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Technical Paper

Evaluation of High-Temperature Martensitic Steels for Heavy-Duty Diesel Piston Applications

2022-03-29
2022-01-0599
Five different commercially available high-temperature martensitic steels were evaluated for use in a heavy-duty diesel engine piston application and compared to existing piston alloys 4140 and microalloyed steel 38MnSiVS5 (MAS). Finite element analyses (FEA) were performed to predict the temperature and stress distributions for severe engine operating conditions of interest, and thus aid in the selection of the candidate steels. Complementary material testing was conducted to evaluate the properties relevant to the material performance in a piston. The elevated temperature strength, strength evolution during thermal aging, and thermal property data were used as inputs into the FEA piston models. Additionally, the long-term oxidation performance was assessed relative to the predicted maximum operating temperature for each material using coupon samples in a controlled-atmosphere cyclic-oxidation test rig.
Technical Paper

Impact of Biodiesel, Renewable Diesel, 1-Octanol, Dibutoxymethane, n-Undecane, Hexyl hexanoate and 2-Nonanone with Infrastructure Plastics as Blends with Diesel

2022-03-29
2022-01-0487
In this study the volume and hardness were measured for thermoplastics and thermosetting resins with diesel containing up to 30% of the following blend stocks: biodiesel, renewable diesel, n-undecane, dibutoxymethane, 1-octanol, hexyl hexanoate, and 2-nonanone. Thermoplastics included polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polyoxymethylene (POM), polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), polypropylene (PP), high density polyethylene (HDPE), nylons, acetals, polyetherimide (PEI), polyetheretherketone (PEEK), a PET co-polymer, polyphthalamides (PPAs), polyarylamide (PARA) and ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE). Three thermosetting resins were also evaluated. The material specimens were exposed to the test fuels under ambient conditions for 16 weeks.
Technical Paper

Artificial Neural Networks for In-Cycle Prediction of Knock Events

2022-03-29
2022-01-0481
Downsized turbocharged engines have been increasingly popular in modern light-duty vehicles due to their fuel efficiency benefits. However, high power density in such engines is achieved thanks to high in-cylinder pressure and temperature conditions that increase knock propensity. Next-cycle control has been studied as a method to reduce the damaging effects of knock by operating the engine in a low knock probability condition. This exploratory study looks at the feasibility of in-cycle knock prediction as a tool for advanced knock control algorithms. A methodology is proposed to 1) choose in-cycle features of the pressure trace that highly correlate with knock events and 2) train artificial neural networks to predict in-cycle knock events before knock onset. The methodology was validated at different operating conditions and different levels of generalization. Precision and recall were used as metrics to evaluate the binary classifier.
Technical Paper

Achieving Diesel Powertrain Ownership Parity in Battery Electric Heavy Duty Commercial Vehicles Using a Rapid Recurrent Recharging Architecture

2022-03-29
2022-01-0751
Battery electric vehicles (BEV) in heavy duty (HD) commercial freight transport face challenging technoeconomic barriers to adoption. Specifically, beyond safety and compliance, fleet and operational logistics require both high up-time and parity with diesel system productivity/Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) to enable strong adoption of electrified powertrains. At present, relatively high energy storage prices coupled with the increased weight of BEV systems limit the practicality of HD commercial freight transport to shorter range applications, where smaller batteries will suffice for the mission energy requirements (single operational shift). This paper presents an approach to extend the feasibility of BEV HD trucking for a broad range of applications.
Journal Article

Impact of Materials Properties on Higher-Temperature Engine Operation

2021-09-21
2021-01-1142
We examine the effects on materials temperatures and engine efficiency via simulations of engines operating at temperatures which exceed the thermal limits of today’s materials. Potential focus areas include high-speed, high-load operation (in the fuel-enrichment zone) as well as conditions of selective cooling at lower speeds and loads. We focus on a light-duty DISI and a heavy-duty CI engine using GT-Power. Temperature distributions within the head, block, piston, and valves were obtained from 3D FEA simulations coupled with 1D GT-Power representations of the engine’s gas flow and combustion regions.
Journal Article

Performance Comparison of LPG and Gasoline in an Engine Configured for EGR-Loop Catalytic Reforming

2021-09-21
2021-01-1162
In prior work, the EGR loop catalytic reforming strategy developed by ORNL has been shown to provide a relative brake engine efficiency increase of more than 6% by minimizing the thermodynamic expense of the reforming processes, and in some cases achieving thermochemical recuperation (TCR), a form of waste heat recovery where waste heat is converted to usable chemical energy. In doing so, the EGR dilution limit was extended beyond 35% under stoichiometric conditions. In this investigation, a Microlith®-based metal-supported reforming catalyst (developed by Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI)) was used to reform the parent fuel in a thermodynamically efficient manner into products rich in H2 and CO. We were able to expand the speed and load ranges relative to previous investigations: from 1,500 to 2,500 rpm, and from 2 to 14 bar break mean effective pressure (BMEP).
Journal Article

Fuel Effects on Advanced Compression Ignition Load Limits

2021-09-21
2021-01-1171
In order to maximize the efficiency of light-duty gasoline engines, the Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines (Co-Optima) initiative from the U.S. Department of Energy is investigating multi-mode combustion strategies. Multi-mode combustion can be describe as using conventional spark-ignited combustion at high loads, and at the part-load operating conditions, various advanced compression ignition (ACI) strategies are being investigated to increase efficiency. Of particular interest to the Co-Optima initiative is the extent to which optimal fuel properties and compositions can enable higher efficiency ACI combustion over larger portions of the operating map. Extending the speed-load range of these ACI modes can enable greater part-load efficiency improvements for multi-mode combustion strategies.
Journal Article

Fuel Stratification Effects on Gasoline Compression Ignition with a Regular-Grade Gasoline on a Single-Cylinder Medium-Duty Diesel Engine at Low Load

2021-09-21
2021-01-1172
Prior research studies have investigated a wide variety of gasoline compression ignition (GCI) injection strategies and the resulting fuel stratification levels to maintain control over the combustion phasing, duration, and heat release rate. Previous GCI research at the US Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory has shown that for a combustion mode with a low degree of fuel stratification, called “partial fuel stratification” (PFS), gasoline range fuels with anti-knock index values in the range of regular-grade gasoline (~87 anti-knock index or higher) provides very little controllability over the timing of combustion without significant boost pressures. On the contrary, heavy fuel stratification (HFS) provides control over combustion phasing but has challenges achieving low temperature combustion operation, which has the benefits of low NOX and soot emissions, because of the air handling burdens associated with the required high exhaust gas recirculation rates.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional CFD Investigation of Pre-Spark Heat Release in a Boosted SI Engine

2021-04-06
2021-01-0404
Low-temperature heat release (LTHR) in spark-ignited internal combustion engines is a critical step toward the occurrence of auto-ignition, which can lead to an undesirable phenomenon known as engine knock. Hence, correct predictions of LTHR are of utmost importance to improve the understanding of knock and enable techniques aimed at controlling it. While LTHR is typically obscured by the deflagration following the spark ignition, extremely late ignition timings can lead to LTHR occurrence prior to the spark, i.e., pre-spark heat release (PSHR). In this research, PSHR in a boosted direct-injection SI engine was numerically investigated using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A hybrid approach was used, based on the G-equation model for representing the turbulent flame front and the multi-zone well-stirred reactor model for tracking the chemical reactions within the unburnt region.
Technical Paper

Potential Impacts of High-Octane Fuel Introduction in a Naturally Aspirated, Port Fuel-Injected Legacy Vehicle

2020-11-20
2020-01-5117
In recent years there has been an increased interest in raising the octane level of gasoline to enable higher compression ratios (CR) in spark-ignition engines to improve vehicle fuel efficiency. A number of studies have examined opportunities to increase efficiency in future vehicles, but potential impacts on the legacy fleet have not received as much attention. This effort focused on experimental studies on an engine using high-octane fuels without changing the engine’s CR. Spark timing was advanced until maximum torque was reached or knock was encountered for each engine condition, using each individual fuel to maximize engine efficiency. Knock-limited conditions occurred as the output brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) neared the maximum attainable output at a given engine speed. Increasing research octane numbers generally enabled knock-free operation under a greater number of operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Dynamic Brake Assessment for Heavy Commercial Vehicle Safety

2020-10-05
2020-01-1646
This paper summarizes initial results and findings of a model developed to determine the braking performance of commercial motor vehicles in motion regardless of brake type or gross weight. Real-world data collected by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for a U.S. Department of Energy study was used to validate the model. Expanding on previous proof-of-concept research showing the linear relationship of brake application pressure and deceleration additional parameters such as elevation were added to the model. Outputs from the model consist of coefficients calculated for every constant pressure braking event from a vehicle that can be used to calculate a deceleration and thus compute a stopping distance for a given scenario. Using brake application pressure profiles derived from the dataset, stopping distances for light and heavy loads of the same vehicle were compared for various speed and road grades.
Journal Article

Advanced Intra-Cycle Detection of Pre-Ignition Events through Phase-Space Transforms of Cylinder Pressure Data

2020-09-15
2020-01-2045
The widespread adoption of boosted, downsized SI engines has brought pre-ignition phenomena into greater focus, as the knock events resulting from pre-ignitions can cause significant hardware damage. Much attention has been given to understanding the causes of pre-ignition and identify lubricant or fuel properties and engine design and calibration considerations that impact its frequency. This helps to shift the pre-ignition limit to higher specific loads and allow further downsizing but does not fundamentally eliminate the problem. Real-time detection and mitigation of pre-ignition would thus be desirable to allow safe engine operation in pre-ignition-prone conditions. This study focuses on advancing the time of detection of pre-ignition in an engine cycle where it occurs.
Technical Paper

Performance of a Printed Bimetallic (Stainless Steel and Bronze) Engine Head Operating under Stoichiometric and Lean Spark Ignited (SI) Combustion of Natural Gas

2020-04-14
2020-01-0770
Additive manufacturing was used to fabricate a head for an automotive-scale single-cylinder engine operating on natural gas. The head was consisted of a bimetallic composition of stainless steel and bronze. The engine performance using the bimetallic head was compared against the stock cast iron head. The heads were tested at two speeds (1200 and 1800 rpm), two brake mean effective pressures (6 and 10 bar), and two equivalence ratios (0.7 and 1.0). The bimetallic head showed good durability over the test and produced equivalent efficiencies, exhaust temperatures, and heat rejection to the coolant to the stock head. Higher combustion temperatures and advanced combustion phasing resulted from use with the bimetallic head. The implication is that with optimization of the valve timing, an efficiency benefit may be realized with the bimetallic head.
Journal Article

Compatibility of Elastomers with Polyoxymethylene Dimethyl Ethers and Blends with Diesel

2020-04-14
2020-01-0620
Polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (PODEs) have shown promise as candidates for diesel fuel blendstocks due to their low sooting tendency, high cetane number, and diesel-comparable boiling point range. However, there is a lack of literature regarding compatibility of PODEs with common automotive elastomers, which would be a prerequisite to their adoption into the marketplace. To address this need, an exposure study and complementary solubility analysis were undertaken. A commercially available blend of PODEs with polymerization degree ranging from 3 to 6 was blended with diesel certification fuel at 0, 33, 50, 67, at 100% by mass. Elastomer coupons were exposed to the various blends for a period of 4 weeks and evaluated for volume swell.
Technical Paper

Residual Stress Analysis for Additive Manufactured Large Automobile Parts by Using Neutron and Simulation

2020-04-14
2020-01-1071
Metal additive manufacturing has high potential to produce automobile parts, due to its shape flexibility and unique material properties. On the other hand, residual stress which is generated by rapid solidification causes deformation, cracks and failure under building process. To avoid these problems, understanding of internal residual stress distribution is necessary. However, from the view point of measureable area, conventional residual stress measurement methods such as strain gages and X-ray diffractometers, is limited to only the surface layer of the parts. Therefore, neutron which has a high penetration capability was chosen as a probe to measure internal residual stress in this research. By using time of flight neutron diffraction facility VULCAN at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, residual stress for mono-cylinder head, which were made of aluminum alloy, was measured non-distractively. From the result of precise measurement, interior stress distribution was visualized.
Technical Paper

Impact of Multimode Range and Location on Urban Fuel Economy on a Light-Duty Spark-Ignition Based Powertrain Using Vehicle System Simulations

2020-04-14
2020-01-1018
Multimode engine operation uses two or more combustion modes to maximize engine efficiency across the operational range of a vehicle to achieve higher overall vehicle fuel economy than is possible with a single combustion mode. More specifically for this study, multimode solutions are explored that make use of boosted SI under high load operation and other advanced combustion modes such as advanced compression ignition (ACI) under part-load conditions to enable additional engine efficiency improvements across a broader range of the engine operating map. ACI combustion has well-documented potential to improve efficiency and emissions under part-load operation but poses challenges that limit full engine speed-load range. This study investigates the potential impact of ACI operational range on simulated fuel economy to help focus research on areas with the most opportunity for improving fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Dyno-in-the-Loop: An Innovative Hardware-in-the-Loop Development and Testing Platform for Emerging Mobility Technologies

2020-04-14
2020-01-1057
Today’s transportation is quickly transforming with the nascent advent of connectivity, automation, shared-mobility, and electrification. These technologies will not only affect our safety and mobility, but also our energy consumption, and environment. As a result, it is of unprecedented importance to understand the overall system impacts due to the introduction of these emerging technologies and concepts. Existing modeling tools are not able to effectively capture the implications of these technologies, not to mention accurately and reliably evaluating their effectiveness with a reasonable scope. To address these gaps, a dynamometer-in-the-loop (DiL) development and testing approach is proposed which integrates test vehicle(s), chassis dynamometer, and high fidelity traffic simulation tools, in order to achieve a balance between the model accuracy and scalability of environmental analysis for the next generation of transportation systems.
Journal Article

Deep Learning-Based Queue-Aware Eco-Approach and Departure System for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Buses at Signalized Intersections: A Simulation Study

2020-04-14
2020-01-0583
Eco-Approach and Departure (EAD) has been considered as a promising eco-driving strategy for vehicles traveling in an urban environment, where information such as signal phase and timing (SPaT) and geometric intersection description is well utilized to guide vehicles passing through intersections in the most energy-efficient manner. Previous studies formulated the optimal trajectory planning problem as finding the shortest path on a graphical model. While this method is effective in terms of energy saving, its computation efficiency can be further enhanced by adopting machine learning techniques. In this paper, we propose an innovative deep learning-based queue-aware eco-approach and departure (DLQ-EAD) system for a plug-in hybrid electric bus (PHEB), which is able to provide an online optimal trajectory for the vehicle considering both the downstream traffic condition (i.e. traffic lights, queues) and the vehicle powertrain efficiency.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Low Cost, Low Thermal Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coating on HCCI Combustion, Efficiency, and Emissions

2020-04-14
2020-01-1140
In-cylinder surface temperature is of heightened importance for Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion since the combustion mechanism is thermo-kinetically driven. Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) selectively manipulate the in-cylinder surface temperature, providing an avenue for improving thermal and combustion efficiency. A surface temperature swing during combustion/expansion reduces heat transfer losses, leading to more complete combustion and reduced emissions. At the same time, achieving a highly dynamic response sidesteps preheating of charge during intake and eliminates the volumetric efficiency penalty. The magnitude and temporal profile of the dynamic surface temperature swing is affected by the TBC material properties, thickness, morphology, engine speed, and heat flux from the combustion process. This study follows prior work of authors with Yttria Stabilized Zirconia, which systematically engineered coatings for HCCI combustion.
Technical Paper

Fuel-Lubricant Interactions on the Propensity for Stochastic Pre-Ignition

2019-09-09
2019-24-0103
This work explores the impact of the interaction of lubricant and fuel properties on the propensity for stochastic pre-ignition (SPI). Findings are based on statistically significant changes in SPI tendency and magnitude, as determined by measurements of cylinder pressure. Specifically, lubricant detergents, lubricant volatility, fuel volatility, fuel chemical composition, fuel-wall impingement, and engine load were varied to study the physical and chemical effects of fuel-lubricant interactions on SPI tendency. The work illustrates that at low loads, with fuels susceptible to SPI events, lubricant detergent package effects on SPI were non-significant. However, with changes to fuel distillation, fuel-wall impingement, and most importantly engine load, lubricant detergent effects could be observed even at reduced loads This suggests that there is a thermal effect associated with the higher load operation.
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