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Technical Paper

Engine-Aftertreatment in Closed-Loop Modeling for Heavy Duty Truck Emissions Control

2019-04-02
2019-01-0986
An engine-aftertreatment computational model was developed to support in-loop performance simulations of tailpipe emissions and fuel consumption associated with a range of heavy-duty (HD) truck drive cycles. For purposes of this study, the engine-out exhaust dynamics were simulated with a combination of steady-state engine maps and dynamic correction factors that accounted for recent engine operating history. The engine correction factors were approximated as dynamic first-order lags associated with the thermal inertia of the major engine components and the rate at which engine-out exhaust temperature and composition vary as combustion heat is absorbed or lost to the surroundings. The aftertreatment model included catalytic monolith components for diesel exhaust oxidation, particulate filtration, and selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) with urea.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Particulate Matter Emissions from Heavy-Duty Partially Premixed Compression Ignition with Gasoline-Range Fuels

2019-04-02
2019-01-1185
In this study, the compression ratio of a commercial 15L heavy-duty diesel engine was lowered and a split injection strategy was developed to promote partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) combustion. Various low reactivity gasoline-range fuels were compared with ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD) for steady-state engine performance and emissions. Specially, particulate matter (PM) emissions were examined for their mass, size and number concentrations, and further characterized by organic/elemental carbon analysis, chemical speciation and thermogravimetric analysis. As more fuel-efficient PPCI combustion was promoted, a slight reduction in fuel consumption was observed for all gasoline-range fuels, which also had higher heating values than ULSD. Since mixing-controlled combustion dominated the latter part of the combustion process, hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were only slightly increased with the gasoline-range fuels.
Technical Paper

Development of a Cold Start Fuel Penalty Metric for Evaluating the Impact of Fuel Composition Changes on SI Engine Emissions Control

2018-04-03
2018-01-1264
The U.S. Department of Energy’s Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines initiative (Co-Optima) aims to simultaneously transform both transportation fuels and engines to maximize performance and energy efficiency. Researchers from across the DOE national laboratories are working within Co-Optima to develop merit functions for evaluating the impact of fuel formulations on the performance of advanced engines. The merit functions relate overall engine efficiency to specific measurable fuel properties and will serve as key tools in the fuel/engine co-optimization process. This work focused on developing a term for the Co-Optima light-duty boosted spark ignition (SI) engine merit function that captures the effects of fuel composition on emissions control system performance. For stoichiometric light-duty SI engines, the majority of NOx, NMOG, and CO emissions occur during cold start, before the three-way catalyst (TWC) has reached its “light-off” temperature.
Technical Paper

Continuous Particulate Filter State of Health Monitoring Using Radio Frequency Sensing

2018-04-03
2018-01-1260
Reliable means for on-board detection of particulate filter failures or malfunctions are needed to meet diagnostics (OBD) requirements. Detecting these failures, which result in tailpipe particulate matter (PM) emissions exceeding the OBD limit, over all operating conditions is challenging. Current approaches employ differential pressure sensors and downstream PM sensors, in combination with particulate filter and engine-out soot models. These conventional monitors typically operate over narrowly-defined time windows and do not provide a direct measure of the filter’s state of health. In contrast, radio frequency (RF) sensors, which transmit a wireless signal through the filter substrate provide a direct means for interrogating the condition of the filter itself.
Technical Paper

Ignition Delay in Low Temperature Combustion

2018-04-03
2018-01-1125
Low temperature combustion (LTC) strategies present a means of reducing soot and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions while simultaneously increasing efficiency relative to conventional combustion modes. By sufficiently premixing fuel and air before combustion, LTC strategies avoid high fuel-to-air equivalence ratios that lead to soot production. Dilution of the mixture lowers the combustion temperatures to reduce NOx production and offers thermodynamic advantages for improved efficiency. However, issues such as high heat release rates (HRRs), incomplete combustion, and difficulty in controlling the timing of combustion arise with low equivalence ratios and combustion temperatures. Ignition delay (the time until the start of combustion) is a way to quantify the time available for fuel and air to mix inside the cylinder before combustion. Previous studies have used ignition delay to explain trends seen in LTC such as combustion stability and HRRs.
Technical Paper

Effects of NOX Storage Component on Ammonia Formation in TWC for Passive SCR NOX Control in Lean Gasoline Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0946
A prototype three-way catalyst (TWC) with NOX storage component was evaluated for ammonia (NH3) generation on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine as a component in a passive ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. The passive NH3 SCR system is a potential approach for controlling nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions from lean burn gasoline engines. In this system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly-rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. Adding a NOX storage component to a TWC provides two benefits in the context of a passive SCR system: (1) enabling longer lean operation by storing NOX upstream and preserving NH3 inventory on the downstream SCR catalyst; and (2) increasing the quantity and rate of NH3 production during rich operation.
Technical Paper

Integration and Validation of a Thermal Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicle Cabin Heating

2017-03-28
2017-01-0183
It is widely recognized in the automotive industry that, in very cold climatic conditions, the driving range of an Electric Vehicle (EV) can be reduced by 50% or more. In an effort to minimize the EV range penalty, a novel thermal energy storage system has been designed to provide cabin heating in EVs and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) by using an advanced phase change material (PCM). This system is known as the Electrical PCM-based Thermal Heating System (ePATHS) [1, 2]. When the EV is connected to the electric grid to charge its traction battery, the ePATHS system is also “charged” with thermal energy. The stored heat is subsequently deployed for cabin comfort heating during driving, for example during commuting to and from work. The ePATHS system, especially the PCM heat exchanger component, has gone through substantial redesign in order to meet functionality and commercialization requirements.
Technical Paper

Axial NO2 Utilization Measurements within a Partial Flow Filter during Passive Regeneration

2017-03-28
2017-01-0988
Measuring axial exhaust species concentration distributions within a wall-flow aftertreatment device provides unique and significant insights regarding the performance of complex devices like the SCR-on-filter. In this particular study, a less complex aftertreatment configuration which includes a DOC followed by two uncoated partial flow filters (PFF) was used to demonstrate the potential and challenges. The PFF design in this study was a particulate filter with alternating open and plugged channels. A SpaciMS [1] instrument was used to measure the axial NO2 profiles within adjacent open and plugged channels of each filter element during an extended passive regeneration event using a full-scale engine and catalyst system. By estimating the mass flow through the open and plugged channels, the axial soot load profile history could be assessed.
Technical Paper

Correlating Laboratory Oil Aerosol Coking Rig Tests to Diesel Engine Tests to Understand the Mechanisms Responsible for Turbocharger Compressor Coking

2017-03-28
2017-01-0887
Deposit formation within turbocharger compressor housings can lead to compressor efficiency degradation. This loss of turbo efficiency may degrade fuel economy and increase CO2 and NOx emissions. To understand the role that engine oil composition and formulation play in deposit formation, five different lubricants were run in a fired engine test while monitoring turbocharger compressor efficiency over time. Base stock group, additive package, and viscosity modifier treat rate were varied in the lubricants tested. After each test was completed the turbocharger compressor cover and back plate deposits were characterized. A laboratory oil mist coking rig has also been constructed, which generated deposits having the same characteristics as those from the engine tests. By analyzing results from both lab and engine tests, correlations between deposit characteristics and their effect on compressor efficiency were observed.
Technical Paper

Low Density and Temperature Tolerant Alloys for Automotive Applications

2017-03-28
2017-01-1666
Aluminum alloys containing cerium have excellent castability and retain a substantial fraction of their room temperature strength at temperatures of 200°C and above. High temperature strength is maintained through a thermodynamically trapped, high surface energy intermetallic. Dynamic load partitioning between the aluminum and the intermetallic increases mechanical response. Complex castings have been produced in both permanent mold and sand castings. This versatile alloy system, using an abundant and inexpensive co-product of rare earth mining, is suitable for parts that need to maintain good properties when exposed to temperatures between 200 and 315°C.
Journal Article

Characterization of Hydrocarbon Emissions from Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression Ignition Engine Operating on a Higher Reactivity Gasoline Fuel

2017-03-28
2017-01-0747
Low temperature combustion engine technologies are being investigated for high efficiency and low emissions. However, such engine technologies often produce higher engine-out hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, and their operating range is limited by the fuel properties. In this study, two different fuels, a US market gasoline containing 10% ethanol (RON 92 E10) and a higher reactivity gasoline (RON 80 E0), were compared on Delphi’s second generation Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression Ignition (Gen 2.0 GDCI) multi-cylinder engine. The engine was evaluated at three operating points ranging from a light load condition (800 rpm/2 bar IMEPg) to medium load conditions (1500 rpm/6 bar and 2000 rpm/10 bar IMEPg). The engine was equipped with two oxidation catalysts, between which was located the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) inlet. Samples were taken at engine-out, between the catalysts, and at tailpipe locations.
Journal Article

Real-time Sensing of Particulate Matter in a Vehicle Exhaust System

2017-03-28
2017-01-1639
Onboard diagnostic regulations require performance monitoring of diesel particulate filters used in vehicle aftertreatment systems. Delphi has developed a particulate matter (PM) sensor to perform this function. The objective of this sensor is to monitor the soot (PM) concentration in the exhaust downstream of the diesel particulate filter which provides a means to calculate filter efficiency. The particulate matter sensor monitors the deposition of soot on its internal sensing element by measuring the resistance of the deposit. Correlations are established between the soot resistance and soot mass deposited on the sensing element. Currently, the sensor provides the time interval between sensor regeneration cycles, which, with the knowledge of the exhaust gas flow parameters, is correlated to the average soot concentration.
Journal Article

Decomposing Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Regulatory Standards in the Energy Conversion Efficiency and Tractive Energy Domain

2017-03-28
2017-01-0897
The three foundational elements that determine mobile source energy use and tailpipe carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are the tractive energy requirements of the vehicle, the energy conversion efficiency of the propulsion system, and the energy source. The tractive energy requirements are determined by the vehicle's mass, aerodynamic drag, tire rolling resistance, and parasitic drag. The energy conversion efficiency of the propulsion system is dictated by the tractive efficiency, non-tractive energy use, kinetic energy recovery, and parasitic losses. The energy source determines the mobile source CO2 emissions. For current vehicles, tractive energy requirements and overall energy conversion efficiency are readily available from the decomposition of test data. For future applications, plausible levels of mass reduction, aerodynamic drag improvements, and tire rolling resistance can be transposed into the tractive energy domain.
Journal Article

Electric Drive Transient Behavior Modeling: Comparison of Steady State Map Based Offline Simulation and Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing

2017-03-28
2017-01-1605
Electric drives, whether in battery electric vehicles (BEVs) or various other applications, are an important part of modern transportation. Traditionally, physics-based models based on steady-state mapping of electric drives have been used to evaluate their behavior under transient conditions. Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) testing seeks to provide a more accurate representation of a component’s behavior under transient load conditions that are more representative of real world conditions it will operate under, without requiring a full vehicle installation. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed such a HIL test platform capable of subjecting electric drives to both conventional steady-state test procedures as well as transient experiments such as vehicle drive cycles.
Journal Article

High-Resolution X-Ray and Neutron Computed Tomography of an Engine Combustion Network Spray G Gasoline Injector

2017-03-28
2017-01-0824
Given the importance of the fuel-injection process on the combustion and emissions performance of gasoline direct injected engines, there has been significant recent interest in understanding the fluid dynamics within the injector, particularly around the needle and through the nozzles. The pressure losses and transients that occur in the flow passages above the needle are also of interest. Simulations of these injectors typically use the nominal design geometry, which does not always match the production geometry. Computed tomography (CT) using x-ray and neutron sources can be used to obtain the real geometry from production injectors, but there are trade-offs in using these techniques. X-ray CT provides high resolution, but cannot penetrate through the thicker parts of the injector. Neutron CT has excellent penetrating power but lower resolution.
Technical Paper

Emission Performance of Low Cetane Naphtha as Drop-In Fuel on a Multi-Cylinder Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine and Aftertreatment System

2017-03-28
2017-01-1000
Greenhouse gas regulations and global economic growth are expected to drive a future demand shift towards diesel fuel in the transportation sector. This may create a market opportunity for cost-effective fuels in the light distillate range if they can be burned as efficiently and cleanly as diesel fuel. In this study, the emission performance of a low cetane number, low research octane number naphtha (CN 34, RON 56) was examined on a production 6-cylinder heavy-duty on-highway truck engine and aftertreatment system. Using only production hardware, both the engine-out and tailpipe emissions were examined during the heavy-duty emission testing cycles using naphtha and ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuels. Without any modifications to the hardware and software, the tailpipe emissions were comparable when using either naphtha or ULSD on the heavy duty test cycles.
Technical Paper

Design and Testing of a Thermal Storage System for Electric Vehicle Cabin Heating

2016-04-05
2016-01-0248
Without the waste heat available from the engine of a conventional automobile, electric vehicles (EVs) must provide heat to the cabin for climate control using energy stored in the vehicle. In current EV designs, this energy is typically provided by the traction battery. In very cold climatic conditions, the power required to heat the EV cabin can be of a similar magnitude to that required for propulsion of the vehicle. As a result, the driving range of an EV can be reduced very significantly during winter months, which limits consumer acceptance of EVs and results in increased battery costs to achieve a minimum range while ensuring comfort to the EV driver. To minimize the range penalty associated with EV cabin heating, a novel climate control system that includes thermal energy storage has been designed for use in EVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The system uses the stored latent heat of an advanced phase change material (PCM) to provide cabin heating.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Engine and Aftertreatment System Control Using Fast Response Particulate Filter Sensors

2016-04-05
2016-01-0918
Radio frequency (RF)-based sensors provide a direct measure of the particulate filter loading state. In contrast to particulate matter (PM) sensors, which monitor the concentration of PM in the exhaust gas stream for on-board diagnostics purposes, RF sensors have historically been applied to monitor and control the particulate filter regeneration process. This work developed an RF-based particulate filter control system utilizing both conventional and fast response RF sensors, and evaluated the feasibility of applying fast-response RF sensors to provide a real-time measurement of engine-out PM emissions. Testing with a light-duty diesel engine equipped with fast response RF sensors investigated the potential to utilize the particulate filter itself as an engine-out soot sensor.
Technical Paper

Filter-based control of particulate matter from a lean gasoline direct injection engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0937
New regulations requiring increases in vehicle fuel economy are challenging automotive manufacturers to identify fuel-efficient engines for future vehicles. Lean gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines offer significant increases in fuel efficiency over the more common stoichiometric GDI engines already in the marketplace. However, particulate matter (PM) emissions from lean GDI engines, particularly during stratified combustion modes, are problematic for lean GDI technology to meet U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Tier 3 and other future emission regulations. As such, the control of lean GDI PM with wall-flow filters, referred to as gasoline particulate filter (GPF) technology, is of interest. Since lean GDI PM chemistry and morphology differ from diesel PM (where more filtration experience exists), the functionality of GPFs needs to be studied to determine the operating conditions suitable for efficient PM removal.
Journal Article

Ammonia Generation and Utilization in a Passive SCR (TWC+SCR) System on Lean Gasoline Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0934
Lean gasoline engines offer greater fuel economy than the common stoichiometric gasoline engine, but the current three way catalyst (TWC) on stoichiometric engines is unable to control nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions in oxidizing exhaust. For these lean gasoline engines, lean NOX emission control is required to meet existing Tier 2 and upcoming Tier 3 emission regulations set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). While urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has proven effective in controlling NOX from diesel engines, the urea storage and delivery components can add significant size and cost. As such, onboard NH3 production via a passive SCR approach is of interest. In a passive SCR system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean operation, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst.
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