine operating on natural gas. The head was consisted of a bimetallic composition of stainless steel and bronze. The engine performance using the bimetallic head was compared against the stock cast iron head. The heads were tested at two speeds (1200 and 1800 rpm), two brake mean effective pressures (6 and 10 bar), and two equivalence ratios (0.7 and 1.0). The bimetallic head showed good durability over the test and produced equivalent efficiencies, exhaust temperatures, and heat rejection to the coolant to the stock head. Higher combustion temperatures and advanced combustion phasing resulted from use with the bimetallic head. The implication is that with optimization of the valve timing, an efficiency benefit may be realized with the bimetallic head.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Low Cost, Low Thermal Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coating on HCCI Combustion, Efficiency, and Emissions

2020-04-14
2020-01-1140
In-cylinder surface temperature is of heightened importance for Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion since the combustion mechanism is thermo-kinetically driven. Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) selectively manipulate the in-cylinder surface temperature, providing an avenue for improving thermal and combustion efficiency. A surface temperature swing during combustion/expansion reduces heat transfer losses, leading to more complete combustion and reduced emissions. At the same time, achieving a highly dynamic response sidesteps preheating of charge during intake and eliminates the volumetric efficiency penalty. The magnitude and temporal profile of the dynamic surface temperature swing is affected by the TBC material properties, thickness, morphology, engine speed, and heat flux from the combustion process. This study follows prior work of authors with Yttria Stabilized Zirconia, which systematically engineered coatings for HCCI combustion.
Technical Paper

Dyno-in-the-Loop: An Innovative Hardware-in-the-Loop Development and Testing Platform for Emerging Mobility Technologies

2020-04-14
2020-01-1057
Today’s transportation is quickly transforming with the nascent advent of connectivity, automation, shared-mobility, and electrification. These technologies will not only affect our safety and mobility, but also our energy consumption, and environment. As a result, it is of unprecedented importance to understand the overall system impacts due to the introduction of these emerging technologies and concepts. Existing modeling tools are not able to effectively capture the implications of these technologies, not to mention accurately and reliably evaluating their effectiveness with a reasonable scope. To address these gaps, a dynamometer-in-the-loop (DiL) development and testing approach is proposed which integrates test vehicle(s), chassis dynamometer, and high fidelity traffic simulation tools, in order to achieve a balance between the model accuracy and scalability of environmental analysis for the next generation of transportation systems.
Journal Article

Compatibility of Elastomers with Polyoxymethylene Dimethyl Ethers and Blends with Diesel

2020-04-14
2020-01-0620
Polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (PODEs) have shown promise as candidates for diesel fuel blendstocks due to their low sooting tendency, high cetane number, and diesel-comparable boiling point range. However, there is a lack of literature regarding compatibility of PODEs with common automotive elastomers, which would be a prerequisite to their adoption into the marketplace. To address this need, an exposure study and complementary solubility analysis were undertaken. A commercially available blend of PODEs with polymerization degree ranging from 3 to 6 was blended with diesel certification fuel at 0, 33, 50, 67, at 100% by mass. Elastomer coupons were exposed to the various blends for a period of 4 weeks and evaluated for volume swell.
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